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Effective Speech and Oral

Communication

PART I

COMMUNICATION

THE NATURE OF COMMUNICATION


Communication is the blood-line of
society.
Communication is basic to success.
Communication is important.

COMMUNICATION DEFINED
A process by which we assign and
convey meaning in an attempt to
create shared understanding.
This process requires a vast repertoire
of skills:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.

intrapersonal and interpersonal processing


listening
observing
speaking
questioning
analyzing
evaluating

COMMUNICATION DEFINED
It can be seen as processes of
information transmission governed
by three levels of semiotic rules.
1. Syntactic
2. Pragmatic
3. Semantic

. It is therefore a social interaction


where at least two interacting
agents share a common set of
signs and a common set of
semiotic rules.

COMMUNICATION DEFINED

COMMUNICATION PROCESS

PART 2

LISTENING

EFFECTIVE LISTENING
Expressing our wants, feelings,
thoughts and opinions clearly and
effectively is only half of the
communication process needed for
interpersonal effectiveness.
The other half is listening and
understanding.
There is a real distinction between
merely hearing the words and really
listening to the message.

SOUND
The impact of vibrations make on
the human ear the reception of
sound waves (Psychologist and
speech teachers)
Sound is characterized by three
features: pitch, loudness, and
quality
Human speech adds a fourth
feature rate or timing.

RECEIVING SOUNDS

Sound
(Vibratio
n)

THREE BASIC LISTENING MODES


Competitive or Combative Listening
Interested in promoting own stance than
understanding someone elses.

Passive or Attentive Listening


Interested in hearing and understanding
others stance .

Active or Reflective Listening


Active in checking understanding before
responding with message.

SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY BY THE


SPEAKER
1.
2.
3.
4.

Voice volume is too low to be heard.


Message is too complex.
Speaker is getting lost.
Body language or nonverbal elements
are contradicting or interfering with the
verbal message.
5. Paying too much attention on how the
other person is taking the message.
6. Using
a
very
unique
code
or
unconventional method for delivering
message.

SOURCES OF DIFFICULTY BY THE


LISTENER
1. Listener is preoccupied.
2. More interested in what he has to say that
he listens mainly to find an opening to get
the floor.
3. He is formulating and listening to his own
rebuttal than to what the speaker is saying.
4. He is listening to his own personal beliefs
about what is being said.
5. He is evaluating and making judgment
about the speaker or the message.
6. He is not asking for clarification when he
knows that he does not understand.

LISTENING TIPS
Usually, it is important to paraphrase and
use your own words in verbalizing your
understanding of the message.
Depending on the purpose of interaction
and your understanding of what is
relevant, you could reflect on the other
persons:
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.

account of the facts


thoughts and beliefs
feelings and emotions
wants, needs or motivation
hopes and expectations

LISTENING TIPS
Dont respond to just the meaning of the words;
look for feelings or intent beyond the words.
Inhibit from immediately answering questions.
Know when to quit using active listening.
If you are confused and know that you do not
understand , ask the speaker to say it another
way.
When the speaker is emotionally disturbed, use
active listening as a response to him.
Use eye contact and listening body language.
Be emphatic and not judgmental.
Become a more effective listener.

PART 3

SPEECH

LANGUAGE
Instrument of communication
Oral or written
Verbal and Non-verbal

Organized system of signals


Sounds
Intonation
Gesture
Written symbols

A system of symbols (lexemes) and


rules (grammar)

LANGUAGE
Oral Communication
Spoken language
Production of sound
language
Voice is the primary tool

representation

of

VOICE
Voice and Speech
Voice is the production of sound
Speech is the combination of sounds

Becomes symbols that represent


meanings
Has elements which reflect mood
Quality
Pitch
Force
Rate

VOICE QUALITY
Quality
Normal voice

Description
Speaker speaks
naturally
Breathy voice Aspirate quality
Full voice
Deep quality of
voice
Orotund
Chesty voice
Thin voice

Deep hollow
voice
High-pitched
Falsetto

Purpose
Normal
Conversation
Whispering
Speaking in
Formal and
Dignified
Occasion
Give Horror
Effect
Extreme
Fatigue and
Excitement

VOICE LEVELS
Pitch shows emotion
High (e.g. angry lose control of their
emotion)
Medium (unemotional)
Low (sadness, contempt, indifference or
disappointment )

VOICE INTENSITY
It refers to the effect of a sound on
the ear.
Its loudness or softness

The force when one speaks varies


in degree and form.
Degree refers to the amount of force applied
High degree (e.g. shouting)
Low degree (e.g. whispering)

RATE OF SPEECH
It refers to the variations of speed.
Slow speech projects calmness, acceptance,
and formality.
Too slow depicts dullness, listlessness,
apathy, laziness, and lack of intelligence.
Rapid speech shows animation, enthusiasm,
excitement, and informality.
Too fast suggests nervousness, tension, and
anxiety.

THE SPEECH MECHANISM

THE SPEECH MECHANISM

Motor

THE SPEECH MECHANISM

Vibrator

THE SPEECH MECHANISM

Resonators

THE SPEECH MECHANISM

Articulators

CLASSIFICATION OF PARTS OF SPEECH


MECHANISM
Motor
Respiratory muscles which are responsible for the regulation,
expulsion and control of air

Vibrator
Vocal bands or cords to produce sound waves through
vibration of the air

Resonators
Nose, mouth, and throat. Modulate sound waves

Articulators
Lips, teeth, tongue, upper gums, lower jaw, hard palate, and
ovula. Give definite shape and character of sounds as air
passes through the mouth or nose.

BREATHING AND FLEXIBILITY


Inhale deeply but relax.
Maintain a steady pressure of air as
you speak.
Maintain
an
adequate
breath
reserve.

THE SPEECH SOUND

CONSONANTS
The sounds of all languages fall into two
classes: consonants and vowels.
Consonants are produced with some
restriction or closure in the vocal tract that
impedes the flow of air from the lungs.
In phonetics, the terms consonant and
vowel refer to types of sounds, not to the
letters that represent them.
We classify consonants according to where
in the vocal tract the airflow restriction
occurs, called the place of articulation.

PLACE OF ARTICULATION

PLACE OF ARTICULATION
Articulation
Bilabials

Examples
[p] [b] [m]

Labiodentals

[f] [v]

Interdentals

[] []
think [k]
these [iz]

Production
bringing both
lips together
touching the
bottom lip to
the upper teeth
inserting
the tip of the
tongue
between the
teeth

PLACE OF ARTICULATION
Articulation
Alveolars

Examples
Production
[t] [d] [n] [s] [z] tongue raised in
various ways to
[l] [r]

the alveolar ridge

[t,d,n]

the tongue tip is


raised and touches
the ridge, or
slightly in front of
it

[s,z]

the sides of the


front of the tongue
are raised, but the
tip is lowered
so that air escapes
over it

PLACE OF ARTICULATION
Articulation
Alveolars

Examples

Production

[l]

the tongue tip is


raised while the
rest of the tongue
remains down,
permitting air to
escape over its
sides

[r]

speakers either
curl the tip of the
tongue back
behind the
alveolar ridge, or
bunch up the top
of the tongue
behind the ridge

PLACE OF ARTICULATION
Articulation
Palatals

Velars

Examples
[] [] [t] [d]
[j]
mission [mn]
measure
[mr]
cheap [tip]
judge [dd]
yoyo [jojo]
[k] [g] []
kick [kk]
gig [gg]
back [bk]
bag [bg]

Production
the constriction
occurs by
raising the front
part of the
tongue to the
palate

raising the back


of the tongue
to the soft
palate or velum

PLACE OF ARTICULATION
Articulation
Uvulars

Examples
[] [q] []

The r in French is often a uvular trill symbolized by [].


The uvular sounds [q] and [] occur in Arabic.
These sounds do not ordinarily occur in English.

Production
raising the back
of the tongue
to the uvula,
the fleshy
protuberance
that hangs
down in the
back of our
throats

PLACE OF ARTICULATION
Articulation
Glottals

Examples
[h] []

uh-oh [o]

Production
The sound of [h] is
from the flow of air
through the open
glottis, and past the
tongue and lips as
they prepare to
pronounce a vowel
sound, which always
follows [h].
If the air is stopped
completely at the
glottis by tightly
closed vocal cords,
the
sound upon release
of the cords is a
glottal stop []

PLACE OF ARTICULATION

MANNER OF ARTICULATION
Speech sounds also vary in the way
the airstream is affected as it flows
from the lungs up and out of the
mouth and nose.
It may be blocked or partially
blocked; the vocal cords may
vibrate or not vibrate.
We refer to this as the manner of
articulation.

VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS


Sounds are voiceless when the vocal
cords are apart so that air flows freely
through the glottis into the oral cavity.
[p] and [s] in super [supr] are two of
the several voiceless sounds of English.
If the vocal cords are together, the
airstream forces its way through and
causes them to vibrate. Such sounds are
voiced. [b] and [z] in buzz [bz] are two
of the many voiced sounds of English.

VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS


Voiceless
rope
[rop]
fate
[fet]
rack
[rk]
wreath
[ri]

Voiced
robe
[rob]
fade
[fed]
rag
[rg]
wreathe
[ri]

VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS


Voiceless
fine
[fan]
seal
[sil]
choke
[tok]
peat
[pit]
tote
[tot]
kale
[kel]

Voiced
vine
[van]
zeal
[zil]
joke
[dok]
beat
[bit]
dote
[dot]
gale
[gel]

VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS


Voiceless aspirated
pool
tale
kale

[pul]
[tel]
[kel]

Voiceless
unaspirated
spool
[spul]
stale
[stel]
scale
[skel]

VOICED AND VOICELESS SOUNDS

NASAL AND ORAL SOUNDS

NASAL AND ORAL SOUNDS

STOPS
Stops
bilabial stops

Examples
[p], [b], [m]

alveolar stops

[t], [d], [n]

the airstream is
stopped by the
tongue, making a
complete closure at
the alveolar ridge

velar stops

[k], [g], []

with the complete


closure at the velum

palatal
affricates
glottal stop

[t], [d]
[]

Production
airstream stopped at
the mouth by the
complete closure of
the lips

with complete stop


closures
the air is completely
stopped at the
glottis

FRICATIVES
Fricatives
[f] [v] [] [] [s] [z] [] [] [x]
[] [h]
In
the
production
of
some
continuants, the airflow is so
severely obstructed that it causes
friction, and the sounds are
therefore called fricatives.

FRICATIVES
Fricatives
labiodental
fricatives

Examples
[f], [v]

Production

interdental
fricatives

[], []

the friction occurs at


the opening between
the tongue and teeth

alveolar
fricatives

[s], [z]

the friction created


at the alveolar ridge

the friction is created


at the lips and teeth,
where a narrow
passage permits the
air to escape

FRICATIVES
Fricatives
palatal
fricatives

Examples
[], []
mission [mn]
measure
[mr]

Production
friction created as
the air passes
between the tongue
and the part of the
palate behind the
alveolar ridge

In English, the voiced palatal fricative never begins words except for foreign words
such as genre.
The voiceless palatal fricative begins the words shoe [u] and sure [ur] and ends the
words rush [r] and push [p].

glottal
fricative

[h]

its relatively weak


sound comes from
air passing through
the open glottis and
pharynx

AFFRICATES
[t] [d]
These sounds are produced by a stop
closure followed immediately by a
gradual release of the closure that
produces an effect characteristic of a
fricative.
The palatal sounds that begin and end
the words church and judge are voiceless
and voiced affricates, respectively.
Affricates are not continuants because
of the initial stop closure.

GLIDES
[j] [w]
The sounds [j] and [w], the initial
sounds of you [ju] and we [wi], are
produced with little obstruction of the
airstream.
They are always followed directly by a
vowel and do not occur at the end of
words.
After articulating [j] or [w], the tongue
glides quickly into place for pronouncing
the next vowel, hence the term glide.

VOWELS
Vowels
are
produced
with
little
restriction of the airflow from the lungs
out the mouth and/or the nose.
Vowel sounds carry pitch and loudness.
We classify vowels according to three
questions:
1. How high or low in the mouth is the tongue?
2. How forward or backward in the mouth is
the tongue?
3. Are the lips rounded (pursed) or spread?

TONGUE POSITION

TONGUE POSITION
Types of
Vowels
high front
vowels

Examples

Production

[i]
he [hi]

the tongue is high in


the mouth and the
front part is raised

high back
vowel

[u]
who [hu]

the tongue is high in


the mouth and back
part of the tongue is
raised

low back
vowel

[a]
hah [ha]

the back of the


tongue is low in the
mouth

[] and []
hit [ht], heat
[hit]
put [pt], hoot

slightly lowered
tongue positions

TONGUE POSITION
Types of
Vowels
low front
vowel

Examples

Production

[]
hack [hk]

produced with the


front part of the
tongue low in the
mouth, similar to the
low vowel [a], but
with the front rather
than the back part of
the tongue lowered

front mid
vowels

[e] and []
bait [bet]
bet [bt]

raising the front of


the tongue to a
position midway
between the high
and low vowels

back mid
vowels

[o] and []
boat [bot]

raising back of the


tongue to a position
midway between the

TONGUE POSITION
Types of
Vowels
lower mid
central vowel

Examples

Production

[]
butt [bt]

the tongue is not


strictly high nor low,
front nor back

schwa vowel

[]
about [bat]
sofa [sof]

articulated with the


tongue in a more or
less neutral position
between the
extremes of
high/low, front/back
the schwa is used
mostly to represent
unstressed vowels

LIP ROUNDING
Types of
Vowels
rounded
vowels

Unrounded
vowel

Examples
[u] boot
[] put
[o] boat
[] bore
[i] cheese
[a] bar, bah,
aha

Production
produced with
pursed or
rounded lips
with the lips in
the shape of a
smile

LIP ROUNDING

DIPHTHONGS
A diphthong is a sequence of two
vowel sounds.
Diphthongs are present in the
phonetic
inventory
of
many
languages, including English.
The vowels we have studied so far
are
simple
vowels,
called
monophthongs.

DIPHTHONGS
Diphthongs

[a]

[a]
[]

Sound
Sequence
[a] father
followed rapidly
by the [] sound
of fit
[a] followed by
the [] sound of
put
[] of bore
followed by []

Examples

bite [bat]

bout [bat]
boy [b]

NASALIZATION OF VOWELS
Vowels can be produced with a raised velum that
prevents the air from escaping through the nose,
or with a lowered velum that permits air to pass
through the nasal passage.
Nasal vowels occur for the most part before
nasal consonants in the same syllable, and oral
vowels occur in all other places.
The words bean, bone, bingo, boom, bam, and
bang are examples of words that contain nasalized
vowels.

To show the nasalization of a vowel in a narrow


phonetic transcription, an extra mark called a
diacriticthe symbol ~ (tilde) placed over the
vowel, as in bean [bn] and bone [bn].

TENSE AND LAX VOWELS

PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SPELLING


CORRESPONDENCES

PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SPELLING


CORRESPONDENCES

PHONETIC SYMBOLS AND SPELLING


CORRESPONDENCES

RULES ON WORD STRESS


1. Two-Syllable nouns and adjectives
In most two syllable nouns and adjectives, the first
syllable takes on the stress.

Examples: SAM-ples CAR-ton Col-or-ful RAI-ny

2. Two-Syllable verbs and prepositions


In most two syllable verbs and prepositions, the
stress is on the second syllable.

Examples: re-LAX, re-CEIVE, di-RECT, a-MONG

Verbs and prepositions usually get stress placed on


the second syllable, but there are exceptions to this
too.

a-SIDE
be-TWEEN

RULES ON WORD STRESS


3. Three-Syllable words
For three syllable words, look at the word
ending (the suffix), using the following as
your guide.

4. Words ending in er, or, ly


For words ending with the suffixes er, or,
or ly, the stress is placed on the first
syllable.
Examples: DI-Rect/DI-rec-tor, OR-der/ORder-ly, MA-nage/MA-nag-er

RULES ON WORD STRESS


5. Words ending in consonants
and in y
If there is a word that ends in a
consonant or in a y, then the first
syllable gets the stress.

Examples: RA-ri-ty
OP-ti-mal
GRA-di-ent
CON-tain-er

RULES ON WORD STRESS


6. Words with various endings
Take a good look at the list of suffixes
below (suffixes are word endings). Your
stress is going to come on the syllable
right before the suffix. This applies to
words of all syllable lengths.

able: ADDable, ARable, DURable


ary: PRIMary, DIary, liBRary
cial: juDIcial, nonSOcial
cian: muSIcian, phySIcian, cliNICian
ery: BAkery, SCENery
graphy: calLIgraphy, bibliOgraphy, stenOgraphy

RULES ON WORD STRESS


ial: celesTIal, iniTIal, juDICial
ian:
coMEdian,
ciVILian,
techNIcian
ible: viSIble, terRIble, reSIstible
ic: arCHAic, plaTOnic, synTHEtic
ical: MAgical, LOgical, CRItical
ics: diaBEtics, paediAtrics

RULES ON WORD STRESS


ion:
classifiCAtion,
repoSItion,
vegeTAtion
ity: imMUnity, GRAvity, VAnity
ium: HElium, ALUminum, PREmium
imum: MInimum, MAXimum, OPtimum
logy: BIology, CARdiology, RAdiology
tal: caPItal, biCOAstal, reCItal

RULES ON WORD STRESS


7. Words ending in ee, ese,
ique, ette
Words that use the suffix ee, ese, eer,
ique or ette, have the primary stress
actually placed on the suffix. This applies
to words of all syllable lengths.

Examples: ee: agrEE, jamborEE, guarantEE


eer: sightsEER, puppetEER
ese: SiamESE, JapanESE, cheESE
ette: cassETTE, CorvETTE, towelETTE
ique: unIQUE, physIQUE

RULES ON WORD STRESS


8. Prefixes
Usually, prefixes do not take the stress of
a word. There are a few exceptions to
this rule, however, like: un, in, pre, ex
and mis, which are all stressed in their
prefix.

Examples: ex: e-XAM-ple, ex-pla-NAtion, e-XAM-ine


in: IN-side, IN-efficient, IN-terest
mis: MIS-spoke, MI-stake, MIS-spelled
pre: PRE-cede, PRE-ar-range, PRE-li-min-ary

RULES ON WORD STRESS


9. Stress on the second from
the end syllable
You put stress on the second syllable
from the end of the word, with words
ending in ic, sion and tion.
Examples: i-CON-ic
Hy-per-TEN-sion
Nu-TRI-tion

RULES ON WORD STRESS


10. Stress on the third from
end syllable
You put stress on the third from end
syllable with words that end in cy, ty,
phy, gy and al.

Examples: de-mo-CRA-cy
TREA-ty
Ge-O-graphy
AL-ler-gy
NAU-ti-cal

RULES ON WORD STRESS


C. Compound verbs
A compound verb is when a subject has two or
more verbs. The stress is on the second or on the
last part.

Examples: Matilda loves bread but de-TESTS butter.


Sarah baked cookies and ATE them up.
Dogs love to eat bones and love DRIN-king water.

D. Noun + compound nouns


Noun + compound Nouns are two word
compound nouns. In noun + compound noun,
the stress is on the first word.

Examples: AIR-plane mechanic


PRO-ject manager
BOARD-room member

RULES ON WORD STRESS


B. Compound adjectives
A compound adjective is an adjective
composed of at least two words. Often,
hyphens
are
used
in
compound
adjectives. In compound adjectives, the
stress is placed within the second word.
Examples: ten-ME-ter
rock-SO-lid
Fif-teen-MI-nute

RULES ON WORD STRESS


11. Word stress for compound
words
A. Compound noun
A compound noun is a noun made out of
two nouns in order to form one word. In a
compound noun, the first word usually
takes on the stress.
Examples: SEA-food
ICE-land
TOOTH-paste

RULES ON WORD STRESS


12. Phrasal verbs
Phrasal verbs are words made from a verb and
preposition.
In phrasal verbs, the second word gets the stress (the
preposition).

Examples: Black OUT


break DOWN
look OUT

13. Proper nouns


Proper nouns are specific names of people, places or
things. For example: Jeniffer, Spain, Google.
The second word is always the one that takes the stress

Examples: North DAKOTA


Mr. SMITH
Apple INCORPORATED

RULES ON WORD STRESS


14. Reflexive pronouns
Reflexive pronouns show that the action affects the
person who performs the action. For example: I hit
myself. The second syllable usually takes the stress.

Examples: my-SELF
Them-SELVES
Our-SELVES

15. Numbers
If the number is a multiple of ten, the stress is
placed on the first syllable.

Examples: TEN
FIF-ty
ONE-hundred

INTONATION

INTONATION
The falling tone

INTONATION
The low rising tone

INTONATION
The high rising tone

INTONATION
The fall-rise tone

PART 4

PUBLIC SPEAKING

INTRODUCTION
Humans ability to communicate
using formalized systems of language
sets us apart from other living
creatures on the Earth.
The ironic feature of public speaking
is that while we recognize that it is an
important skill to have, many of us do
not like or want to give speeches.
Anyone can learn to give effective
presentations.

BENEFITS OF PUBLIC SPEAKING

Public

Professional

Personal

allow you to
participate in
democracy at its
most basic level
is required at any
professions
enhances chance of
securing
employment and
advancing in career
fulfills essential
roles in family and
community
builds selfconfidence

MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

MODELS OF COMMUNICATION

THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING


1. Speeches that inform

Explain
Report
Describe
Clarify
Define

THREE TYPES OF PUBLIC SPEAKING


2. Speeches that persuade
Designed to convince
beliefs or attitudes

or influence

3. Speeches that entertain


Use humor to influence an audience
Goal: to warm audience up

SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES


A special occasion speech includes
one of several kinds that celebrate
an occasion.
More specifically, it might introduce
a speaker, entertain an audience,
or inspire people.
Another term for special occasion
speech is ceremonial speech.

PURPOSE OF SPECIAL OCCASION


SPEECHES

Magnification
It means giving benefit to the
audience, amplifying emotion, and
exceeding expectations.

Identification
It involves creating familiarity and
closeness.

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES

Speech of Introduction
Toast and Roast
Speech to Present an Award
Acceptance Speech
Keynote Address
Commencement Speech
Commemorative
Speeches
Tributes
After-Dinner Speech

and

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES


Speech of Introduction
A speech of introduction is a brief
presentation used to introduce the main
speaker of an event and to inspire the
audience to listen to that speaker.
The introductory speech usually has three
components:
1. provide a brief backdrop or
background of the main speaker
2. introduce the speakers topic
3. an invitation from the audience to
warmly welcome the speaker

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES


Toast
A toast is a brief tribute
to a person or event.

Roast
A roast is a variation of
the toast in which the
speaker pays tribute to
a person by poking fun
at her or him in a
friendly way.

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES


Presentational Speech
Also called a speech to present
an award, the presentational
speech serves to highlight the
merits of the award recipient
and to point out the purpose
and significance of the award
being given.

Acceptance Speech
Also called the speech to accept
an award, the acceptance
speech gives the recipient an
opportunity to express
appreciation for the award as
well as humility and grace.

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES

Keynote Address
The keynote
address represents
the keynote of a
larger idea taking
place at a
conference or
exposition usually
organized around a
central theme.

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES


Commencement
Speech
The commencement
speech is given by a
well-known person of
local, national, or
international acclaim
to mark a university
or secondary school
graduation
ceremony.

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES

Commemorative or Tribute
Speech
A commemorative or tribute speech
is one that pays special accolades to
an occasion, extraordinary person,
event, idea, or monument.
Such a speech is intended to reflect
the emotions of the audience.

TYPES OF SPECIAL OCCASION SPEECHES


After-dinner Speech
During the after-dinner speech,
audiences expect to be entertained
by a speech that informs them about
a particular issue.
This speech sometimes uses humor
to make a serious point.

IDENTIFYING YOUR SPEAKING STYLE

Cool presenter
Hot presenter
Dull presenter

SPEAKING COMPETENCIES

Useful Topic
Engaging Introduction
Clear Organization
Well-Supported Ideas
Closure in Conclusion
Clear and Vivid Language
Suitable Vocal Expression
Corresponding Nonverbals
Adapted to the Audience
Adept Use of Visual Aids
Convincing Persuasion

DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION

Methods of Speech Delivery


Effective Verbal Delivery
Effective Nonverbal Delivery
Final Tips for Rehearsing and
Delivering

METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY


Manuscript Speaking
Rarely done well enough to be interesting
Guidelines
1. Type your manuscript in short, easyto-scan phrases
2. Use appropriate nonverbal messages
3. Do not read the speech too quickly
4. Vary the rhythm, inflections, and pace
of your delivery
5. Use gestures and movement to add
nonverbal interest

METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY


Memorized Speaking
Guidelines
1. Do not deliver your memorized
speech too rapidly
2. Avoid patterns of vocal inflection
that make the presentation sound
recited
3. Use gestures and movement to
add interest and emphasis to your
message

METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY


Impromptu Speaking
off the cuff
Guidelines
1. Consider your audience
2. Be brief
3. Organize
4. Draw upon your personal experience
and knowledge
5. Use gestures and movement that arise
naturally from what you are saying
6. Be aware of the potential impact of your
communication

METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY


Extemporaneous Speaking
Method of delivery preferred by most
audiences
Guidelines
1. Use a full-content preparation outline when
you begin to rehearse your presentation
2. Prepare an abbreviated delivery outline
and speaking notes
3. Do not try to memorize your message
word for word
4. As you deliver your presentation, adapt it
to your audience

METHODS OF SPEECH DELIVERY


RECAP
Manuscript

Methods of Delivery
Reading a speech from written text

Memorized

Giving a speech word for word from memory


without using notes

Impromptu

Delivering a presentation without advance

preparation

Extemporaneous

Speaking from a written or memorized

outline
without having memorized the exact wording of
the presentation

KNOW YOUR AUDIENCE


Make up of Audience

Superiors
Peers
Team members
Special interest groups
Mixed groups

TIME TO OUTLINE

Gather materials
Examples
Statistics
Testimony

PREPARING THE OUTLINE


I. Introduction
II. Body

A. Main point
B. Main point

1. Sub-point
2. Sub-point

a. Sub sub-point
b. Sub sub-point
III. Conclusion

BUILDING THE BODY


Begin developing your speech by working on
the middle first, or the body.
The body covers everything you want to say
during your speech.
The body should have three to five main
points for a 20 minute to half hour
presentation.
And if you want your audience to remember
those points, the most effective approach is
point development.
Once your speech is over, the audience is
going to remember main points only.

MAKING AN EFFECTIVE INTRODUCTION


Get the attention of the audience.
You can get attention and interest by relating the topic
to the audience. People pay attention to things that
affect them directly.

Startle the audience with an arresting or


intriguing statement.
Almost one year ago today, a perfect stranger saved
my best friends life.

Arouse Curiosity.
Give an arresting synopsis of what you will explore.
Or you may question your audience. This draws the
audience in immediately.

PREPARING THE CONCLUSION


Two Purposes
1. Let the audience know you are
ending
2. Reinforce central idea

EFFECTIVE VERBAL DELIVERY


Using words well
Crafting memorable word
structure

USING WORDS WELL


Specific, Concrete Words

Refers to an object or action in the most


specific way possible

Unbiased Words

Do not offend any sexual, racial, cultural,


or religious group

Vivid Words

Add color and interest to your language

Simple Words

Immediately understandable

Correct Words

Grammatical and usage errors


communicate a lack of preparation

CRAFTING MEMORABLE
WORD STRUCTURES
Figurative
Language
Metaphors
(implied
comparisons)
Similes (over
comparisons)
Personificatio
n (attribution of
human qualities
to non-human
things or ideas)

CRAFTING MEMORABLE
WORD STRUCTURES

Drama
Omission (strip a phrase or
sentence of nonessential words that
the audience expects)
Do you believe that he can cope ?

Inversion (invert the usual


subject-verb-object sentence
pattern)
Him the crowd adores.

Suspension (saving a key word or


phrase for the end of a sentence)

CRAFTING MEMORABLE
WORD STRUCTURES

Cadence
Parallelism (two or more clauses have
the same grammatical pattern)
Antithesis (the two structures
contrast)

From rags to riches, from beans to beef, from


water to wine.

Repetition (repeat key word or phrase)


The game was lost. The game was finished
before it began. The game was a farce of
sportsmanship.

Alliteration (repetition of an initial


consonant sound several times in a
phrase, clause, or sentence)
They have bribed us with promise,

EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY


Eye contact
Physical
delivery
Gestures
Movement
Posture

Facial
expression

EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY

Vocal
Delivery
Volume
Pitch
Rate
Articulation

Appearance

EFFECTIVE NONVERBAL DELIVERY


RECAP
Characteristics of Nonverbal
Delivery
Gestures should be relaxed, definite, varied, and
appropriate.
Movement should be purposeful
Posture should feel natural and be appropriate to your
topic, audience, and occasion
Eye Contact should be established before you say
anything and sustained throughout your presentation
Facial Expression should be alert, friendly, and
appropriate
Volume should be loud enough to be heard and varied
Pitch should be varied to sustain audience interest
Rate should be neither too fast or too slow
Articulation should be clear and distinct

FINAL TIPS FOR DELIVERING YOUR


PRESENTATION

Finish your full-content outline


several days before you must deliver
the presentation
Practice, Practice, Practice
Practice good delivery skills while
rehearsing
If possible, practice your
presentation for someone else
Tape record or videotape your
presentation

FINAL TIPS FOR DELIVERING YOUR


PRESENTATION

Re-create the speaking situation in


your final rehearsals
Get plenty of rest the night before
you speak
Arrive early
After you have delivered your
presentation, seek feedback from
members of your audience.

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