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MAGNETIC FIELDS

INTRODUCTION
The

other half of electromagnetics is


of course the magnetic field.
Whereas electric fields emanate
directly from individual charges,
magnetic fields arise in a subtle
manner because there are no
magnetic charges.
Magnetic field lines always form
closed loops.

MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE


OF MAGNETIC FIELDS
Magnetic

fields are generated indirectly


by moving electric charges.
It is a fundamental fact of nature that
moving electrons, as well as any other
charges, produce a magnetic field when
in motion.
A steady (DC) current through a wire
produces a magnetic field that encircles
the wire.

MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE


OF MAGNETIC FIELDS
Magnetic

fields encircles the wire.

MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE


OF MAGNETIC FIELDS
A

single charge moving at constant velocity also


produces a tubularmagnetic field that encircles the
charge.

The

field of a single charge decays along the axis of


propagation, with the maximum field occurring in the
neighborhood of the charge.
The law that describes the field is called the Biot-Savart
law, named after the two French scientists who
discovered it.

MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE


OF MAGNETIC FIELDS
It

is interesting to note that if you were to


move along at the same velocity as the
charge, the magnetic field would
disappear.
In that frame of reference, the charge is

stationary, producing only an electric field.


Therefore,

quantity.

the magnetic field is a relative

MOVING CHARGES: SOURCE


OF MAGNETIC FIELDS
The

magnetic field
direction, clockwise or
counterclockwise,
depends on which
direction the current
flows.

The

RIGHT HAND RULE


is one way for
determining the
magnetic field direction.

MAGNETIC DIPOLES

MAGNETIC DIPOLES
Now,

consider a current that


travels in a loop,

The

magnetic field is a toroidal


(donut-shaped) form. The magnetic
field of this device flows out of one
side and back in the other side.

The

side where the field lines


emanate is called the NORTH
POLE, and the side they enter is
called the SOUTH POLE.

Such

a structure is called a
MAGNETIC DIPOLE.

MAGNETIC DIPOLES
Now

if a wire is wound
in many spiraling
loops, a solenoid is
formed.

solenoid
concentrates the field
into even more of a
dipole structure.

MAGNETIC DIPOLES
Another

example of a dipole
is the simple bar magnet.

The

field is just like that of a


solenoid, implying that
there must be a net circular
current inside the magnetic
material.

However,

in this case the


current is due to electron
spin.

MAGNETIC DIPOLES
EARTH

is an example
of a magnetic dipole.

MAGNETIC DIPOLES
EARTH

is an example of a
magnetic dipole.

The

Earths north pole is


the side where the global
magnetic field enters.

The

Earths south pole is


therefore the side from
which the magnetic field
emanates.

MAGNETIC DIPOLES
The

Earths magnetic
poles are therefore
opposite to the
geographic poles.

The geographic north


pole is the magnetic
south pole and vice
versa.

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Dipole
In

electric field, the charges just follow the


electric field lines.

The

effect of the magnetic field is

rotational.

To

analyze how the magnetic field operates, we


need some form of fundamental test particle
an infinitesimally small magnetic dipole.

magnetic dipole test particle can be thought of


as a compass needle made exceedingly small.

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Dipole
A

magnetic dipole has a north pole and a south


pole, implying that it has direction in addition to
magnitude. In other words, it is a vector quantity.

If

we place our conceptual compass in a magnetic


field, the needle will likewise rotate until it points
along the field lines.

Its orientation will be such that its field lines up


with those lines of the field in which it is immersed.

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Dipole
So

instead of a force being transmitted to


the test dipole, torque is transmitted.
In this instance, the magnetic field acts
as a torque field in comparison to the
electric force field.
This relation can be mathematically
expressed as the following cross product:

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Dipole
The

torque can be mathematically


expressed as the following cross product:

Where:
is the torque in Newton-meters,
is the magnetic dipole moment in ampere-

meters2
B is the magnetic field in Webers/meters2

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Dipole
All

three variables are


vector quantities; that
is, each has a
magnitude and
direction.

The

direction of the
torque can be
determined by the
right hand rule for
cross products

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Dipole
The

magnitude of the torque is given by

Where:
is the angle between the dipole and the

magnetic field B.

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Moving Charge
A

moving charge serves as a good test


particle since the magnetic field arises
from moving charges.

But

first, try to look at the following


illustrations:

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Moving Charge

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Moving Charge

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Moving Charge
A

current
carrying wire is
forced to the
right by an
external field.a

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Moving Charge

Two

wires that carry current in the same


direction are attracted to each other.

EFFECTS OF THE MAGNETIC FIELD:


On a Moving Charge
A

current-carrying
loop experiences a
torque (rotational
force) causing it to
line up with an
applied magnetic
field.

Magnetic Materials
Diamagnetism
As the free electron rotates in
opposition to a magnetic field, the
orbiting electron changes to oppose
the magnetic field.
The dipoles line up diametrically
opposed to the external field.

Magnetic Materials
Paramagnetism
The inherent dipole of the electron
will be rotated to line up with the
external magnetic field, thereby
increasing the overall field.
The

dipoles line up parallel to the


external field.

Magnetic Materials
Paramagnetism
Paramagnetism, while stronger than
diamagnetism, is another very weak
effect and can usually be ignored.
The reason for its weakness is that the

electrons in each atom are always grouped


in pairs that spin opposite to one another.
Hence,

paramagnetism can only occur


in atoms that have an odd number of
electrons.

Magnetic Materials
Ferromagnetism
A ferromagnetic material is like a
paramagnetic material with the added
feature of domains.
Each domain is a microscopic patch of

billions of atoms that have all lined up


their dipole moments in the same
direction.
Ferromagnetism

is responsible for the


existence of magnets.

Magnetic Materials
Ferromagnetism
Normally, the domains are randomly
oriented so that the material still has no
overall magnetic dipole.
However, when a magnetic field is applied,

the domains that align to the field grow,


while domains of other orientations shrink.
In addition, the domains have a tendency to
freeze in place after aligning. In other words,a
ferromagnetic materials have memory.

Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Materials

Magnetic Materials

Demagnetizing:

Erasing a Magnet
There are two common ways to demagnetize.
First, you can heat the magnetic past its Curie

point. Because above this temperature the


material is no longer ferromagnetic.
The second and more practical technique is to

expose it to the strong AC magnetic field of an


electromagnetic, such as a solenoid. The field is
then slowly decreased to zero. By the end of the
process, the object will have a negligible magnetic
field. This technique is known as degaussing.

Assignment:
Solve D9.1 page 276; Engg Electromag

by Hayt

Refs:

Schmitt, Electromagnetics
explained