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If it aint

BAROQ
UE, dont
fix it!
1600-1700
in Europe

Baroque means irregularly shaped or odd (describes


departure from styles seen in Italian Renaissance)

RENAISSANCE
Balance
Ideal of beauty
Simplicity
Proportions
Straight lines
Drawing emphasized

BAROQUE
Movement
Realism in
representations
Complexity
Interest in surprising the
viewer
Curved lines, convex,
concave
Color and light

Baroque are is a reflection of


society:

ART of absolute monarchies


ART of the counterreformation (Catholic
countries)
Bourgeois ART (Protestant
countries)

Main ideas about BAROQUE:


Counter-Reformation (Catholic
resurgence) is reflected in art of Italy,
Spain, and France
Protestant Hollands Baroque art
contrasts Catholic art
Two schools of thought: CLASSICISTS
(inspired by Italian artists like Raphael)
and NATURALISTS (inspired by Venetian
painters like Titian)
Artists experiment with GENRE
PAINTINGS, landscapes, and still lifes
(raise them to importance level of

Catholic church is still the head


honcho of artistic commissions
(followed closely by royalty and
autocratic governments)
Huge churches = big paintings =
big $$$
Some artists considered their
work to be a reflection of their
firm commitment to their faith
(like Rubens and Bernini)

Architecture time!
Lots of movement, undulation
Cavities of shadow contrasting with
projections catching the sun
Emphasis on center faade accentuate
entrance with wavelike forms, pediments,
tympana
Richly designed interiors with paintings and
sculptures all work together to create
dramatic unity
HUGE and elaborate architecture meant to
impress represents achievements of
patrons power and wealth!

Lets start with ITALIAN


Baroque

Faade of St.
Peters
by Carlo Maderno
1607-1612
Rome

Faade and
nave added to
Michelangelos
design of St.
Peters
(creates a
Latin cross
plan) wide
and low
faade
emphasis on
center of
faade with
pediment
highlighting
main door

Pilasters
on each
end
gradually
become
rounded
engaged
columns
around
central
door (more
central

Colonnade of St. Peters


by: Gianlorenzo Bernini
1656-1657, Rome

Huge plaza that can hold half a million


people (you should see it on Easter!)
-Bernini wanted a surprising contrast
between busy congested Rome and a big
open vista of St. Peters

-Colonnade is like a big hug embracing


arms bring faithful people into the building
(the basilica)
-Shaped like a skeleton keyhole St. Peter
holds the keys to heaven (ahhh,
connection)

Fun game to
play as you
walk around
the
colonnade
Count the
Nuns

The Columns are big!

Oval shape centered around an Egyptian


obelisk that was already there
-Trapezoid shape in front of basilica
determined by preexisting buildings

The Obelisk from


Egypt was
brought to Rome
by Emperor
Caligula in 37
AD.
It is also a sun
dial, its shadows
marks noon over
the signs of the
zodiac in the
white marble
disks in the
paving of the
square.

140 Saint statues along


colonnade

St. Charles of the Four


Fountains
by: Francesco Borromini
1638-1641, Rome

In a square in
Rome with four
fountains (ah,
thats where
the name came
from)
-unusually
small site,
faade higher
than the rest of
the building

Haha, look at
that tiny
building with
that big facade
Check out the
undulating
shapes
Concave/conv
ex patterns

Heres the inside!

Heres the
floor plan
Its an oval!
Interior side
chapels merge
into a center
space
Oval dome
above mirrors
oval shape of

The dome of St. Charles of the Four


Fountains
(PS: its coffered)

Walls are very sculptural


-Borromini liked using shades of white (typical
Baroque avoided color in buildings)

Sant Agnese
By: Francesco Borromini
1653-1663, Rome

Its in the Piazza Navona in Rome


One of THE most beautiful places in
the world!

MO Cam, Piazza Navona

Sant Agnese church


dominates the
piazza
-convex/concave
forms on facade

Look how the


light plays off
of the faade,
ooooo!

Dome
framed
by
elaborate
towers,
rises
dramatic
ally
behind
concave
facade

Sant Agnese ground plan


-centrally planned, wide round transept

Interior: space flows well, very open plan

Looking up into the dome of Sant Agnese

Chapel of the Holy Shroud by: Guarino


Guarini (haha)
(attached to Turin Cathedral)

Added to Turin
Cathedral around 200
years after it was built

Very complex
space
Interior is
kaleidoscopelike
12-point star
Illusion of
endless space

Hexagonal
ribs cross one
another,
which creates
an airy
domed space
of crazy
intricacy. It
just goes on
forever!

Chapel holds the controversial Shroud of


Turin (believed by some to be the burial
shroud of Jesus)

Carbon dating places it in the Medieval

Positive photo Photo negative with contrast

Lets move on to FRENCH Baroque

Versailles
by: Jules Hardouin-Mansart (and others)
beguin in 1669 in Versailles, France

Beware: Visit this place in the offseason unless you love crowds that
will mow you down

SMO Cam

Was a hunting lodge, remodeled into a


massive, elaborate palace for Louis XIV
Center of building was Louis XIVs
bedroom (audience chamber) the
rest of the floor plan radiates out from
there (Louis fancied himself the sun
king- he had a bit of an ego)

Louis XIVs
bedroom.

A reflection of Louis XIVs political and economic


ambitions
-vast garden and town complex radiating out from
the palace

rior decoration of faade is kinda subdued, understated undula

Lets look at the gardens


(just because theyre pretty)

SMO Cam

SMO Cam

e Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versail

The Hall of Mirrors: 240 feet long, barrel vaulted,


painted ceilings show civil and military achievements
of Louis XIV
Light comes through windows on one side, bounces
off mirrors on other side (largest pieces of glass that

Henry would
walk down this
hall daily on his
way to the
chapel from his
private
apartments
Treaty of
Versailles was
signed in this
hall (ended
WWI in 1919)

Let's see a little movie about Versaill


es

Time for ENGLISH Baroque

Banqueting House
by: Inigo Jones, 1619-1622, London

Built for James I of England to replace a hall destroyed by fire


Inspired by Palladio, introduced Palladian style to England
(Andrea Palladio influential Venetian architect in 1500s)

Banqueting House
by Jones (17th
century), England

Palazzo Chiericati by
Palladio (16th century),
Italy
-no, we never looked
at this, Im just making

Faade is modest,
not much
undulation
Central bay of six
windows is
framed by
engaged columns

Flat pilasters recessed around windows (pilasters are


decorative, engaged columns provide support)

pilasters

Balustrated
roof
Illusion of two
stories (its
actually one
big room
inside)
Basement
level has

Just for kicks, heres the interior

Oooo, the
ceiling was
painted in 1635
by Peter Paul
Rubens (well
see his work in
the near future)

Saint
Pauls
Christopher
Wren
1675-1710
London

w of Saint Pauls from


ve
re going to look at the
st side

Built
after the
Great
Fire of
London
in 1666
(Gothic
building
on this
site
burned

What
elements of
this church
are
quintessent
ial GOTHIC?

Faade:
projecting
parts
create
dark/light
contrast in
the center
(emphasis
on center)
sides
recede
Bell towers
complex
looking,
graceful

Dome is 3 domes in one


Inner dome low and
curved
Second dome supports
lantern

Remember Bramantes Tempietto from


the Italian High Renaissance? Looks

Saint Pauls Interior

Saint
Pauls sits
at the
highest
point in
London
can be
seen from
far away
Part of the
national
identity of
Englandmany
significant

apse
choir

Blenheim Palace
by: John Vanbrugh
1705, Woodstock, England

Thank you gift to the Duke


of Marlborough for winning
the battle of Belnheim in
1704 in the War of Spanish
Succession (not a bad
present!)

Many reminders inside of the dukes


awesomeness (trophies, cannonballs,
urns, statues, etc.)
-another majestic palace structure (like
Versailles)

Heres another angle


-Accent on central core
-Basement has porthole windows, Vanbrughs
favorite motif

Projecting pavilions
Corner towers
Advance and retreat of faade pattern

Enough
architecture
!
Lets see
some
sculptures
and
paintings!

Baroque Sculpture
Stressed movement, figures in midmotion
Large sculptures meant to be seen in the
round
Use of negative space makes all angles
interesting
Treatment of marble to achieve textures
(ie: high polish for skin, feathery carving
for angel wings, coarse surface for animal
skin, etc.)

David
By: Gianlorenzo
Bernini
1623
Marble
Rome

mid-action,
swinging the
slingshot at Goliath
Harp near his feetsymbolizes his role
as a psalmist
Face is an
idealized version of
Berninis own face,
intense gaze

Meant to be seen from


multiple angles
Use of negative space, figure
seems animated and dynamic

The Discus Thrower


450 BCE, marble
Greek

Baldacchino
by: Gianlorenzo
Bernini
1624-1633
Bronze
in St. Peters
Rome

Over the main altar


of St. Peters
-Four twisting
corkscrew columns
that spiral upward
-Directs viewers
eye down the nave
of St. Peters to the
altar
-Acts as a shrine
and canopy over St.
Peters grave
(buried under the

Mega
achievem
ent in
bronze
casting

A symbol of the CounterReformation in Rome.


It shows We are Catholic!

Bees and suns decorate the


piece symbols of the patrons

Barberini coat of arms

Ecstasy
of
Saint
Theresa
by:
Gianlorenzo
Bernini
164-1652
marble
in Santa
Maria della
Vittoria,

St. Theresa
wrote in
her diary
about her
visions of
God an
angel
descended
upon her
and
plunged an
arrow into
her

Pose
suggests
sexual
exhaustion
consistent
with her
description
of spiritual
ecstasy
described in
her diary
entries
-divinity
collides

One diary entry:


I saw in his hand a long spear of gold, and at the
iron's point there seemed to be a little fire. He
appeared to me to be thrusting it at times into my
heart, and to pierce my very entrails; when he
drew it out, he seemed to draw them out also, and
to leave me all on fire with a great love of God.
The pain was so great, that it made me moan; and
yet so surpassing was the sweetness of this
excessive pain, that I could not wish to be rid of it.
The soul is satisfied now with nothing less than
God. The pain is not bodily, but spiritual; though
the body has its share in it. It is a caressing of love
so sweet which now takes place between the soul
and God, that I pray God of His goodness to make
him experience it who may think that I am lying.

Marble handled in a
tactile way, textures
revealed, high gloss
skin, texture in
feathers, drapery is
animated and fluid,
clouds roughly cut

Rough-cut clouds

Texture in wings

Natural light from a


hidden window
illuminates the
sculpture (clever!)
Figures appear to
float in space,
ungrounded
Rays of Gods light
illuminate the scene
from behind
Stage-like setting
Sculptures of Cornaro
family (patrons) sit in
theater boxes looking
on and commenting

Cornaro family in theater boxes

Two Trends in Baroque


Painting
NATURALISM CLASSICISM
Expressive sense of movement

Subdued emotions

Figures dramatically rendered, even Subdued drama


in portraits
Light effects are strong sources of
light create strong highlights and
shadows this contrast is called
TENEBROSO or TENEBRISM

Realistic use of light

Colors are descriptive and


evocative

Subdued colors

Inspired by Venetian Renaissance


Rejection of artificiality of
Mannerists

Inspired by classicizing painters like


Raphael

Who: Caravaggio, Gentileschi,


Rubens

Who: Poussin, Carracci

Some trends:
Still life, genre paintings, and landscapes,
religious and historical paintings
Landscapes express a higher meaning, have
small figures in a vast landscape (not done onsite, rather, done in a studio and based on
sketches in the field) thoughtful combination
of earth/architecture
Still life paintings often have a VANITAS theme
stresses shortness of life and folly of human
vanity
Genre paintings often have an allegorical
commentary on a contemporary or historical
issue

Lets start in Italy again

Calling of Saint
Matthew
by: Caravaggio
1597-1601, oil on canvas, in Rome

e of a series of paintings for a chapel

at is happening here?

Scene from the Gospel of Matthew: Jesus saw a man named


Matthew at his seat in the custom house, and said to him, Follow
me, and Matthew rose and followed him.
Shows Matthew the tax collector w/ four other men
Jesus and St. Peter entered, Jesus points at Matthew
Beam of light illuminates faces of the men who are looking at Jesus

Matthew

Jesus inspires Matthew to follow him


(conversion to Christianity)
St. Matthew points to himself (me, a tax

Men are
foppishly
dressed in the
latest
Baroque
fashions (not
Jesus-era
fashions)
Figures have
everyday
characteristic
s, NATURALIST
approach

Well would you look at that! - Christs


hand gesture similar to Adams and Gods

Narrow stage for figures to sit


and stand on
Diagonal shaft of light points
right at St. Matthew
Dramatic light creates
TENEBROSO effect on figures

Tiny halo on
Christs head
indicates
sacredness of
the scene

Entombment
by:
Caravaggio
1603
oil on canvas
check it out in
Rome!

Christs body
placed in a grave
This painting was
placed over an altar
so Christ is
symbolically being
placed on the altar
TRANSUBSTANTIATI
ON = turning the
Eucharist meal
(bread and wine)
into the body and
blood of Christ

Figures are pushed


forward in the
picture plane,
shallow stage
Stone slab seems
to project forward
toward viewer
Nicodemus (guy
looking at us)
resembles
Caravaggio himself
common-looking
man without any

Mary is
traditionally
depicted as
ageless and
young
But Caravaggio
embraced
Naturalism
paints Mary
older (Christ is
33 after all)

Many
paths for
the eye to
take
Limbs,
gazes,
gestures
lead the
viewers
eye
around
the
painting
(movemen
t)
Diagonal

Light
source
illuminat
es Christ
the most

Loves of the
Gods
By: Annibale
Carracci
1597-1601
Fresco
Farnese Palace
ceiling in Rome

Barrel vaulted
ceiling combines
two things:
Quadro
riportato: means
carried picture
gold-framed
paintings seen in a
normal perspective
Di sotto in su:
means from below
to above
extreme
foreshortening of
figures painted on
the ceiling gives

Idealized bodies in a variety of poses


Vigorous movement (in bodies AND in the
viewers exploration of the scenes)
Rich colors inspired by Venetians

Loves of the
gods played
out with
abondon on
the ceiling,
such as
Jupiter and

Pan and
Diana
So
CLASSICISM
or
NATURALISM?
Waaaaay
different than
Mannerism of

Aurora and Cephalus

Figures overlap the frames (most are


painted) sit on them, put hands/feet
over them

Judith and
Her
Maidserva
nt with the
Head of
Holofernes
By:
Artemisia
Gentileschi

TENEBRISM
and gory
details
(influence
of
Caravaggio)
Dramatic
lighting!
Heightened
emotion

Gentileschi
painted this shortly
after she was
raped by the
painter she was
studying with
Sword forms a
cross shape good
over evil
Gentileschi

Face of Judith
is her face
she identified
with Old
Testament
heroines
Beheads
Assyrian
general
Holofernes
after he falls
asleep drunk

Visual
lines
draw your
attention
to the
action

Super physical
scene!
Wide spurts of
blood
Women struggle
with large dagger
And theres a
follow-up painting
in the story

Judith and
her
Maidserva
nt

ravaggio painted the same subject

and Michelangelo painted


it in the Sistine Chapel

AND Gustav
Klimt painted it
th
in the 19
century
..and a bunch
of other
artists.just

Aurora
By: Guido Reni
1613-1614
Ceiling fresco in Casino Rospigliosi,
Rome

Aurora leads Apollos chariot


Cupid and the Seasons dance
around the heavenly chariot
Influenced by Raphael

Classicist trend
Soft modeling
Sweet, airy
vision

Triumph of the
Barberini (or
Triumph of the
Divine
Providence)
By: Pietro da
Cortona
1633-1639
Fresco in the
Palazzo

Di sotto in su
(remember
what that
means?)
Naturalist
trend
Figures move
easily in an
open space

Ceiling subdivided by a painted architectural


framework

Solar Divine
Providence at one
end (the Barberini
papal election
was divine
providence of
course, not at all
rigged, ha)
Other end shows
putti and flying
maidens holding
the papal keys,
tiara, and robe

Divine providence (Gods intervention in the


world)

and laurel wreaths (symbols of Barberini fam

Lets go to SPAIN now

The Water Carrier of Seville


by: Diego Velazquez
1619, oil on canvas

Simple
genre
scene, but
with sacred
quality in
the
expressions,
the handing
over of the
glass, and

Velazquez
liked
Caravaggio
s use of
TENEBRISM
-Rounded
forms (jugs,
figures)

Mmm, fig
water

Water carrier
(water seller) was
a common trade
for lower class in
Seville
Two customers: a
young boy and
young man
Big jugs of water
glisten with
splashes of water
so big they seem
to protrude into
the viewers space

Calm scene
Seller has
pensive face,
detailed with scars
and wrinkles =
many years of
work
Short hair and
plain clothes
appearance of a
monk, saint, or
philosopher
Gazes at nothing
in deep thought,

Velazquez
respected the
poor realized
that the simple
nature of poverty
is a profound and
effective subject
matter for
depicting morals
and biblical
stories
Aimed to
precisely
represent life

This is
Velazquez,
just in case
youre curious
(self portrait)

Breda
By: Diego Velazquez
1634-1635, oil on
canvas

Shows the Dutch yielding the town of Breda to the


Spanish in 1625 (handing over the key)
-Look at how gracious the Spanish are being
very dignified, united military (painting is an
emblem of Spanish nationalism)

Dutch on the left are more scattered and


disorganized looking, not in fancy uniforms, very
young
-Dutch weapons arent organized or substantial,
Spanish weapons upright, symbolize military
might of victors

Poor Dutch. They


lost.
BUT, this is a very
important historical
commentary:
Velazquez depicts
one of the most
humane captains
(Spanish) of the
day

Imaginary landscape in background (aka:


Breda)
Can you see the cross in the distant lake? A
symbol of Spanish (Catholic) domination over
Dutch (Protestant)

Soldiers show each other mutual respect


(good game!) in honoring the valor of the
other side
-open space in center emphasizes the keys
and symbolizes a city resigned
-Funny thing is, Velazquez never met Dutch
people or traveled to Breda

Las
Meninas
by: Diego
Velazquez
1656
oil on
canvas

FYI: this is
one of the
most widely
analyzed
paintings in
art history.
This is an
overview. You
may want to
read more
about it on
your own.

Set in a large
room in a
royal palace
during the
reign of King
Philip IV of
Spain
-most figures
identifiable as
members of
Spanish court

Group
portrait of
the artist in
his studio at
work
He steps
away from
the canvas to
look at the
viewer
wears the
cross of the
Royal Order

He wasnt
knighted
until three
years after
he finished
this painting
Cross added
after his
death

(1) Margarita Teresa of Spain, Infanta Margarita


(2) doa Isabel de Velasco
(3) doa Mara Agustina Sarmiento de Sotomayor
(4) the dwarf German, Maribarbola (Maria Barbola)
(5) the dwarf Italian, Nicolas Pertusato
(6) doa Marcela de Ulloa(
7) unidentified bodyguard (guardadamas)
(8) Don Jos Nieto Velzquez
(9) Velzquez
(10) King PhilipIV reflected in mirror
(11) Mariana, queen of King Philip, reflected in mirror

Infanta
Margharita
of Spain in
the center
Meninas =
attendants
Also a dog,
dwarf,
midget,
and two
chaperones

Joes Nieto
in doorway
(head of
the
queens
tapestry
works,
which is
why his
hand is on
a curtain)

King and
Queen are
reflected in the
mirror but
where are they
in the room?
Are they in the
painting facing
away from us?
Are they in the
room (standing
in our space)
is that who
everyone is

Darks and
lights draw
us deeper
into the
room
Dappled
light, some
surfaces
seem to
shimmer
This
painting was

Picasso

Picasso Again

Spanish department store advertisement

Let's wat
ch a movi
e about t
his paint

FLEMISH Baroque

Raising
of the
Cross
by: Peter Paul
Rubens
1610-1611
oil on canvas
In Antwerp
Cathedral

rt of a triptych one continuous space across the three pa

Strong
diagonals direct
viewers
attention to
Christ
Bodies have
impressive
musculature
brought out by
the dramatic
lighting
Spontaneous

Men attempting
to lift the cross
with Christ on it
(challenging to
their lovely
muscles) look
like theyre
struggling
Motion, space,
and time part of
the scene
Dynamic color

Intense scene,
very religious,
but its more
about the
passion and
exuberance of
the scene
Influence of
Italian
Renaissance and
Baroque artists.
Where do you

Marie de
Medici Cycle
(This one is
Arrival of
Marie de
Medici in
Marseilles)
by: Peter Paul
Rubens
1622-1625
oil on canvas

21 paintings in
this series, but
well focus on this
one
All commissioned
by Marie de
Medici, wife of
Henry IV of France
Decorated a
waiting room in
the royal
apartment in
Luxenbourg Palace
(but now theyre

All the
paintings tell
the life story of
Marie de
Medici through
allegory
Theyre huge!
Allegories help
tell the story
and mix w/ real
historical

Here, Marie
arrives in
France after a
sea voyage
guarded by
Neptune and
sea nymphs
Angel playing
two trumpets
hooray for her
arrival!

-NymphsEver hear the term Rubenesque?

Rubens has
turned
something
ordinary
(arrival,
walking down
gangplank)
into something
magnificent.
Heaven +
earth

Marie is dressed in silver blends


into the crowd, nearly gets lost in
the action

France falls to her feet


to greet her with open
arms (notice gold fleurde-lis pattern)

Fancy
costumes, looks
like an opulent
theater
production
Sumptuous,
full-figured
women
Mellow
intensity of color
inspired by
Titian and

Charles I
Dismoun
ted
by: Anthony
Van Dyck
1635, oil on
canvas

Charles I of
England walking
in front of his
bowing horse
Looking directly
at viewer,
haughty pose,
hat framing his
head like a halo
Royalty chilling
out in nature
(Venetian
landscape)
Charles is

Charles dressed
in civilian
clothing, resting
during a hunt
The Louvre calls
his pose a
subtle
compromise
between
gentlemanly
nonchalance
and regal
assurance
Horse bows its

DUTCH Baroque
(aka: Rembrandt van Rijn and friends)

DUTCH Baroque Art


Dutch paintings of landscapes,
portraits, genre paintings
Avoided religious ecstasies, myths,
and historical subjects
Dutch houses are smaller than
Italian, Spanish, etc. so painters
work smaller so their paintings fit
Into symbolism
Somewhat outside the mainstream
of Baroque art

SelfPortrait
by:
Rembrandt
van Rijn
1659-1660
oil on canvas

We could go
on FOREVER
about
Rembrandts
self-portraits
He did MANY
of them
They reveal
true
humanity,
psychological
tension,

In them, we see
him suffering,
weary, satisfied,
dignified,
excited, etc.
Faced personal
tragedy and
financial
hardships, but
was a very
popular artist
Self-portraits are
sincere, w/o
vanity
Always with a

Inside Rembrandts studio in


Amsterdam (SMO cam.. Yeah, I

Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, by


Rembrandt van Rijn
1632, oil
on canvas

Depicts a specific anatomy lesson (Jan 1632)


Public anatomy lessons lasted 4-5 days,
indoors in winter

Dr. Tulp explains musculature of the arm to


medical professionals
Only one public dissection a year (must be an
executed criminal)

Rembrandts
first group
portrait
Spectators are
various doctors
who paid to be
included in the
painting
Anatomy lessons
were a social
event in the 17th
century in
lecture rooms
(theaters) w/
students,
doctors, and the

Spectators
dressed for this
solemn social
occasion
The bloody
work was left
to others
(preparators)
thats why we
dont see any
cutting
instruments
(too menial of
a task for Dr.

Dr. Tulp seated in place of honor, wears


rimmed hat (marks him as an the chairman)
hands are prominently displayed

Comparing the corpse to the giant anatomy


book on the right, and positions his own arm
to make his point

So who is the corpse? a criminal convicted of armed


robbery and hanged that day, shadow of death on face

Night Watch
By: Rembrandt van Rijn
1642, oil on canvas

Originally this size (cut down in in 1715) this is a


copy
--cut to fit between two columns when moved to a
new location

I saw it!

Again, we see a painting that entire books


have been written about. Well do what we
can bear with me

Painted for an assembly hall as part of a


group of paintings of various militias
Misnamed thought it was a night scene
before it was restored (because of all the
grime over the years)

Eight patrons in the scene (represented


according to how much they paid, partial or
full body)
Militia marching out on patrol (or on
parade?)
Captain Cocq holds a baton and wears a red
sash, speaking as he comes forward, maybe
giving orders

Lt. Ruytenburg (in yellow) holds a partisan (a


long spear weapon) and stands with the
captain
Central group comes forward, side groups
move behind

Allegorical figure of a girl in gold carrying a


large white chicken dangling from her waist
girl is sort of a mascot claws of chicken
symbolize militia called the Arequebusiers
(named after the gun featured in the painting)
I dont make this stuff up

Dead chicken
also
represents the
defeated
enemy
Yellow is
usually
associated
with victory

So what makes this painting so great?


1. Massive size (roughly 12x14)
2. Dramatic use of light and shadow (chiaroscuro)
3. Rembrandt managed to include MOVEMENT in
what had the potential to be a traditional, static
military portrait (boring!)

Hundred Guilder Print


By: Rembrandt van Rijn
1647-1649, etching

Name comes from the heavy price for a copy of


this print!
Also called Christ Healing the Sick and other
titles based on multiple events from Matthews
gospel (Christ healing the sick, debating with
scholars, calling children to him)

Shows Bible events as a tender moment,


serene (not based on just ONE single biblical
story, illustrates various themes)
Jesus in the center, many religious messages
packed in
Young man w/ head in his hand = Christ
preaches against excessive wealth

Women present their babies to him to be


blessed symbolizes his acceptance of all
followers, no matter how insignificant

Hals Selfie

Lets meet Frans


Hals!
Specialized in
single portraits,
marriage portraits,
and group portraits
Right time, right
place no market
for religious art,
portraits popular
Became famous by
painting complex
groupings of Dutch
fraternal

Guess whats by
Hals.
Yeah, this painting
that has been
staring you in the
face since the
summer
Catharina Hooft
and her Nurse
1620
Oil on canvas

Archers of the Saint Hadrian


by: Frans Hals
1633, oil on canvas

Relative social positions expressed through the


composition. You can probably pick out the most
important people based on their positions creative
arrangement some standing, some sitting, all based
on their position in society

Hals used diagonals to create 2 groupings and a focal


point in the center
Lively conversation, animated faces, some glance at
each other and some look at the viewer

Faces are NOT idealized, all clearly distinguishable,


personalities revealed in facial expressions
Very clever light, shade, modeling all achieved with a
few fluid brush strokes

Officers of the Haarlem Militia Company of


Saint Adrian
Frans Hals, 1627,oil on canvas

Two distinct groups = split in the political and


social structure of the company (Group on right
is more relaxed)

Group on left surrounds Colonel Loo (the


commanding authoritarian), many personalities
depicted (Hals specialty)

SelfPortrait
By: Judith
Leyster
1633
oil on canvas

Self-portrait AS
the artist
secure in her
craft
Turns around to
chat with the
viewer as shes
painting
Even the fiddler
shes painting is
smiling at us!
She was
inspired by Hals
(she knew him)
IMPASTO
brushwork
She looks

Took on
male
apprentice
s
Most of her
work was
done
before she
had
children
(only two
known

View of Haarlem from the Dunes at Overveen


By: Jacob van Ruisdael
1670, oil on canvas

Shows a 20-year long landscape project that


reclaimed lots of land from the sea (filled it in.
Sounds tricky)
Flat landscape comes to life with alternating
dark and light effects deepen the perspective
and draw our attention into the painting,
dappled sunlight comes through clouds

Linen dries in the open air (a local industry)


Sky demands our attention just as much as the
land, very animated and bold, billowing clouds,
movement
Dutch interest in landscapes

The Love
Letter
Johannes
Vermeer
1662-1665
oil on canvas

VERY few
Vermeer
works exist
Almost
always
depict
intimate
scenes in
private
Dutch
homes
Figures

Diagonals in
floor add to
creation of
depth
Lute =
symbol of
love
Removed
slippers =
symbol of sex
Broom cast
aside
domestic
concerns

We are looking
into a private
world
Servant
handing love
letter to young
woman playing
a lute
Small gestures
have big
impact visually
Warm light
from unseen
window
highlights
textures and

Similar, but a
different
painting

The Guitar
Player
Johannes
Vermeer
1672
oil on canvas

Here are a few


more Vermeer
pieces, just for
kicks:

The Music
Lesson
Johannes
Vermeer
1662-1665
oil on canvas

The
Milkmaid
Johannes
Vermeer
1658
oil on
canvas

The
Astronomer
Johannes
Vermeer
1668
oil on canvas

The Girl with


the Wine
Glass
Johannes
Vermeer
1659
oil on canvas

Girl with a
Pearl
Earring
Johannes
Vermeer
1665
oil on canvas

The Art of
Painting
Johannes
Vermeer
1666
oil on
canvas

Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba


By: Claude Lorrain
1648, oil on canvas

Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba


By: Claude Lorrain
1648, oil on canvas

Queen of Sheba leaves palace (right) to visit


King Solomon in Jerusalem (scene from the
First Book of Kings in the Old Testament)
Leaves city of classical buildings, early
morning sun lights up the sea, ships are
loaded
Queen is about to get in a small boat to
transition to the larger boat in the distance

Architecture frames the scenes center, which


is relatively empty
Rising sun shimmers on the water, scene is
backlit, waves pick up sunlight

Combination of visuals is not chronological


(anachronistic) Roman ruins, medieval
tower, Baroque palace..whatever, it looks
nice
Landscape is dominant, people are
insignificant (Dutch)

Composition divided into fifths:


horizon line 2/5 of the way up,
columns and palace take up 1/5 of
the composition

in Arcadia Ego By: Nicholas Poussin


55, oil on canvas

Uneducated shepherds have difficulty reading the


tombstone (curious expressions)
Arcadia (female figure) gently places her hand on the
back of one of the shepherds
Pastoral painting, idealized shepherds from classical
antiquity

Poussin wanted his paintings to show moral meanings


Inscription on memorial (hard to see) I too am in
Arcadia

MANY interpretations of the meaning behind this painting


Shepherds shadow forms figure of the Grim Reaper
Trees young, mature, and dead in background (life
cycle?)

Arcadia is a place for pure, rural, idyllic life (far from


the city) utopian land
SO I too am in Arcadia could mean Arcadia = heaven

Louis XIV
by: Hyacinth
Rigaud
1701
oil on canvas

The PERFECT
example of a
Baroque
absolute
monarch
In Baroque
setting
In Baroque
clothes
Louis was
proud of his
legs, exposes

Peasa
nts!

Hes wearing his coronation costume

Crown placed
at his side

Elegant, stately
pose
Haughty
expression
Heavy black wig
Elaborate velvet
robes
Holds scepter
Sword = a military
weapon and a
phallic symbol (TMI)
Painting SO
popular that Rigaud

VOCABULARY:
GENRE PAINTING: painting in which scenes
of everyday life are depicted
IMPASTO: a thick and very visible
application of paint on a paintings surface
POUSSINISTES and RUBENISTES: fans of
Poussin and Rubens
QUADRO RIPORATO: a type of ceiling
painting created on a curved ceiling vault.
You must stand in a particular spot in order
for it to appear correct (example: Sistine
Chapel)
DI SOTTO IN SU: from the bottom up
ceiling paintings w/ figures hovering above
the viewers, looking down at us

VOCABULARY:
TENEBROSO/TENEBRISM: a dramatic light
and dark contrast in a painting
VANITAS: a theme in still life painting that
stresses the brevity of life and the folly of
human vanity
BALDACCHINO: a canopy placed over an
altar or shrine

FIN