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Hydraulic Fracturing Design

Methodology
Arya B Christiawan
March 2009

OUTLINE
Goal of Hydraulic Fracturing
Basic Fracturing Calculations and Mechanics
Fracturing Design Methodology
Data Collection
Frac Modeling
Frac Materials: Fluids and Proppants
Selection
Design Optimization: NPV, DataFRAC,
Treatment Evaluation

Session Objectives
Understand critical data required for proper
design
Understand critical parameters as goals of frac
design
Recognize Fracturing D-E-E concept and
methodology
Acknowledge basic frac modeling
Be familiar with tools and techniques use to
properly design frac job
Understand basic frac calculations
Understand basic fluids and proppant selection
Appreciate multiple factors and technique to
optimize design

Hydraulic Fracturing

Why it works Flow Area


OH Completion:
Fractured Completion:
H = 20 m, D = 0.2 m
H = 20 m, Xf = 50 m

Area = (H * D) Area = (H *
Xf)*4
12.6 m2
4000 m2
2
Xf

4000 m2 vs. 12.6 m


Increase of 318 x

Flow Area
Gravel
Pack

3 ft Half
Length Frac

20 ft Half
Length Frac

600 ft2
130 ft2

4,000 ft2

H = 50
Rw = 0.4

Velocity at the Sandface is Reduced by 85%

Hydraulic Fracture Other


Advantages
Connecting Lenticular
Reservoirs

Naturally Fissured Systems

Sub - Parallel Fissure


Orthogonal Fissures

Connecting Laminated
Formations

Pressure

Pay stimulated by
a fracture treatment

Distribution of Wellbore
Drawdown

Pay stimulated by
an acid treatment

Reduction in formation
sand production

Distance

Reservoir
Evaluation
Design
Requirements

Revenue

Cost

Net Present Value

Basic Frac Design


Methodology

Revenue
NPV
Cost

Job volume

Basic Fracturing Calculation


HHP = Q (bpm) x P
(psi)
40.8 Surface

Pressure ~ PWH

Friction ~ Ptf
Hydrostatic ~ Ph

Bottom hole ~ Pbh


NWB ~ Pnwb

Closure ~ Pc

Net ~ Pnet

Pc = FG x
TVD 2
Ppf = 2.93 * Q
* SG
D4 * N2
Pnwb = Ptort
+ Ppf
PWH + Ph Pf =
Pbh
Pc + Pnet + Pnwb
= Pbh

Basic Fracturing Calculation


Perforation and Tubular Friction
Pressure

Basic Fracturing Calculation


Fracture Mechanics
1
Breakdown
pressure, Pb

PRESSURE

cin/cf,EOJ

pad

Propagating
pressure

TIME

Open
valves

ISIP

V / VEOJ

Productivity Increases
Folds of Increase, (J/Jo )

High Permeability
Formations

Low Permeability
Formations
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
50%
40%
30%
20%
10%

14
12
10
8
6
4
2
2

10

10

10

Relative Conductivity,

10

kf w
k

40
A

McGuire and Sikora curves


(1960)

10

Xf
re

Dimensionless fracture conductivity

=
k
Permeability
mD) (mD)
(
=f Fracture
FracRetained
Perm
w = Average fracture width (ft)
xf= Fracture Length
Half
(ft)
k = Formation Permeability
mD)
(

Fcd =

Kf-retw
k xf

As a rule of thumb, one considers that an optimum fracture design


should achieve:
1.6 < FCD < 10
Low-permeability wells
F >10
High-permeability wells

Designing for the optimum fracture


Parameters that affect
your :
Frac Width:
Proppant
Concentration
Pump Rate & Fluid
Viscosity
TSO Treatments
Fracture (Proppant)
Permeability
Proppant Type
Proppant Size
Proppant

Frac Length
Treatment Volume
(fluid efficiency)
Treatment Clean up
Pump Rate & Fluid
Viscosity

Fcd =

Kf-retw
k xf

Full Design Execution


Evaluation Cycle

Candidate
Recognition
Reservoir Formation
Characterization
Treatment Design
DataFRAC Validation
Execution QAQC
Real Time Analysis
Post Treatment
Evaluation
Post Stimulation
Production Analysis

Fracturing Design

Preliminary Fracturing Treatment


Design
Objectives: Place an optimum contained fracture with
adequate length and conductivity to maximize NPV and
incremental production.

Data Collection and Input


Fracture Modeling
Fluids and Proppant Selection
NPV Optimization
Preliminary Pumping Schedule
DataFRAC Validation Final Design
Pre-treatment QAQC

Data Collection
Uncontrollable
parameters:

Controllable
parameters:

String & wellhead


configuration
D.H. equipment
Surface equipment
Completion strategy
Perforation strategy
Spacing
Fracture material

K, h, Sw,
ic, Emin,
BHST & Pr
Lithology and layers
Type of reservoir fluid

Well & Reservoir Data

Tubing Data

Formation Mechanical Properties

Zone

Heigh
t
(ft)

DirtySandstone
Shale
Clean-Sand

DirtySandstone
Zone
Shale

DirtySandstone
Shale

46

FG

(psi/ft)

(psi)

Poisson
s Ratio

0.643

3.10 x 106

0.25

Toughne
ss

OD
(in)

Weight
(lb/ft)

ID
(in)

Depth
(ft)

(psi.inch1
/2
)

3.50

9.39

2.99

4080.0
0

0.808

2.24 x 106

0.35

1000

31

0.584

3.40 x
106

0.20

1200

6
Formation
Transmissibility
Properties
11
0.640
3.10 x 10
0.25

Heig
ht
16

Poros
ity
0.808

(ft)

(%)

46

Pr
Sg
2.24 x 106
(psi)
(%)
2070

Casing Data

700

700

So
0.35
(%)

Sw
1000
(%)

50

50

2346

10

90

Clean-Sand

31

12

2070

80

20

Dirty-

11

2070

50

50

OD
(in)

Weight
(lb/ft)

ID
(in)

Depth
(ft)

7.00

23.0

6.366

5600.0
0

Shale

5014 ft

Clean Sandstone
Dirty Sandstone
Perforation Data
Top
MD
(ft)

Top
TVD
(ft)

Bot
MD
(ft)

Bot
TVD
(ft)

Shot
Dens
(spf)

Tot
al

Dia
met
er
(in)

501
5

501
5

504
2

504
2

108

0.32

Fracture Geometry

Preferred Fracture Plane

Frac Modeling

Basics of Fracture Modeling


Prediction of fracture geometry
Central issue in Engineering design and evaluation
Many models have developed, four types currently:
Two-dimensional (2D)
Pseudo three-dimensional (P-3D)
Planar three-dimensional (PL-3D)
Fully three-dimensional (3D)
Models determine fracture geometry by relating to
variables:
Rock properties
Fluid properties
Fluid volume pumped
Stress data

2D Models
Height is constant (Gross,
Leakoff, Net)
E, , CL and toughness are

constant
Fluid flow in one direction
(pressure drop in one direction)
Lateral strain effects are small
2( p f min )d
compared to the effects in the
wmax
2D Crack:
main body
E'
PKN, KGD, RADIAL models

wmax

min

Radial Crack:

wmax

8( p f min ) R

E '

min

pf

PKN Model
The plane strain is in
the vertical direction
(occurs on the front
and back layers).
Free slippage occurs
in these faces.
Longer, narrower
fractures.
Pressure increases in
time.

KGD Model
Plane strain is in the
horizontal
direction
(upper and lower layers).
Free slippage occurs in
these faces.
Shorter, wider fractures.
Pressure
time.
XL < h
1/2

decreases

in

XL / h <

RADIAL Model
Similar to the KGD model
Axial-Symmetric
Pressure decreases in time
Vertical radial: Massive,
homogeneous formations
Horizontal radial
- shallow depths
- highly geopressurized
formations

XL = h /2..XL / h
=1/2

Pseudo 3D Models

2D Models Extension.
2D elasticity
H is calculated with PN ,
or the stress contrast
between boundary
layers.
E, n, CL and toughness
are averaged values
(many different methods
for averaging)
Fluid flow in one
direction (Pressure drop
in one direction)

P 3D Models
Cell-based Analysis

Lumped Analysis
xf

Ai, hi, xi, pi


hw

Break fracture into separate


blocks, or cells
Enforce fundamental physical
equations for each cell
Enforce mass balance across
cells

Predict fracture geometry and


fluid pressure in an averaged
sense.
Simplified analysis
Fundamental physical equations
satisfied in an overall (averaged)
manner

Planar 3D Models
A) 3 D elasticity (no plane strain)
B) H is calculated with PN
C) , , CL and toughness are real values for every
layer.
D) Fluid flow is now in two directions. Pressure is no
longer constant (3D)
E) Significantly increased software execution time

Fully 3D Model
Three dimensional
grid.
Suitable for
research purposes
only.
Extremely time
consuming
analysis.

Its only used in very sophisticated jobs,


examining all parameters in three
dimensions.

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