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Roman

Architecture

Made By:Amiksha Jain


Chandvi Bisoriya
Janhavi
Manjrekar
Kajal Indurkhya
Sonal Bagga

Characteristics of
Roman Architecture

The use of Lime concrete began.


Characteristic feature is to span over large
spaces.
The architecture of the Romans was
essentially an art of shaping around rituals.
The plans were complex in appearance and
hidden in design and display an impression
of vastness.
The Romans followed the Columnar and
Trabeated style of Greeks and also adopted
Etruscans arches and vaults.

Most Important material which helped to


build huge gigantic buildings of Rome was
Lime Concrete. It was used for
construction of roads, walls, vaults, domes
etc.
The pozzolana was substituted for
sand and was mixed with lime to produce
mortar.
In important buildings, the faade was
covered with plaster/ alabaster/ marble.
The cities usually had a forum and a
basillica at the centre and a protective city
wall.
The walls were made up of sun dried
bricks and roofs were covered with

Circular Vaults

Cross Vaults

Hemispherical
Domes

ROMAN CLASSIC ORDERS

Roman
Roman
Roman
Roman
Roman

Doric Order
Ionic order
Corinthian Order
Composite Order
Tuscan Order

Proportioning of Roman
Classic Orders

Name of Roman
Order

Height of Column
In terms of lower
diameter

Height of
Entablature in
terms of lower
diameter

Doric

Ionic

2 and 1/4

Corinthian

10

2 and

Composite

10

2 and

Tuscan

1 and 1/3

ROMAN DORIC ORDER


Taken from theatre of
Marcellus at Rome.
Semi Circular in Plan.
Commenced by Julius
Caesar in 23 B.C.
Completed by
Augustus in 13 B.C.
Intercolumination
distance 2 and

ROMAN
CORINTHIAN ORDER
Taken from the
temple of Castor and
Pollux at Rome.
Rectangular in plan.
Intercolumination
distance is 3D
Largely used in
temples, forums,
baths and basillicas.
Favourite order of
Romans.

ROMAN
COMPOSIT
E ORDER
Composed of Ionic
and Corinthian
Orders.
Used in triumphal
arches.
Intercolumination
distance is 2 and 2/3
D

ROMAN TUSCAN ORDER

Named after Tuscany


in Italy.
Simplified form of
Doric Order.
Taken from the
famous colonade
which leads to the
church to the St.Peter,
Rome.
Lacks in the

ROMAN IONIC
ORDER

Taken from the Temple of


Fortuna Virilis, Rome.
Rectangular in plan.
Located at the banks of
river Tiber.
Overloaded with heavy
and bold ornamnets.
Semi circular moulding
lack in refinement.
Intercolumination distance
is 3D.

TYPICAL
EXAMPLE
S

TEMPLE
TempleOF
of SATURN
Saturn
Rectangular in plan
Stands on a podium i.e. a continuous
pedestal of 3.7 m height.
Approached with a colonnaded
portico of granite columns.
16.7 m wide and 24.4 m deep.
Designed in Hexa-Style.

PANTHEON,
ROME
Circular in plan.
44m in diameter.
Octa-style portico is 33.5 m
wide and 18 m deep in centre.
Monolithic granite column of
Corithian order unfluted and 1.5
m diameter, 14 m high.

The Hemi Spherical Dome is provided with


coffers which help in reducing heavy weight.
Dome is three tier high, the bottom consists
of Travertine and Tufa stone, The second tier
of Tufa and bricks and the top tier of Tufa and
Pumic Stone
A Circular unglazed opening of 8.23m in
diameter is provided at the top of Dome for
the lightning of the building.
The Round Building built by the Emperor
Hadrian is circular with internal diameter of
44m and rests on a circular foundation 4.5m

Arches in
Pantheon
interior.

Colosseum

Also known as Flavian


amphitheatre.
Built by Flavian
emperors.
Elliptical in plan.
Measuring about 190m
* 155m.
48 m high.
Divided in four stories.
80 external arch

The dome roof forms a perfect sphere with


a diameter of 142 feet in the interior.
At the head of the dome is a 30ft wide
occulus, that opens up the great dome to
the outside and illuminates the space with
light.
The hemi-spherical dome is provided with
coffers in five ranges which not only
provide ornamentation but also help in

Plan of

View of Colosseum

Triumphal
Arches

Other than buildings, ancient Romans also


contributed to the development of several
architectural elements. The most prominent
of the elements is the triumphal arch.
A triumphal arch is a structure in the shape
of a monumental gate, usually built to
celebrate a victory in war.
They are almost always built in the Form,
framing the paths that people follow.
some triumphal arches are made of stone
and intended to be permanent.
Two examples of such monuments are the
Arch of Titus and the Arch of Constantine.

Arch of
Titus

Arch of
Constanti

Bridge
The Roman bridges were simple and solid in
s
construction.
Earlier they used timber but later started
using stone for the construction of bridges.
Lime concrete was used for constructing
huge spans.

Roads

They constructed a network of roads radiating


from a particular area.
Roads were built straight like an arrow with no
regard to topography, cutting through the
mountains.
The foundation consisted of large broken stones
in lime concrete and dressed large stone block
set in mortar.

Sewers and Fountains

The Great Sewer (Cloaca Maxima) is 5m wide and


10m high built in 600AD and emptied into River
Tiber.
The water was supplied to the city of Rome by a
network of nine acqeducts.
The fountains were gracefully designed with great
variety in coloured marbles, either as basin or as
spouting jets, or sometimes gushing water from
fish.

GLIMPSE
S

COLOSSEUM

GREAT

TEMPLE OF SATURN

FORUM

THANKING