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Measurement

Chemistry

Mrs. Coyle

Measurement, Accuracy, Precision,

Error

Math-

SI Units International System

MKS

Meter m

Mass kg

Time s

National Bureau of Standards

Prefixes

SI Unit Prefixes

Name

gigamegakilodecicentimillimicronanopico-

Symbol

G

M

k

d

c

m

n

p

109

106

103

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

Scientific Notation

M x 10n

M

10 is the base

n is the exponent or power of 10

Other Examples:

5.45E+6

5.45 x 10^6

negative exponent.

A millionth of a second is:

0.000001 sec

1.0E-6

1x10-6

1.0x10^-6

Limits of Measurement

Accuracy

and Precision

Accuracy

- a measure of how

close a measurement is to the

true value of the quantity being

measured.

Example: Accuracy

Who

measuring a book that has a true

length of 17.0cm?

Susan:

17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm

Amy:

15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

Precision

a measure of how

close a series of measurements

are to one another. A measure of

how exact a measurement is.

Example: Precision

Who is more precise when measuring

the same 17.0cm book?

Susan:

17.0cm, 16.0cm, 18.0cm, 15.0cm

Amy:

15.5cm, 15.0cm, 15.2cm, 15.3cm

following are precise, accurate or

both.

Accurate

Precise

Error

Error= experimental accepted value

Percent Error

% Error= |experimental accepted| x100

accepted value

B) Significant Figures

Significant Figures

The

significant figures in a

measurement include all of the

digits that are known, plus one

last digit that is estimated.

given measurement?

Sig Figs

from the left.

from the right.

do not count.

100

10302.00

0.001

10302

1.0302x104

The result has the same number of

decimal places as the number in the

operation with the least decimal

places.

Ex: 2.33 cm

+3.0 cm

5.3 cm

The

the factor with the least sig figs.

Ex: 3.22 cm

x 2.0 cm

6.4 cm2

Counting Numbers

Counting

figs.

Ex:

3 apples

and

Prefixes

Base SI Units

Symbol

Quantity

Unit

Length

meter

Mass

kilogram

kg

Temperature

kelvin

Time

second

Amount of

mole

Substance

Luminous Intensity candela

mol

Electric Current

ampere

cd

Quantity

unit

Symbol

Volume

cubic meter

m3

Density

Speed

kilograms per

kg/m3

cubic meter

meter per second m/s

Newton

kg m/ s2

Energy

Pressure

Pascal (kg/(ms2)

Pa

m3

cm

1 dm3 = 1L

dm3

L

mL

1cm3= 1mL

Liter

Temperature

A measure of how hot or how cold an

object is.

SI Unit: the kelvin

Note:

not a degree

Absolute Zero= 0 K

(K)

Temperature Scales

K= oC + 273

F= (1.8 oC ) +32

1 Newton

1 N= kg m/s2

Joule

calorie

J

1 cal= 4.184 J

the temp of 1g of water by 1 oC.

Note:

1 Cal = 1kcal =1000cal

SI Unit Prefixes

Name

gigamegakilodecicentimillimicronanopico-

Symbol

G

M

k

d

c

m

n

p

109

106

103

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

Name

gigameter

megameter

kilometer

decimeter

centimeter

millimeter

micrometer

nanometer

picometer

Symbol

Gm

Mm

km

dm

cm

mm

m

nm

pm

Analogy

109

106

103

10-1

10-2

10-3

10-6

10-9

10-12

D)

Factor Label Method of Unit

ConversionDimensional Analysis

Factor-Label Method

Example:

Convert 5km to m:

NEW UNIT

5km x 1,000m =5,000m

km

OLD UNIT

Convert 7,000m to km

7,000m x 1 km = 7 km

1,000m

Convert 2.45cs to s

2.45cs

x 1s

= 0.0245s

100cs

55.00 km x 1000 m x 1 h___ = 15.28m/s

h

1 km

3600 s

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