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GREGOR MENDEL

INHERITANCE

DOMINANT TRAIT

PUNNETT SQUARES

Analyzing Pictures

Analyzing Pictures

Recall:
PHENOTYPE: This is the "outward,
physical manifestation" of the
organism.
GENOTYPE: This is the "internally
coded, inheritable information"
carried by all living organisms.

Incomplete dominance
Situation where 2 alleles blend to
form hybridized phenotype
Examples:
Flower color in 4 oclocks and snapdragons

Incomplete dominance

Incomplete dominance

Incomplete dominance

Codominance
Codominance is a condition where two nonidentical alleles of a pair specify two different
phenotypes, yet one cannot mask the
expression of the other

Multiple Alleles
a type of non-Mendelian inheritance pattern
that involves more than just the typical two
alleles that usually code for a certain
characteristic in a species.
With multiple alleles, that means there is
more than two phenotypes available
depending on the dominant or recessive
alleles that are available in the trait and the
dominance pattern the individual alleles

Sex-linked traits
genetic characteristics determined by genes,
which are located on sex chromosomes
are said to be linked because more males
(XY) develop these traits than females (XX).
This is because the females have a second X
gene to counteract the recessive trait. Thus,
the trait is more likely to be visible in the
male.

The image above depicts the inheritance pattern of the hemophilia trait when the mother is a
carrier and the father does not have the trait. The sons have a 50/50 chance of inheriting the
trait and the daughters have a 50/50 chance of being carriers of the trait. If a son inherits an
X chromosome with the hemophilia gene, the trait will be expressed and he will have the
disorder. If a daughter inherits the mutated X chromosome, her normal X chromosome will

Genetics: X Linked Genes


In fruit flies, eye color is a sex linked trait. Red is dominant to
white.
1. What are the sexes and eye colors of flies with the
following genotypes:
X R X r
_________________
X R Y _________________
X R X R _________________ X r Y _________________
2. What are the genotypes of these flies:
white eyed, male ____________ red eyed female
(heterozygous)____
white eyed, female ___________ red eyed, male
___________

Genetics: X Linked Genes


In fruit flies, eye color is a sex linked trait. Red is dominant to white.
3. Show the cross of a white eyed female X r X r with a red-eyed male
XRY
4. Show a cross between a pure red eyed female and a white eyed
male.
What are the genotypes of the parents:
How many are: white eyed, male___
white eyed, female ___
red eyed, male ____
red eyed, female ____

___________& ___________

5. Show the cross of a red eyed female


(heterozygous) and a red eyed male. What are
the genotypes of the parents? ___________ &
________________
How many are: white eyed, male___
white eyed, female ___
red eyed, male ____
red eyed, female ____

Sex-influenced traits
autosomal traits that are influenced by sex.
If a male has one recessive allele, he will
show that trait, but it will take two recessive
for the female to show that same trait. One
such gene is baldness.

Sex-limited traits
generally autosomal, meaning that they are not
found on the X or Y chromosomes
are traits that are visible only within one sex
traits are generally associated with primary or
secondary sexual characteristics, and thus are
expressed only in the gender which utilizes those
characteristics

ACTIVITY:
2. Blood Type exhibits multiple alleles and codominance.
There are 4 blood types: A, B, AB and O. Blood types A and
B are codominant and Type O is recessive to both A and B.
A chart is shown to the left of phenotypes and genotypes.
a. What is the phenotype of a person who has IAIA ? **
b. What is the genotype of a person who is has type O
blood? **
c. A man has type AB blood. Is it possible for him to have
an O child?
d. Why or why not? **

ACTIVITY:
Use the chart from question 2 to answer the following
questions.
A heterozygous type B man and a type AB woman want to
have a child.
a. What are the chances that they will have a type B child?
b. What are the chances that their child will be a type O
carrier?
c. Other than a blood type B, what other blood types could
their child have?
d. The child is type AB. Is the child from the man and woman?

ACTIVITY:
Blood type exhibits codominance and multiple
alleles. The chart below shows the phenotype and
genotype of blood types.
a. A type AB man and type O woman decide to have
a child. What are the chances that they will have a
type O baby?
b. The couple have a type B baby. What are the
chances that their second child will have type B
blood?

ACTIVITY:
c. A type A woman and a type B man have a type O
child. What was the genotype of the man?
d. What was the genotype of the woman?
e. What are the chances that this couple will have a
type AB child?

In humans, hemophilia is a sex linked trait. Females can be


normal, carriers, or have the disease. Males will either have
the disease or not (but they wont ever be carriers)
= female, normal
= male, normal

= female, carrier

= female, hemophiliac

= male, hemophiliac

Show the cross of a man who has hemophilia with a woman


who is a carrier.
What is the probability that their children will have the
disease? __________

A woman who is a carrier marries a normal


man. Show the cross. What is the probability
that their children will have hemophilia? What
sex will a child in the family with hemophilia
be?
A woman who has hemophilia marries a
normal man. How many of their children will
have hemophilia, and what is their sex?