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Course outline

Purpose of the training


Ericsson hardware information
Tools
Processes
DCR analysis process including features
Other features

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Purpose of the training


The purpose of this training is
To give an overview on what the capabilities and limitations are form
Ericsson hardware
To provide a in depth introduction on Ericsson optimization
To highlight the most common features
To introduce main Ericsson KPIs
To describe an optimization process

This training will not


Provide a in depth knowledge in optimizing an Ericsson network

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Hardware information

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Ericsson naming
TRC Stand alone Transcoder controller node. This is controlled by the BSC
BSC/TRC a combine BSC and Transcoder controller. This unit is suitable for
medium and high capacity environments (urban and sub-urban networks)
BSC A standalone BSC without transcoders. This unit is suitable for low
and medium capacity environments (rural and suburban
TRAU Transcoder Rate Adaptation Unit. Located in the TRC and the
BSC/TRC. This is controlled by the regional processor and in active mode
also by the RBS (via inband signaling)
RBS Radio Base Station
CDU Combining and distribution unit
TRU Transmitting unit
ASU Antenna Sharing Unit. To combine two different frequencies in 1
antenna
TMA Tower Mounted Amplifier
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BSC limitations
A BSC can support the following
8194 neighbors (internal and external)
512 neighbors (internal)
64 neighbors per cell
2 subcells per cell
512 Transcoder Groups (TG)
16 channels per cell
8160 traffic channels
32 frequencies per cell
2048 Transceivers
Can switch a maximum of 15 stand-alone BSCs and 16 MSCs

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BSC-PCU capacities
BAS1 - used for BSC dimensioning without GPRS

BAS 2 with GPRS - used for BSC dimensioning with GPRS

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Capacity and limitations


TCC is Transmitting Coherent Combining (adds 2.5 dBm to output
power)
RBS
RBS 2106 / 2206
Maximum of 12 TRUs
sensitivity is -111 dBm
Output power is 850: 47 dBm (without TCC), 49.5 dBm (with TCC)

1900: 45dBm (without TCC), 47.5 dBm (with TCC)

RBS 2308:
Maximum of 4 TRXs
Sensitivity is -108 dBm
Output power is 33 dBm

CDU
CDU-G
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RBS 2000 - overview


Indoor
2206 High capacity (up to 12 TRXs),
EDGE support
2207 supports up to 6 TRXs, EDGE
support, supports CS1 CS4 (3 dTRU)
2202

Outdoor
2106 High capacity (up to 12 TRXs),
EDGE support, supports CS1 CS4 (6
dTRU)
2102 6 TRU
2107 6 TRX (3 dTRU)

Indoor and outdoor


2109 2 TRX (900 / 1800 only)

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TRUs and CDUs


TRU is the transceiver / receiver unit
Each TRU can handle 8 Radio timeslots
Three types exist
TRU
d-TRU
s-TRU

CDU (Combining and Distribution Unit) is the interface between the


TRUs and the antennas
The CDU combines and filters (RF) the signals
Most used CDUs
CDU-C+
CDU-G
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CDU
CDU types
CDU-A : maximum range filter combiner,
Supports 2 TRXs per antenna, maximum 3 CDU-As per cell
CDU-C+ : standard wideband hybrid combiner (1 version for GSM and 1 for extended
GSM)
Supports maximum 4 TRXs per antenna, maximum 3 CDU-C+ per cell
CDU-D : high capacity filter combiner (12 TRXs to 1 antenna, only BB hopping
possible)
Supports maximum 12 TRX per antenna
CDU-F : filter combiner (12 TRXs to 1 antenna, only BB hopping possible)
Supports maximum 12 TRX per antenna
CDU-G : wideband hybrid combiner for the 2106 and 2206
Combined (capacity) : Supports maximum 12 TRX per cabinet
Uncombined (coverage): Supports maximum 6 TRX per cabinet
CDU-J : wideband hybrid combiner for 2107 and 2207
Same as CDU-G but with less capacity
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d-TRU
d-TRU (dual TRU) is a 2 TRX
replacement unit
There are different versions
GMSK only
GMSK and 8-PSK

The DSPs are in the dTRU


Can be used in the following RBSs
2106
2107
2206
2207

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CDU figures for the 900 MHz and 1800 MHz


band

900 MHz

1800 MHz

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Channel group
A channel group (CHGR) is a group of frequencies in one cell (sector)
Channel groups are operator controlled
CHGR provide control over groups of frequencies in a cell
CHGR-0 is the BCCH and is defined automatically at cell definition

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Channel allocation profiles


To enter a cell there are 3 possibilities
Immediate assignment a signaling channel has to be established before accessing
the network. This can be on either SDCCH or on TCH
Assignment TCH allocation
Handover connection changed

To guide the mobile to a specific cell (channel allocation strategy) there


are a few possibilities
These possibilities are grouped in Profiles or CHAPs Channel Allocation Profiles

11 different CHAPs are defined, but grouped into 5 categories

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Channel allocation profiles


CHAP categories
No immediate assignment on TCH allowed (CHAP 0, 5, 7, 8, 9, 19)
Immediate assignment on TCH allowed, but SDCCH is used for access (CHAP 1, 6)
Immediate assignment on TCH with network supporting channels needed (phase 2
MSs) (CHAP 2)
Immediate assignment on TCH without network supporting channels needed (phase
2 MSs) (CHAP 3)
Immediate assignment on TCH (phase 1 dominated networks) (CHAP 4)

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Channel allocation profile recommended


CHAPs
Chap 0 : Immediate assignment on TCH is not allowed
default

Chap 1 : Immediate Assignment on TCH, SDCCH chosen 1 st


Immediate assignment on TCH is allowed, but a TCH may only be allocated when there are
no idle SDCCHs available

Chap 5 : OL subcell as last resort


purpose is to avoid unsuccessful handovers or blocked calls when the UL subcell is congested
but there are idle RTSL in the OL subcell

Chap 6 : Immediate assignment on TCH, SDCCH chosen 1 st , OL subcell as last


resort
Combination of Chap 1 and Chap 5

Chap 8 : BCCH in OL subcell


Similar to Chap 5 only OL is preferred

Chap 9 : Inter cell handover and Assignment to other cell, restricted to UL


subcell
to prevent direct handovers to the OL subcell
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RBS capacities

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RBS 2101

RBS 2102

Outdoor RBS

Outdoor RBS

Frequency band: GSM 900, GSM


1800, or GSM 1900

Frequency band: GSM 900, GSM 1800


or GSM 1900

Number of transceivers: 1-2

Number of transceivers: 1-6

Number of sectors: 1 - 3 (with more


than one cabinet)

Number of sectors: 1-3

Receiver sensitivity:
-110 dBm
(GSM 900)
-111.5 dBm with TMA (GSM 1800)
Can also be used indoor without the
climate cabinet
Can support maximum 2 TRUs per
cabinet

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Receiver sensitivity:
-110 dBm
(GSM 900)
-111.5 dBm with TMA (GSM 1800)

RBS 2103

RBS 2106

Outdoor RBS for 900MHz only

Outdoor RBS

Supports maximum 6 TRUs

High capacity RBS maximum 6 dTRUs (maximum 12 TRX)

Vandal and weather proof


Only to delivered to specific
customers
Sensitivity is 110.5 dBm

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sensitivity is -111 dBm

RBS 2202

RBS 2206

Indoor BTS

Outdoor RBS

Frequency band: GSM 900, GSM 1800


or GSM 1900

High capacity RBS with maximum 6


d-TRU (12 TRXs)

Number of transceivers: 1-6

Suitable for co-site sharing (antenna


sharing)

Number of sectors: 1-3


Receiver sensitivity:
-110 dBm
(GSM 900)
-111.5 dBm with TMA (GSM
1800/1900)
Can be extended up to 12 TRUs (2
cabinets)

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EDGE capable
Frequency band: GSM 900, GSM 1800
Number of transceivers: 2 12
Number of sectors: 1 3
Receiver sensitivity
without TMA -110.0 dBm
with TMA -111.5 dBm

RBS 2301 / RBS 2302

RBS 2000 - Micro

For both indoor as outdoor use

Micro BTS

Possible to mount on wall or mast


pole
Good for arenas, streets, and
shopping malls
Supports both BB and synthesized
hopping
Frequency band: GSM 900, GSM 1800
or GSM 1900
Number of transceivers: 1-2
Number of sectors: 1-3 with more
than one cabinet
Receiver sensitivity:
-107 dBm (GSM 900)
-106 dBm (GSM 1800/GSM 1900)
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2302 2 TRX
2308 capacity up to 4 TRXs, supports
EDGE and CS1 CS4
2309 2 TRX

Pico
2401 2 TRX

Boosting Downlink power


Transmitter Coherent Combining (TCC)
TCC increases the output power by 2.5 dB
Can be used for RBS 21xy / 22xy (x=0 .. 6; any y) with d-TRU, except the 2109 and
only with CDU-G
No extra hardware or site visits necessary
Requires one transmitting antenna
Combines 2 dTRU together (lose 50% of the TRX capacity)

Software power boost (SWPB)


SWBC increases the BTS output power by 2-3.5 dB
Can be used for any adjacent pair of transmitters RBS 2103/2203, RBS 230x (any x)
or RBS 21yx/22yx (y=0, x=6 or y=1, any x) with same product nr TRUs
No extra hardware or site visits necessary
Requires two transmitting antennas (transmitting from 2 antennas simultaneously)
In RBS 2301/2302 the feature SWPB is called Downlink diversity for Micro RBS
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Quality concept
Many decisions (like AMR, intra handover) are based on quality
Quality (parameter wise) is measured with dtqu units
dtqu = deci-transformed quality units [0 to 100]
An moving window average of Bit Error Rate forms the dtqu

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Used Ericsson tools


OSS network tool environment
Cellular Network Administration (CNA) is
used to get information from the network
and make network changes
Radio Network Optimization (RNO) is based
on TMOS (=NMS)
Measurement report (MRR) - observations
Neighboring Cell Support (NCS) to help
planning the neighbors
R-PMO real time performance monitoring
on BSC level

Implementation tools
NOX, FOX

Troubleshooting
MTR

Other tools
TEMS investigation 6.0
Winfiol (OSS interface application)
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Statistics and Traffic measurement Subsystem


(STS)
STS collects, stores and processes
counter information (PM statistics)
The CP block gets the information
from the MSC and BSC
User can make own KPIs for CP and
SP data
2 Types of collection
STS-IOG : SP part
STS-APZ : CP part

In the BSC the data is stored for


maximum 10 days
CP = Central Processor (APZ)
SP = Supporting Processor
X25 is towards the OSS

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STS collection
The database consists of different object types (different types of
equipment, logical units in the BSC)
Data is collected and transferred in a predefined time (5 or 15 minutes)
to the database (determined by the Basic Recording Period (BRP)
parameter)
Setup of STS can be done via WinFiol
Collected data can be exported as a binary file
Report intervals are: 5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 1 hour, 2 hours, 24 hours

The number of counters must be calculated and compared per STS


version with the maximum allowed.
Output files get too big and processor overloaded

Counters are activated per counter


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Quality cycle
concept

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Places for dropped call rate


Dimensioning
E1/T1
problem
Microwave

Radio Interface

MS

BTS

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BSC

Transcod
er

Dimensioning
problems
or
faulty
equipment

Radio interface Call Phases (DCR project


relevant)

Call setup

get
service

get
SDCCH

establish
SDCCH
connection

Call
phase

get
TCH

establis
h
TCH
connect
ion

TCH Handover

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call
phase

release
phase

Ericsson KPIs in different stages of the call


phase
Call Success Rate
Call Setup Success Rate
TCH
Assignment
success rate

SDCCH
Establishment success rate
SDCCH
availability

TCH
Availability
And
Time congestion

SDCCH time
congestion

get
service

get
SDCCH

establish
SDCCH
connection

get
TCH

establis
h
TCH
connect
ion

TCH
Drop

call
phase

Project Dropped Call Rate


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release
phase

Audit
Before starting an network audit is taken
The audit contains the following steps
General parameter audit
General feature audit
Neighbor cells analysis
Freq plan analysis
Freq distribution
Freq load
Statistics audit
Site audit
Site distribution
Site configuration

KPI agreement

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Processes

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Drop Call Rate process


Data collection
Weekly reporting
KPI (DCR and secondary KPIs)
Hardware problems
Action lists (done / need to be done)

Analysis of DCR

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Dropped call process

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Weekly report KPIs (1/2)


Drop_TCH (main KPI):

DROP_TCH is defined as the amount of dropped calls over the total of TCH assignments attempts
100 *

TFNDROP TFNDROPSUB THNDROP THNDROPSUB

TFCASSALL TFCASSALLSUB THCASSALL THCASSALLSUB

AP_SDCCH:

AP_SDCCH is defined as success rate of all SDCCH seizures. It is calculated by the sum of SDCCH successful
seizures over the total SDCCH seizures attempts
100 *

AP_TCH

AP_TCH is defined as the success rate of all TCH assignment attempts. It is calculated by the sum of the TCH
successful assignments attempts over the total attempts to assign a TCH.

100 *

TFCASSALL TFCASSALLSUB THCASSALL THCASSALLSUB

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CMSESTAB
CCALLS

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TASSALL

Weekly KPIs (2/2)


FH_TCH
FH_TCH is defined as the handover unsuccessful rate for outgoing handover of all handover attempts.

HOVERSUC
100 * 1

HOVERCNT

SQ_BAD

SQ_BAD is the percentage of traffic with unsatisfactory level of speech quality (SQ). Everything below 4.5 dBQ is
Unsatisfactory.
100 *

TSQIBAD
TSQIGOOD TSQIACCPT TSQIBAD

TRAFFIC
TRAFFIC is the average amount of TCH traffic during peak hour. A time accumulated counter is divided with a
SCAN counter (TFNSCAN and THNSCAN).
TFTRALACC THTRALACC

TFNSCAN THNSCAN

T_CONG
Subscriber perceived TCH Congestion (%).
100 *

CNRELCONG TFNRELCONG THNRELCONG TFNRELCONGSUB THNRELCONGSUB

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TASSALL

Dropped SDCCH connection


Following cases will increase the counter CNDROP
Low signal strength or high interference
Error indication (Sequence Error) and Channel Release
Radio Link Time-Out
T200 Expiration (Layer 2 Time-Out)
Unexpected Release Indication
Abnormal Release unspecified
Release SAPI 3
Release Indication after no response from MS
No Assignment Command
Unsuccessful Assignment on TCH
Assignment Failure is sent
Layer 2 time-out on Assignment Channel
Mobile fails to return to the old SDCCH

Counters
CDISSS, CDISQA, and CDISTA but also CNRELCONG

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Dropped TCH channel


Low signal strength:

because of missing neighbour relationships, poor locating parameter settings, bad exchange
property settings, system memory congestion, or neighbour cell congestion

TRU or other BTS Antenna Near Part HW problem

MS problem of specific brand or model

Link is not balanced

High site picking up remote traffic that cannot be handed over to other sites

Lack of coverage indoor, inside tunnels, parking garages, basements, in hilly or mountainous
terrain, etc.

Cells at the border areas of the system

Sites missing in areas

Poor BTS or MS power control parameter settings

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Dropped TCH channel


Bad quality:
Missing neighbour relationships, poor locating parameter settings, bad exchange property
settings, system memory congestion, or neighbour cell congestion
Excessive internal interference To solve problem use DTX, FH, or a new frequency plan
Excessive external interference Discovered if interference still happens during low traffic
periods
Time Dispersion In hilly or mountainous areas next to lots of water
No dominant server (usually seen as a rapid succession of handovers made between several
cells, all of which usually provide fairly weak coverage)
BTS HW fault
Poor BTS or MS power control parameter settings

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Dropped TCH channel


Excessive Timing Advance:

High sites or sites next to water that pick up traffic from far away

Very low TALIM setting, indicates a false excessive timing advance drop

Sudden Loss:

Sudden and/or severe drop in signal strength

Sudden and/or severe occurrence of interference or bad quality

MS running out of battery during conversation

BTS HW fault

Synchronization or Abis link fault (transmission fault)

MS Fault

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DCR analysis
process

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Hardware changes
Hardware changes are all changes that affect the hardware
configuration
Main changes are
RBS capacity changed. This can be either expansion or deduction of either TRUs or
cabinets.
Changing underlay / overlay situation
Channel allocation profile changed. This means adding or subtracting SDCCH
capacity
TCC change. Transmitter Coherent Combiner (TCC) addition or deletion
TMA configuration change

If there was an hardware change then further action is needed


If the configuration is problematic a work order is created

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Types of hardware in the network


Normal sites are 2106 and 2206

combined
d-TRU

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uncombined
d-TRU

Types of hardware with OL/UL (2/2)


Normal sites are 2106 and 2206
Micro site is 2306
Orange configurations are know to give problems

Micro site

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Ericsson features

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Frequency Hopping
There are 2 types of hopping
Baseband hopping
Synthesized hopping

The hopping feature is switched on per channel group


Maximum 32 frequencies per hopping group can be defined
Maximum of 128 frequencies per cell (sector) can be defined
Frequency hopping can be done on
TCH
SDCCH
PBCCH
PDCH

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Hopping list
The HFS (Hopping Frequency Set) defines the hopping frequencies that
the mobile will use
Hopping Frequency Set is defined on a Channel group level
Different bands have different limitations on how many hopping
frequencies you can use

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MAIO management understanding


BPC - A Basic Physical Channel is a physical channel on one timeslot in
the radio interface
HFS - A Hopping Frequency Set specifies a group of frequencies which a
CHGR can hop over
HSN - The Hopping Sequence Number specifies in which order the
frequencies in the HFS will be used for a CHGR when using frequency
hopping
MAIO - Mobile Allocation Index Offset (MAIO) is a frequency offset set
for all Basic Physical Channels (BPCs)

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MAIO management
MAIO Management feature can be used for increasing control over
synthesizer frequency hopping and so to minimize channel
interference
MAIO is an frequency offset for all Basic Physical Channels (BPC,
frequencies)
The optimal result is for networks with a reuse pattern of 1/1 or 1/3
The feature increases control over the interference between cells only
if the cells are synchronized.
MAIO list can be filled in automatically or manually
When adding a new TRX an extra MAIO value has to be added to the
CHGR

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MAIO list Cyclic hopping example

Total MAIO
list
0
2
6
1
3
5
7
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Cell with 3 TRXs

MAIO management - parameters

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Quality change on TCH and BCCH


Did the quality change on the TCH and the BCCH

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Locating
Locating decides on which reason a handover is made
The locating filtering is based on
MS measures
DL signal strength
DL quality
SS for neighbors

BTS measures
UL signal strength
UL quality
TA

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Locating algorithm
The following steps are taken
1. Initiation this adds some (if any) penalties to cells
activated after immediate assignment, assignment or handover

2. Filtering measurement evaluation


Evaluating by eliminating temporary fluctuations
Different methods for filtering Signal strength, Quality, and TA

3. Urgency conditions evaluation for emergency handovers


If urgency is detected then handover to lower qualifying cell is permitted
Urgency conditions are fulfilled when
Rxqual(UL) > QLIMUL (or QLIMULAFR for AMR)
Rxqual(DL) > QLIMDL (or QLIMDLAFR for AMR)
Ta TALIM
BQOFFSET defines the region when bad quality urgency is allowed

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Locating algorithm
4. Basic ranking ranking of cells for handover
Two algorithms : ericsson1 (K/L ranking) and Ericsson3 (only signal strength)
Neighboring cells are ranked in order of preference
K-list : signal strength ranking
L-list : path loss ranking
What happens in ranking
Evaluation of minimum signal strength does the Ncell qualify to be
considered
Subtraction of penalties
Evaluation if cells still qualify as handover cells
Only with Ericsson1
K cell when signal strength < TROFFSET and signal strength < TRHYST
L cell when signal strength > TROFFSET and signal strength > TRHYST

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Ericsson1 model - KL principle

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Locating algorithm
5. Radio network features functions evaluation
Evaluate features
Features in locating algorithm :
Assignment to another cell
Hierarchical cell structures see later
Overlaid and underlaid subcells criterion based on DL SS, TA, and load
Intra-cell handover see later
Extended range
Cell load sharing after normal ranking

6. Ordering the list the list is ordered according to above mentioned criteria
7. Sending the list
If the list is empty then the serving cell is the best and the list is not send to the central
processor
The first cell is the best, if congested then 2nd best

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Offset and hysteresis


The offset and hysteresis parameters are set on per cell to cell relation
Offset parameters should anti-symmetrical
OFFSETA,B OFFSETB,A

Hysteresis parameters should be anti-symmetrical


HYSTA,B HYSTB,A

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Handovers
For each handover there is a reason assigned to it (priority of
handovers)
K-Cell (signal)
L-Cell (signal)
Bad quality downlink
Bad quality uplink
Distance
Assignment to worse cell

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Handover
K-cell and L-cell
Normal handovers, the target cell looks better from a signal point of view
Handover rate should be higher then 60% (if no special HO feature is on)

Bad quality in UL or DL
UL and DL path should be balanced (they encounter the same quality)
High rate due to quality could lead to interference or coverage problems

Distance
Distance hanovers will occeur when distance between MS and BT is over 35 km
Parameters MAXTA and TALIM

Assignment to worse cell


When a mobile cannot access to serving due to congestion
A value other then 0 indicates assignment to worse cell (i.e. congestion)

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Handover statistics

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Handover parameters ranking parameters

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62

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Handover parameters - Filtering parameters

Customer Confidential
63

2006 Nokia

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Handover parameters Urgency parameters

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64

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Intra cell handover


Intra-cell Handover (feature) tries to improve the C/I ratio when the
RXQUAL indicates a poor quality and the received signal is high
Interference can be on UL and / or DL
The handover decision is made based on the BER
A table (FQSS table) defines when the handover should be made

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Intra cell handover - parameters

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66

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Quality (RXQUAL vs C/I)

Customer Confidential
67

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Intra cell handover methodology (FQSS table)

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68

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Intra cell handover No subcells defined


MAXIHO = 3

Ihoc = intra cell handover counter


Tmaxiho = handover counter timer

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69

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Reference points of cell parameters

Customer Confidential
70

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Why is AMR analyzed for the DCR


The recommended priority list sequence for a MS:
POWER UP
AMR CODEC CHANGE
HR >> FR CHANNEL RATE
INTRACELL HANDOVER
URGENCY CONDITION
RELEASE

All these sequence steps have threshold where they should be


performed
With AMR feature activated these thresholds are closer together than
without AMR activated
If the AMR parameters are not well defined the allocation sequence
can change

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Why is AMR analyzed for the DCR


For POWER UP the parameter that trigger this event is QDESUL (default
value: 40)
For HR >> FR change the parameters are DMQBNAMR (for No AMR
mobiles) and DMQBAMR (for AMR capable mobiles). The default values
is 45.
Note that the parameter value for FR >> HR change (DMQGNAMR and DMQGAMR) is
30 that means that you always change the channel rate at maximum power.

For intra cell HO, using default parameters, the starting value at the
highest SS is 50
For Urgency Conditions the parameter that triggers this even is QLIMUL
(or QLIMULAFR for AMR) and the default value is 55.

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AMR
This feature is used for offering enhanced speech quality for AMR
mobiles
This feature can offer a increased coverage area or add capacity (due
to the acceptable quality and robustness of AMRHR)
And it tolerates more interference then normal speech
There are 8 codec's available for AMR
At the call setup or during an handover the channel rate is selected

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73

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AMR codec
22.8 kbps (FR)
12.2 kbps (GSM-EFR)
10.2 kbps
7.95 kbps
7.40 kbps (TDMA-EFR)
6.70 kbps
5.90 kbps
5.15 kbps
4.75 kbps
Data

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74

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Error Correction bits

AMR
The chosen codec rate by the network
is communicated to the MS and BTS
Maximum 8 (minimum 4) codec rates
can be selected in a TRC and each
codec must have at least 2 FR only
and 2 HR only codecs
There are 4 codec rates
(codec_modes)
These code rates changes when a
certain C/I level has been reached
The threshold (THR_n) and the
hysteresis (HYST) needs to be set
E.g. Codec Mode 2 is chosen when the
C/I value reaches THR_1 until THR_2 +
HYST_2
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AMR other items


Handovers are done in similar way as without AMR, except now with a
parameter AMRSPEECHVERUSED
There are AMR in STS related to AMR
SQI counters (speech quality uplink)
Codec mode utilization counters (uplink and downlink)
FER counters (uplink)
Dropped call counters
Traffic level counters

DMQG parameter permits or denies the channel rate


change based on quality

Customer Confidential
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AMR parameters

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77

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More AMR parameters


DHA switches the feature ON or OFF (cell level)
DTHAMR threshold above where AMR HR will be used (for AMR HR
capable phones) (DTHNAMR for non AMR MSs)
DMQB to switch HR to FR channel rate change based on quality ON
or OFF (cell level)
DMQBAMR threshold above where a switch is made from a HR to FR
if rxqual (DL or UL) for AMR MS is bigger the DMQBAMR (cell level).
DMQBNAMR for non AMR dual rate capable MS
Higher the DMQBAMR or DMQNAMR, the poorer radio quality is accepted
before switching HR to FR.

DMQG used to switch ON or OFF quality based channel rate


switching from FR to HR channel, set per cell

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Even more AMR parameters


DMQGAMR threshold above where a switch is made from a FR to HR
if rxqual (DL or UL) for AMR MS is less then DMQBAMR (cell level).
DMQGNAMR for non AMR capable DR MSs
Higher the DMQGAMR or DMQGNAMR, the poorer radio quality is
accepted before switching FR to HR
To avoid ping-pong effect, DMQGAMR < DMQBAMR

DMSUPP activates dynamic FR/HR mode adaptation (cell level)


DMTHAMR HR packing threshold, above this BPC value, FR will be in
favor over HR, and below this BPC value HR will be in favor over FR
DMTHNAMR for non AMR DR capable MSs

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Additional parameters

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Idle mode behavior


The MS uses the BA list to listen to the network.
The BA list is defined by the MBCCHNO parameter and it indicates the
frequencies that the mobile MUST monitor in both IDLE and DEDICATED
mode
Double BA list handles idle and dedicated mode frequencies
Maximum of 32 frequencies can be used

Parameters to control idle mode behavior


ACCMIN - minimum received signal level needed to access the network
CBQ - to control the priority of a cell for the mobile to camp on
CCHPWR maximum MS output power
CRO - signal strength offset to encourage or discourage MSs to reselect that cell
PT Time penalization (special value 31 changes the sign of CRO)
CRH cell border hysteresis required for cell reselection over a LA

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Used settings for IDLE mode parameters


ACCMIN and CRO should be in balance when phase 1 and phase 2 MS are used
CRH = 4 is the default in border areas higher value can be used
CBQ should be set to HIGH
CCHPWR = MSTXPWR

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Interference band measurements

Customer Confidential
83

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Idle mode parameters

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84

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Adaptive configuration of logical channels feature


Adaptive configuration of logical channels will dynamically dimension
the cell with more (or less) SDCCHs/8 when needed (if subcell structure
used)
One idle TCH will dynamically be replaced with an SDCCH/8
Reconfiguration does not happen below SDCCH triggering limit
TCH to SDCCH/8 happens quick but takes longer time to get back
Issues with Adaptive configuration
Number intra-cell handovers might increase slightly
This feature has dimensioning limitations

Customer Confidential
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Adaptive reconfiguration
Increase criterion
The number of idle SDCCH sub channels (only in the underlaid subcell if subcells is
used) must be equal to or below the value of parameter SLEVEL
The number of idle TCHs in the whole cell (UL and OL) must be more than four, or
more than the total number of TRXs in the cell
The number of already defined SDCCH/8s must be less than the maximum number
of SDCCH/8s allowed to be configured in the cell

Decrease criterion
if the total number of idle SDCCH sub channels in the cell is more than 8+SLEVEL
then the STIME counter is decreased with 3.
if the total number of idle SDCCH sub channels in the cell is less than 8+SLEVEL the
counter is set to the initial value i.e. STIME
if the total number of idle SDCCH sub channels in the cell is exactly 8+SLEVEL the
counter is not stepped at all

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Adaptive configuration engineering view


More frequent configuration can lead to a more optimized SDCCH/TCH
channel distribution and carry more traffic
if the configurations are too frequent, the traffic gained from optimized
channel distribution may be lost to some level
Use direct access to TCH to avoid congestion during reconfiguration
the combination of TN =1&&7 in the channel group '0' and
PDCHALLOC =first might lead to pre-emption of dedicated PDCHs on
the BCCH carrier frequency
KPI changes
SDCCH availability might be bigger then 100%
TCH availability might decrease

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Half rate strategy


The half rate methodology is as
follows
The network looks if the MS is HR
capable
Are the cell and MS AMR HR capable
Are the idle FR TCHs within the
defined thresholds
Prioritize channel configuration

Engineering view
High DMQBAMR / DMQGAMR accepts
poorer quality before switching to
FR / HR
High DMQNBAMR / DMQNGAMR
accepts poorer quality before
switching to FR / HR
Customer Confidential
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Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS)


With HCS cells can be given a stronger priority over other cells by displacing
the cell border
What is it good for
Cells can be grouped together and have one priority towards other band e.g. network
in layers and bands
Large cells as umbrella cells and small cells to provide extra hot spot capacity
HCS makes it possible to pass between layers in a controlled way
Traffic is directed to lower layers

Maximum of 8 HCS layers can be defined

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Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS)


Priority to cells can be given based on the layer (pico, micro, macro) with this
feature
(Usually) the lower (pico) the band the higher the priority (depends on
spectrum or equipment)
When defining the layers the following should be taken into account
Traffic distribution among different cells
Maximum capacity for a cell
Influence of interference on a cell

Customer Confidential
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Cell layer definition

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Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS)


The following parameters can be set
For each cell
Signal strength threshold LAYERTHR
Hysteresis LAYERHYST

For each band


Signal strength threshold HCSBANDTHR
Hysteresis HCSBANDHYST

Criteria to be a candidate for the HCS band evaluation cells


Neighbor cell : The signal strength is above HCSBANDTHR + HCSBANDHYST
Serving cell : The signal strength is above HCSBANDTHR - HCSBANDHYST

If criteria is passed and they are the strongest in the band then the are
prioritized

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Hierarchical Cell Structures (HCS)


Extra information
There will be prioritized candidates even if the LAYERTHR is not fulfilled for any cells
The cells that are both above their HCSBANDTHR and LAYERTHR, but not BEST cell in
the band, will not be prioritized on the same level as the best cell. If it is
congestion in the BEST cell, locating would rather hand over to a cell in another layer
The method is optimized to give a first candidate and an interference safe second
candidate in case of congestion
If SS is below the LAYERTHR of the last layer, basic ranking will determine which will
be the serving cell

Fast moving mobiles


To prevent fast moving mobiles from doing an Handover to lower layer cells (e.g.
micro cells), the following penalties are used
PSSTEMP penalty SS offset
PTIMTEMP penalty duration

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HCS traffic distribution

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94

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Hierarchical Cell Structures parameters

Customer Confidential
95

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Overlaid / Underlaid (OL/UL)


OL / UL subcells are used to get the close traffic to the OL subcell
Traffic closer to the border is moved to the UL subcell
Ericsson has a feature, Subcell Load Distribution, that can be activated
to distribute the load within the subcells
OL and UL are sharing the same BCCH (can be in both layers, also
different band)
SDCCH can be defined in both layers (but immediate assignment can
be made in SDCCH or TCH in the UL)

Customer Confidential
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Overlaid / Underlaid

Works only when


SubCell Load
Distribution feature
is switched off

The service area of OL subcell and control the cell change


LOL path loss threshold ( BSTXPWR - BTS power reduction)
LOLHYST path loss hysteresis
TAOL TA threshold
TAOLHYST TA hysteresis
DTCB Distance to border
DTCBHYST distance to border hysteresis

(E)GPRS can be located in both layers


If NCCR is not used then the coverage area as the BCCH subcell

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Overlaid / Underlaid engineering view


Dimensioning UL/OL
To protect the OL subcell from high interference the OL subcell must be restricted in
size
The size of the OL subcell border must be at least 5 dB from original border
Put the subcells in areas where there is much traffic near the site
The OL should be dimensioned (capacity) that it gets congested before the UL

DTCB criterion
The DTCB criterion is important since it is controlling the cell size (not from locating
perspective)
TAOLHYST is recommended on 0

Customer Confidential
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OL/UL subcell change

Customer Confidential
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Works only when


SubCell Load
Distribution feature
is switched on

OL/UL traffic distribution

Customer Confidential
100

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UL/OL graphs in Remopt

Customer Confidential
101

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Overlaid / Underlaid parameters

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Features with Overlaid / Underlaid


The following features work along with OL/UL
Subcell Load distribution makes possible to use UL traffic channels in the OL
subcell area incase the UL channel is cleaner or the UL subcell is not congested
and the OL is
BCCH in Overlaid subcell The feature BCCH in Overlaid Subcell is mainly
developed to allow tighter reuse of the BCCH carrier frequencies. This can be done
by configuring the BCCH carrier in the OL subcell together with distributing the
TCH traffic between OL and UL subcells
Assignment to another cell Sometimes it is better to select an other channel
then the then the by the mobile selected cell. This feature makes it possible to
select an other cell. This feature operates at call setup before the channel
assignment has been done

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Cell load sharing


The goal of this feature is to off load traffic to surrounding cells during
peaks in traffic by making handovers
This feature is a part of the locating algorithm (basic feature for making
handover decisions)
The feature should be activated at the BSC and cell level
Load sharing is performed after normal locating evaluation

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Cell load sharing


Load monitoring
Every load sharing time interval the amount of full rate traffic channels are
examined
If the # FR TCH <= CLSLEVEL the cell tries to make a CLS handover to neighboring
cells
The target cell is then examined. If #FR TCH > CLSACC then the cell accepts the CLS
handover

Additional conditions apply


Cell load sharing is not allowed during assignment procedure
Cell load sharing is not allowed if there is an emergency conditions
The neighboring cell must be at the same BSC area
The neighboring cell must belong to the same hierarchical layer

Customer Confidential
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Cell Load Sharing

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106

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CLS parameters

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Assignment to other Cell


This feature is used at call set-up, when a traffic channel has to be
assigned
With this feature it is possible to assign a traffic channel in another
(preferred) cell than the one currently serving the connection
This feature can improve the speech quality

Customer Confidential
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Assignment to a better cell


Cells might be higher ranked then others
ASSOC = ON
Improvements
Unnecessary handovers are prevented
Overall interference is decreased

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Assignment to a worse cell


If a mobile can not connect to a cell assignment to a worse cell is
possible, this can happen when
The cell is congested
An urgency condition during call set-up is detected

AW = ON
Improvements
Increasing the probability of connecting calls successfully.
More flexible dimensioning of the network.
Increased capacity utilization

Customer Confidential
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Assignment to other cells - recommendations


Ericsson recommendations
ASSOC should be switched ON (switch feature on)
SSEVALSI should be between 6 and 9 (filter type)
SSRAMPSI should be 1 (ramping length)
AW should be switched ON (assignment to worst cell)
AWOFFSET value depends on the frequency re-use pattern (Signal strength region
where assignment to worse cell is allowed) should be 10

If the parameter FASTASSIGN = 1 then


The BSC will not wait for any measurement result before assigning a TCH
Assignment To Other Cell is disabled

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Assignment to other cell

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Immediate Assignment on TCH


Immediate Assignment on TCH feature gives the possibility to
choose between several different channel allocation (CHAP)
strategies at immediate assignment

Immediate assignment on TCH is not allowed - Only SDCCH can be allocated


at immediate assignment

Immediate assignment on TCH as last preference - TCH may only be


allocated at immediate assignment when there are no idle SDCCHs available

Immediate assignment on TCH as a first preference - TCH is allocated as a


first preference in some cases of immediate assignment

This means that it is possible assign a TCH without using an SDCCH

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Immediate Assignment on TCH


Immediate assignment on SDCCH
If signaling then MS remains on SDCCH
If speech and data then MS assignment to TCH

Immediate assignment on TCH


If SMS is used then the SMS is transferred by the SACCH part
If signaling (LU, supplementary services etc.) is transferred on FACCH
If speech and data then the channel mode is changed at assignment

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Detailed DCR analysis drop reason


distribution

Customer Confidential
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Dynamic BTS power control


Dynamic BTS Power Control feature the output power of a BTS can be
controlled during a connection
GPRS/EGPRS BTS Power Control is not supported in BSS R10. Full
output power is used on all GPRS/EGPRS channels
For optimal use of BTS power
Use a dedicated BCCH band
BCCH carrier can be either in staggered band or in contiguous band (recommended)

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Boosting Downlink power - parameters

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117

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HO power boost
Handover power boost is an option within BTS power control
The mechanism works as follows
The network is sending the handover command to the Ms in the maximum
configurative power
The MS then acknowledges the message
In case the message is not acknowledged then HO power boost is used

The option is usable for


HO due to low SS
Rapid drop in SS

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Alarm definition
Four types of alarms defined
Critical class A1/2 alarms. These alarms should be dealt with as soon as possible
Major Class A3 alarms. This are big problems but do not disturb the DCR
Minor Class O1 alarm not significant alarms
Observed Class O2 alarm not significant alarms

Managed Object Alarm Classes


CF class Central Functions
TF class Timing function
RX class Receiver
TX class Transmitter
TRX class Transceiver controller

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Critical Alarms

CDU CF RU:5
CDU CXU RXA CABLE - CF RU:37
CDU CXU RXB CABLE - CF RU:38
CDU supervision/communication lost - CF I2A:14
Lost communication TRU - CF I2A:41
PCM synch (No usable PCM-reference) - TF EC1:1
PCM synch (No usable PCM-reference) - TF EC2:1
PSU - CF RU:7
RBS DB - CF RU:34
RX cable disconnected - RX I1B:9
RX synthesizer A/B unlocked - RX I1B:5
RX synthesizer C unlocked - RX I1B:6
TX antenna VSWR limits exceeded - TX I1B:4
TX maximum power restricted - TRX I2A:25
TX output power limits exceeded - TX I1B:13
TX saturation - TX I1B:14
Y link communication lost - TRX I1B:9

Customer Confidential
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Counters for detailed analysis


Dropped on SDCCH or TCH
Bad quality in downlink and/or uplink (CDISQA or CDISQASUB), that is if the radio link
quality is less than the BSC exchange properties BADQUL and BADQDL in uplink or
downlink respectively, or in both the uplink and downlink
Low signal strength in downlink and/or uplink per cell (CDISSS or CDISSSSUB), that is
if the signal strength is less than the BSC exchange properties LOWSSUL and
LOWSSDL in uplink or downlink respectively, or in both the uplink and downlink
Excessive timing advance - that is if the TA value at a dropped connection is higher
than or equal to the cell parameter TALIM

Dropped only on TCH


Sudden drop - Sudden loss of connection is valid if none of the first three types of
urgency state above (that is excessive TA, low signal strength or bad quality) are
indicated and the locating procedure indicates missing measurement results from
the MS

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TCH or SDCCH drop in Remopt

Customer Confidential
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Additional KPIs Area KPIs

Customer Confidential
123

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Additional KPIs Engineering BSC

Customer Confidential
124

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Additional KPIs Engineering Cell (1/2)

Customer Confidential
125

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Additional KPIs Engineering handovers

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SDCCH dimensioning strategy and limitations


There is a maximum of 32 SDCCH/8s per cell or 31 SDCCH/4s
Extended range reduces the amount of TCHs by 2, so also the amount
of SDCCH is reduced by 2
The optimum SDCCH configuration will not exceed 1/4 th of the TCH GoS
or of the TCH GoS when SDCCH/4 is used

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Location Area updates


Paging capacity per BSC
APZ 212 25 is 8000 pages/sec
APZ 212 20 is 18000 pages/sec
APZ 212 30 is 50000 pages/sec

Calculating LA sizes
Counters to collect
NLAPAG1LOTOT: MSC counter increased for the first Paging message to a LA in a
network
NLAPAG2LOTOT: MSC counter increased the repeated Paging message to a LA in a
network
PAGPSBSC: BSC counter increased for each PS Paging Command sent over CCCH
PAGCSBSC: BSC counter increased for each CS Paging Command sent over CCCH via the
SGSN

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Paging capacity calculation


Traffic cases with the paging intensity formulas
CS traffic only
paging_int

NLAPA 1 LOTOT NLAPAG 2 LOTOT


measurment_period

GPRS traffic without Gs interface


paging_int

NLAPAG 1 LOTOT NLAPAG 2 LOTOT PAGPSBSC


measurment_period

GPRS with Gs interface


paging_int

NLAPAG 1 LOTOT NLAPAG 2 LOTOT PAGPSBSC PAGCSBSC


measurment_period

Customer Confidential
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Paging strategy
Each multiframe has 2 or 3 (combined) / 8 or 9 (uncombined) paging
blocks and can have 2 IMSI pages, 4 TMSI pages, or 1 IMSI and 2 TMSI
pages
Retransmissions
CS pages without Gs interface recommendations 1 TMSI and retransmit
on IMSI
CS pages to GPRS attached mobile with Gs interface 1st page always done
via the Gs interface (if LA is not known the it is paged globally). 2 nd page
can be done either on Abis (if mobile detached meanwhile) or on Gs
interface (Gs is recommended)
PS paging the SGSN tries up to 5 times to page a mobile on the RA

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Other features

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Antenna hopping
This feature makes it possible to transmit from 2 antennas at the
same time
This feature is a good alternative for Frequency Hopping of for
frequency hopping with low amount of frequencies
Switching antennas is done between bursts (with regard to fast fading)
Highest effect on non moving or slow moving mobiles
Feature is activated per Transceiver Group (TG)

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Antenna hopping
There are no related counters with this feature
Antenna hopping does not limit or restrict (E)GPRS
Can only be used with
CDU-G (2x06 / 2x07) or CDU-J (2x07)
RBS 2109
RBS 2308/2309

Parameter : AHOP : ON / OFF (default)

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Synthesized hopping
Is a part of Frequency Hopping feature
One transmitter handles all bursts for a specific connection
Burst are send strait forward, so no delay in the system

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Interference Rejection Combining (IRC)


IRC is a method to increase the channel quality by using receiver
antenna diversity and interference rejection
IRC is ideal for situations with a strong interferer where the noise
consists of interfering signal(s) in addition to white Gaussian noise
only available on dTRU and EDGE sTRU
IRC is cell based and the cell must be configured for RX diversity
New feature in R10
Parameters
IRC (On / Off)

Customer Confidential
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Self configuring transcoder pools


Self Configuring Transcoder Pools feature that can automatically redimension the transcoder pools (based on resource usage statistics)
The feature supports automatic reconfiguration of TRA R5 and TRA R6
hardware
Reconfiguration time (with TRA R6) is about 1 minute and with TRA R5
about 5 minutes

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Self configuring transcoder pools


If the available resources for a transcoder pool drops below
TTRAREQUIRED then the pool will receive transcoder resources (if
available)
If the available resources fall below TTRAEXCESS then the transcoder
will try to steal resources
If the resources fall below MINPOOLSIZE then no resources can be
stolen
Reconfiguration is initiated by the BSC
For these feature are observation alarm at the BSC
There are 2 modes of reconfiguration
Delayed mode slow changes with high traffic
Immediate mode high traffic due to HR and AMR-HR

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Self configuring transcoder pools parameters

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Counters
The following counter groups are available for a Ericsson BSS
Traffic counters to check the traffic per BSC or Cell. With this set you can plan the
capacity
Accessibility to check if a there is the possibility to set-up a call
Quality counters
Handover counters
Disconnect counters
Feature counters
AMR

Every operator has its own KPIs defined


When making a new KPI take care of the following
UL / OL cell structure
SUB-cell structure

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Used features

Hierarchical Cell Structure (HCS)


Overlaid 7 Underlaid (OL/UL)
BCCH in Overlaid
Subcell Load Distribution (SLD)
Cell parameters
Dynamic MS power control
Dynamic BTS power control
Cell Load Sharing (CLS)
Synthesized Hopping
HR / EFR
AMR
AMR Power control
Dynamic HR allocation/adaptation

Customer Confidential
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Used features

DTX U/D
MAIO management
Assignment to Other Cell (ATOC)
Transmitter Coherent Combing (TCC)
Immediate Assignment on TCH
Adaptive configuration of logical channels (ACLC)

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Not available features at Telefonica


HO power boost
Interference Rejection Combining (IRC)
Antenna hopping
Antenna sharing unit
Self configuring Transcoder pools

Customer Confidential
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Inter system handovers

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Inter Radio Access Technology handovers


(IRATHO)
Inter RAT handovers can be used to
offload the 2G network
avoid UMTS drop calls due to lack of coverage

Mobile (Ue) is ordered to make an inter RAT handover


PS service is interrupted

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GSM to WCDMA handovers


For making an handover the MS must measure beside the GSM also the
WCDMA cells
Measurements are less frequent then for GSM
GSM measurements have priority
Are done in spare time

The threshold parameters QSI and QSC define if the WCDMA cells are
measured
Based on signal strength
QSI : for idle (E)GPRS PS modes, broadcasted on (P)BCCH
QSC : for active mode MS, broadcasted on SACCH

Customer Confidential
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Threshold parameters
Four different parameters scenarios
WCDMA is measured only when SS is above the thresholds QSI and QSC
WCDMA is measured only when SS is below the thresholds QSI and QSC
WCDMA is always measured
WCDMA is never measured

Settings of QSI and QSC


0 to 6 : SS below -98 dBm to -74 dBm (4 dBm steps)
7 : always measured
8 to 14: SS above -74 dBm to -54 dBm (4 dBm steps)
15 : never measured

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QSI

Customer Confidential
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Recommendations
GSM and WCDMA Co-site
QSI / QSC : between 8 and 14
Signal strength of WCDMA is likely to be high, so no point of measuring this cell

No GSM and WCDMA co-site


QSI / QSC between 0 and 6
Only needs to make cell reselection and handovers when the coverage of GSM
is low

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Inter system cell reselection


The cell reselection is controlled by two parameters
FDDQMIN minimum quality for the WCDMA cell for cell reselection.
FDDQOFF defined the offset between the GSM and WCDMA quality. This
parameters is to control the behavior for cell reselection.
Lower value could offload the GSM faster

Selection of WCDMA cell for cell reselection


CPICH Ec/No > FDDQMIN and
CPICH RSCP > RLA (serving +neighboring GSM cells) + FDDQOFF

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CS handover to WCDMA
FDDMRR

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Processes

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DCR analysis (main process)

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Hardware change process

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Quality change on TCH channel

Customer Confidential
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Check environment

Customer Confidential
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Redistribute traffic

Customer Confidential
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Interference

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Coverage plan

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External interference

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Alarms

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Parameter inconsistency process

Customer Confidential
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SDCCH bad performance process

Customer Confidential
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Questions?

Customer Confidential
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Customer Confidential
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