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BHEL / PSSR WELCOMES

ALL OF YOU

WELDING WITH P91


MATERIAL
PRESENTED
BY
A.SUKUMARAN
Manager / BHEL(PSSR)

EFFICIENCY OF POWER UTILITY


EFFICIENCY
OF POWER
UTILITY

X20/P91 ARE
DEVELOPED

DEMANDS

INCREASED
PRESSURE &
TEMPERATURE
CYCLE

NEWER MATERIAL IS
REQUIRED TO SERVICE
INCREASED PARAMETERS

SAGA OF STEEL DEVELOPMENT


PURE IRON
SOFT

CARBON
ADDED

IRON CARBIDE
OR CEMENTITE
HARDER

ADVANCE
D ALLOYS
LIKE
P91/X20

VANADIUM,MOLYB
DENUM ADDED FOR
CREEP

CHROMIUM
ADDED TO
PREVENT
GRAPHITISATION
AND IMPROVE
OTHER
PROPERTIES
ALLOY STEEL

STEEL PIPES FOR MAIN STEAM AND


REHEAT LINES
P22
2-1/4
CR.1
MO

X20
WITH
12
CR.1
MO

P91
WITH
9CR.1
MO

9CR.1MO1W

P92

GAIN IN EFFIENCY WITH ADVANCED


STEAM PARAMETERS
FOR INCREASING THE STEAM
PARAMETERS FROM 167 BAR & 537 C
TO 310 BAR & 593 C THE HEAT RATE
IMPROVEMENT IS 2.8% + 2.4% = 5.2%

SELECTION OF PIPES
TEMPERATURE( MORE THAN 540 DEG. C
OR STILL HIGHER REQUIREMENT)
PRESSURE (MORE THAN 175 BAR OR
STILL HIGHER REQUIREMENT)
AVAILABLITY IN THE MARKET
COST FACTORS
BOILER EFFICIENCY
EASE OF OPERATION

AUSTENITIC
STRUCTURE

FERRITIC
STRUCTURE

IS THE NAME GIVEN


TO GAMMA SOLID
SOLUTION. IT IS AN
INTERSTITIAL SOLID
SOLUTION OF
CARBON DISSOLVED
IN f.c.c IRON

IS THE NAME GIVEN


TO ALPHA SOLUTION.
IT IS AN
INTERSTITIAL SOLID
SOLUTION OF SMALL
CARBON DISSOLVED
IN ALPHA b.c.c IRON

MAXIMUM
SOLUBILITY IS 2%
CARBON AT 2065 F
TEMP

MARTENSITIC
STRUCTURE

IT IS AN
INTERSTITIAL
SUPESATURATED
SOLID SOLUTION OF
CARBON IN IRON
HAVING b.c.c
TETRAGONAL
LATTICE
MAXIMUM
MICROSTRUCTURE IS
SOLUBILITY IS 0.025% A NEEDLELIKE
AT 1333 F AND IT
PATTERN
DISSOLVES 0.008%

TENSILE-150000 PSI AVERAGE


ELONGATION-10% PROPERTIES ARE
TENSILE 40.000PSI,
HARDNESS-RC 40
ELONGATION 40%

PROPERTIES ARE
AVERAGE OF
AUSTENITE AND
FERRITIC

PROBLEMS WITH AUSTENETIC


STAINLESS STEEL
HIGHER THERMAL EXPANSION AND LOWER THERMAL
CONDUCTIVITY AS COMPARED TO FERRITIC STEEL
HIGHER AFFINITY FOR CARBON CAUSES THE DISSIMILAR
METAL WELD FAILURES AT THE TRANSITION FROM FERRITIC
TO AUSTENITIC AT WELD JOINTS
THE PRONNESS OF AUSTENIC SS TO STRESS CORROSION
CRACKING AT LOWER LEVELS OF CHLORIDES
POOR RESISTANCE TO FIRE SIDE SULFUR GAS HIGH TEMP.
ATTACK IN COLD COUNTRIES DUE TO HIGH SULFUR CONTENT
IN COAL
HIGH COST & AVAILABILITY

COMMON GRADES OF AUSTENIC


STEELS & THEIR STRONG POINTS
(GRADES ARE 304, 347 AND 316)

GOOD CREEP RESISTANCE


CORROSION RESISTANCE
HIGH TEMP. RESISTANC
HIGH PRESSURE RESISTANCE

COMMONLY AVAILABLE FERRITIC


STEELS

MATERIAL

ASME/ASTM

Mo.

SA335 Gr.P1

1Cr.1/2 Mo.

SA335 Gr.P12

1-1/4 Cr. Mo.

SA335 Gr. P11

2-1/4 Cr. 1Mo.

SA 335 Gr. P22

WHY X20 WAS DEVELOPED?


COSIDERING THE WEAK AND STRONG
PROPERTIES OF AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC
STEELS A NEED WAS FELT TO DEVELOP A
FERRITIC STEEL WITH STRENGTH PROPERTIES
OF AUSTENITIC STEEL
X20CrMoV12 1 WAS MAILNY DEVELOPED IN
GERMANY FOR BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN
AUSTENITIC AND FERRITIC STEEL
X20 IS A 12% Cr MARTENSITIC STEEL WITH 0.2%
CARBON HENCE WELDING REQUIRED CLOSE
MONITORING

BEGINNING OF WORK ON P91


MATERIAL
WHEN X20 WAS BEING DEVELOPED IN
GERMANY PARALLEL EFFORTS WERE BEING
MADE IN US FOR DEVELOPING A STEEL
HAVING BETTER PROPERTIES THAN
AVAILABLE AUSTENITIC STEEL
RESEARCH WAS INITIATED FOR DEVELOPING
MODIFIED 9Cr. 1MO STEEL IN USA
IN 1983 ASTM APPROVED MODIFIED 9 Cr 1Mo
UNDER DESIGNATION A 213 T91. THIS STEEL
WAS USED FOR PRESSURE TUBE SERVICE
IN 1984 ASTM APPROVED MODIFIED 9Cr 1Mo
WAS INCLUDED IN ASME CODE FOR USE IN
PIPING AND HEADERS IN STANDARD A335 AS
P91

P22 & X20 IN INDIA


P22 WAS USED IN INDIA BOTH FOR MS & HRH LINES
FOR QUITE SOME TIME
X20 WAS USED IN INDIA FOR THE FIRST TIME BY TATA
ELECTRIC FOR MS (540) AND HRH (565) LINES IN 6 TH
UNIT OF 500 MW AT TROMBAY
X20 WAS USED IN NTPCS FARAKKA AND
VINDHYACHAL PROJECTS
X20 WAS USED IN TATA CHEMICALSS MITHAPUR
PROJECT (1X55MW), MSEBS CHANDRAPUR (1X500MW)
AND BUDGE BUDGE (WB) OF 2X250 MW

ADVANTAGES OF X20 OVER P22


TABLE NO.2: Comparison of thickness requirement for 500 MW
Material
Design Pressure, kg/Sq. cm
Design Temperature, Deg. C
Inside Diameter, mm
Minimum Thickness, mm

P22
192
540
467
101.9

X20
192
540
467
50.7

INSPITE OF THE ABOVE ADVANTAGES X20 DID NOT FIND


APPLICATION IN MANY COUNTRIES BECAUSE IT WAS NOT SO
WELDER FRIENDLY. USA WAS ALSO TRYING TO DEVELOP A
MATERIAL TO BRIDGE THE GAP BETWEEN THEIR P22 AND
NEXT HIGHER-GRADE STEEL

BENEFITS OF X20 OVER P22


Saving in cost of piping materials including hangers and supports,
structural steel and thermal insulation
Shorter installed length of piping because of greater flexibility of thinner
pipe
Saving in welding consumable and also energy needed for welding
Saving in installation time
Besides, faster start-up, load changes and shutdown of Unit become possible
with lower thickness. Overall saving in cost vis--vis use of P22 was
claimed to be about 40%.

HISTORY OF P91 USE IN INDIA


FIRST GREEN FIELD APPLICATION OF P91 AT
KHAPERKHEDA OF MSEBS 3RD & 4TH UNIT OF 210MW
RATING IN 1995
IN NTPC THE FIRST APPLICATION IS FOR 500MW OF
SIMHADRI PROJECT
P91 IS ALSO PROVIDED IN TALCHER 4X500MW EXPANSION
P91 WAS ALSO USED IN DABHOL POWER PROJECT OF
ENRON
P91 MAY CONTINUE FOR SOME MORE TIME IN NTPC FOR
NEW PROJECTS

COMPARISION OF X20 AND P91 WITH


P22 (METALLURGICAL)

Material C
P22
X20
P91

Mn

P
Max
0.15 0.30 0.03
0.60
0.17 1.00 0.03
0.23
0.08 0.30 0.02
0.12 0.60

S
Si
Cr.
Max
0.03 0.50 1.90
2.60
0.03 0.50 10.0
12.5
0.01 0.20 8.00
0.50 9.50

Mo.

0.87
1.13
0.80
1.20
0.85
1.05

0.25
0.35
0.18
0.25

Nb
(Cb)

0.06
0.10

0.03
0.07

AL

Ni

0.04

0.30
0.80
0.40

TENSILE PROPERTIES AT ROOM


TEMPERATURE FOR P22, P91 & X20
Material

0.2% Y.S., min.


N/Sq. mm

U.T.S., min.
N/Sq. mm

P22
X20
P91

205
490
415

415
690
585

Elongation, %
min.
(Gauge
Length)
30 (2")
17 (5xd")
20 (2")

WELDING & PWHT REQUIREMENTS


FOR X20, P91 AND P22
Parameter
Filler Wire (GTAW)

P22
TGS 2CM (ER 90S-G)

X20
CM2.1G (Bohler)

Electrode (SMAW)$

E9018-B3

FOX20MVW (Bohler)

Preheat Temp. deg.C 150


Inter pass Temp. deg. 350
C
Post heat (Preheat
Maintenance ) deg. C
PWHT Temp. deg.C 700-760
@
Minimum
Soaking
time Minutes $$
15
Shielding gas
Argon
Purging Gas
Nil

250
450

P91
ER90S-G(BOHLER
CM 2-1G)
E9018-B9 BOHLER
FOX C9MV
220
350

80-100
(1 hr. Min.)*
740-760

80-100
(1 HR.)
700-760

120 MTS
Argon
Argon**

120 MTS
Argon
Argon**

PREHEATING AND PWHT BY INDUCTION HEATING


Temp
In deg C

760+/-10
350

220
100
80
RT

Time
Sl no

Operation

1
2
3
4
5

preheat
220 C
Welding by GTAW+SMAW
220 C-350 C
Cooling
80-100 C
100 C/hr
Holding at 80-100 C for min. 1 hr.Holding shall continue till the start of PWHT
Heating to PWHT
Reach 760+/- 10 C for
As per above
P91+P91
Soaking at PWHT
760+/-10 at 2.5 Mts./mm
(minimum 2 hrs)
Cooling
Cooling to 350 C
As per above
Cooling to Room temperature
under insulation

6
7
8

Temp degree C

Rate of
Cooling/Heating
100 C/hr

WHY STRESS RELIEVING (POST WELD


HEAT TREATMENT) IS SO IMPORTANT
HARDEING IN P91 TAKES PLACE DUE TO
MARTENSIC FORMATION
MARTENSIC IS BRITTLE AND PRONE TO
CRACKING SPECIALLY DUE T0 HYDROGEN
INDUCED STRESS
THIS IS MORE SO WITH HIGHER RANGES OF
HARDNESS
THEREFORE STRESS RELIEVING ( PWHT) NEED
TO BE DONE CAREFULLY

TO PREVENT CRACK FORMATION THE


FOLLOWING PRECAUTIONS ARE TAKEN
INTERMEDIATE COOLING AFTER WELDING AT 80100 DEG C BEFORE PWHT TO COMPLETE
TRANSFORMATION OF THE AUSTENITE FORMED
DURING WELDING HEAT TO MARTENSITE
NOT ALLOW THE TEMPERATURE BELOW 80-100
DEG C BEFORE PWHT TO KEEP THE WELD REGION
DRY AND ALSO INCREASE THE MOBILITY OF THE
HYDROGEN ATOMS
PWHT USING INDUCTION METHOD IS ADOPTED
FOR ENSURING UNIFORM HEATING IN THE
WELDING ZONE AND CONSEQUENT REDUCTION
OF HARDNESS VALUES

ADVANTAGES OF P91 OVER X20


P91 CONTAINS LESS CARBON THAN X20. HENCE LESS
HARDNESS LESS PROBLEMS.
THE CRACK FORMATION POSSIBILITY IS LESS FOR P91
WHICH ACQUIRES HARDNESS OF 450BHN AS COMPARED
TO 500BHN BY X20
P91 HAS BETTER CREEP PROPERTIES BEYOND 550 DEG. C
THE PRE-HEATING & PWHT HAVE TO BE CAREFULLY
DONE IN X20
IT HAS BEEN ESTABLISHED THAT COOLING OF P91 TO
ROOM TEMPEATURE IS POSSIBLE WITHOUT ANY
DETRIMENTAL EFFECT WHEREAS IN X20 THE SAME LEADS
TO CRACK FORMATION

WHAT IS NEXT?
FOR HIGER LEVELS OF PRESSURE & TEMPERATURE WE
REQUIRE NEWER MATERIAL FOR IMPROVING THE
EFFICIENCY OF THE POWER UTILITY
P92 MATERIAL HAS BEEN DEVELOPED. IT CAN RESIST UP TO
650 DEG.C . IT IS 9Cr 0.3-0.6Mo1W
COMPARED TO P91 AN ICREASE OF 20-30% IN CREEP VALUES
AT 610 DEG C AND 100000 HRS HAS BEEN REALISED. THIS
INCREASE IN CREEP STRENGTH IS EQUIVALENT TO AN
INCREASE IN LIVE STEAM TEMPERATURE OF 15-25 DEG C.
THE FABRICABILITY AND WELDING ALSO HAVE BEEN
FOUND TO BE SIMILAR TO THOSE OF P91.
INDIA HAS TO GO FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE BOILER AND
TURBINE DESIGN TO TAKE ADVANTAGE OF NEW MATERIAL