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Inspired by nature

Inspired by nature
Nature is by far the richest source of
inspiration and knowledge that we have.
Over the decades, the field of
biomimetic has shifted from looking
towards nature for overall shape. Sea
creatures, crab shells and spider webs
are among the species and natural
artifacts architects have looked to for
such inspiration. Here are nine of the
most incredible and unusual natureinspired buildings ever designed.

1. Sagrada Familia
The cathedrals awesome interior is inspired by the idea of a
forest that invites prayer.
Tree-like columns branch off near the roof for support, and inbetween skylights contain green and gold glass to reflect light.

2. Milwaukee Art Museum


The Quadracci Pavilion of the Milwaukee Art Museum designed
by Santiago Calatrava, which opens and closes throughout the
day like the wings of a butterfly, or the unfurling of a flower.

3. Kunsthaus Graz
Like some colossal, stranded deep-sea blob, the biomorphic
Kunsthaus Graz rises up amid angular, red-roofed buildings.
The building was really seen as a sort of biotechnological
creature, rather than a traditional building, an inert building.

4. National Taichung Theater


Toyo Ito drew inspiration from the formation of
rocks, caves and the transience of water for his
design for The National Taichung Theater, which
he hoped would provide a soft and mellow
respite within the city of Taichung, Taiwan.

5. The Gherkin
This was one of the first environmentally
progressive buildings in the UK city of London.
Completed in 2004, the 180m tower has an air
ventilation system similar to sea sponges and
anemones, Tang points out.

6. Eden Project
The Eden Project, nestled in a clay pit near the
hamlet of Bodelva in Cornwall, UK, houses an
extraordinary collection of plant species from
tropical rainforest and the Mediterranean.

7. The algae house


Germanys extraordinary algae house or BIQ
building in Hamburg actually incorporates
living matter microalgae into its design.

8. The Eastgate development


Architect Mick Pearces vision for the Eastgate
centre in Harare, Zimbabwe, was sparked while
watching termites construct their nests.

9. Downland Gridshell Building


The light and airy Downland Gridshell Building,
part of the Weal & Downland Open Air Museum in
Singleton, Chichester, UK was completed in 2002
and uses oak laths bent into shape to create the
double-curvature, lightweight shell structure.

MODAL VERBS
A modal verb (also 'modal', 'modal
auxiliary verb', 'modal auxiliary') is a
type of verb that is used to indicate
modality that is, likelihood, ability,
permission, and obligation.
Examples include the English verbs
can/could, may/might, must,
will/would, and shall/should.

Functio
n:
A modal auxiliary verb gives information about
the function of the main verb that it governs.
Modals have a wide variety of communicative
functions, but these functions can generally be
related to a scale ranging from possibility ("may")
to necessity ("must"), in terms of one of the
following types of modality:
The following sentences illustrate epistemic and
deontic uses of the English modal verb must:
epistemic: You must be starving. ("It is
necessarily the case that you are starving.")
deontic: You must leave now. ("You are required
to leave now.")

One hundred architectural


terms:

1.Abacus-Abak
At the top of a capital, a thick rectangular slab of stone that serves as the
flat, broad surface on which the architrave rests.
2. Aisle-Rresht
A passage or corridor parallel to the nave of a church or an ancient basilica
and separated from it by columns or piers.
3.Altar-Altar
A table like structure for the celebration of the Sacraments in a Christian
building; for sacrifice or offerings in antiquity.
4.Ambulatory-Ambulator A semicircular or polygonal passageway around the
apse of a church.
5.Apse-Apsid
A semicircular, polygonal, or rectangular extension at the end of a Roman
basilica or a Christian church.
6.Anta-Anta
In Classical temples, the pilaster like projecting end of a portico wall often
framing columns, which are then said to be in antis.
7. Clapboard-Derras per veshje te jashtme: A narrow wooden board, thinner
at one edge than the other, applied horizontally to the exterior walls of
buildings to form a weather-tight wall surface.
8. Coping-Perballja: The capping at the top of a wall for protection from
weather elements.
9. Cupola-Kupola: A cupola is a decorative, small, projecting tower at the top
of the roof of a building, often square, round or ocatagonal in shape.

10. Dormer-Baxha: A window opening at the roof level, topped by a front


gable or shed roof.
11. Drum-Drumi: the cylindric or polygonal wall supporting a dome
12.Bays-Gjiret
The number of bays refers to the width of a building by counting the
number of opennings including both doors and windows. A house with a
center door and a window on either side has 3 BAYS.
13. Belfry-Kamban
A small square bell tower placed atop a roof to house a bell, often found
on churches and schools.
14. Board and Batten-Derras dhe LLasnje
A construction method for doors or walls in which the wood is arranged
in vertical boards and held in place with a horizontal board called a
batten.
15.Capital-Kapital
The uppermost part of a column, usually shaped to articulate the joint
with the lintel or arch supported; in Classical types, comprising an
abacus, echinus, and other carved detail.
16.Caryatid-Kariatid
A sculpted female figure used as a support in place of a column or pier.
17.Cella-Cella
The body and main sanctuary of a Classical temple, as distinct from its
portico and other external parts; sometimes used synonymously with
naos, the principal room of a temple where the cult statue is housed.

18.Centering-Qenderzim: Temporary wooden


framework used to hold construction material in place
until a vault or arch is self-sustaining.
19.Chancel-Altar: The eastern portion of a church set
apart for the clergy, and often separated from the
main body of the church by a screen, rail, or steps.
The term is also used to describe the entire east end
of a church beyond the crossing.
20. Chevet:A French term used to describe the
developed east end of a church, usually a French
Gothic cathedral, with its apse, ambulatory, and
radiating chapels.
21. Choir-Kori: The part of a church, generally located
toward or in the apse, reserved for clergy and
singers.
22. Clerestory-Mur me dritare qe bien mbi qati: A part
of a building that rises above adjoining roof-tops and
is pierced by window openings to admit light to the
interior.
23. Coffering: Recessed panels, square or polygonal,
that ornament a vault, ceiling, or the underside

25.Arris: The external angle intersection between two flat or curved faces,
as between two flutes of a column, or the flat raised area between the
columns concave flutes.
26.Art Nouveau-rt n(y)ooo: A style of architectural and applied art
characterized by organic forms, curving designs and dynamic shapes.
27.Ashlar: Is the term for rectilinear, squared-off blocks of stone used in
building.
28.Astragal-tls: A half round shape, with the fillet on one or both sides.
29.Atlantes: A human figure, that acts as a pier, column or pilaster
supporting an entablature.
30.Atlas-atls: The singular form of Atlantes.
31.Attic Base-atik bs: A column base with two rings (An upper and
lower torus).
32.Axed work-wrk: A stone type surface which shows tool marks from
a bush hammer, ax or pick.
33.Back hearth-bak hrTH: Is the part of the hearth within the fireplace.
34.Balconet: Is a false balcony, in front of a window.
35.Balcony-balkn: A platform projecting out from a building, enclosed
with a railing or balustrade.
36.Balcony Railing-balkn rliNG: The railing around a balcony.
37.Ball Flower-blflou(-)r: A round ornament found in Gothic
architecture resembling a flower.

38.Baluster-balstr: One of the short, vertical support members of a


balustrade.
39.Balustrade-balstrd: The complete railing system consisting of
the Baluster, top rail and sometimes bottom rail.
40.Band or band molding-band r band mldiNG: The horizontal
molding, projecting from the surface that wraps around a building.
41.Banded: Masonry style were adjacent courses are of two different
sizes, textures or types.
42.Banded Column-klm: A column where the column shaft has
drums that alternate in texture or size.
43.Baroque-brk: The style of architecture and decoration first
developed in 17th-century Italy.
44.Barrel Roof-barl rooof,rooof: An arched, semi-cylindrical roof.
45.Barrel Vault-barl vlt: A semi-cylindrical, arched ceiling element.
46.Base-bs: The lower part of a column, pier, pedestal or pilaster.
47.Bas-Relief-bas,b rlf: A sculpted or carved work that extends
slightly from the plane of its background.
48.Battlement-batlmnt: Originally a fortification, a parapet or wall
with higher and lower parts.
49.Battered-batrd: A term used to describe a surface that is inclined
or tilted, wider at the bottom and narrower at the top, for example a
battered wall.
50.Bead-bd: A convex molding of semicircular section.

51.Beam-bm: The term for a horizontal member, when used in Architectural


Fiberglass or GFRP typically refers to a beam cover.
52.Beaux Arts Architecture-rtrkitekCHr: Architecture taught at and
associated with, the Ecole des Beaux Arts.
53.Bed Molding-Bed mldiNG: A molding or moldings on the cornice of an
entablature, below the corona.
54.Belfry-belfr: The part of a tower or steeple where bells are hung.
55.Bell Roof-bel rooof,rooof: A roof or dome shaped in section similar to a bell
56.Bell Tower-Bel tou()r: Tower like structure for supporting one or more
bells. Can contain real bells or play recorded music.
57.Belt Course-belt krs: Horizontal band around the facade of the building,
also called a band course or string course.
58.Belvedere-belvidi()r: An elevated or rooftop gazebo or pavilion from
which to enjoy a view.
59.Bevel-bevl: Also known as a chamfer, bevels are sometimes
incorporated in the edges of architectural GFRC (glass fiber reinforced
concrete) and GFRP (architectural fiberglass) to minimize chipping of sharp 90
corners.
60.Bollard-blrd: A short freestanding column designed to limit vehicle
traffic or act as security.
61.Bracket-brakit: A support that carries or appears to carry the weight of
the cornice, eave or balcony.
62.Bracketed Cornice-krnis: Any cornice, supported by brackets.
63.Bracketed Hood-hoood: A projecting element above a door or window that
provides shelter from the rain, and is supported by brackets.

64.Brick Panels-panl: GFRP (architectural fiberglass) cast in panels with


a brick texture and pattern, and used instead of brick.
65.Broach-brCH: A spire, octagonal in shape, above a square tower.
66.Broken Pediment-brkn: A pediment whose horizontal cornice is
continuous, but whose angled cornice above ends before reaching the
highest point of the pediment.
67.Brownstone-brounstn: A reddish or brown sandstone used
extensively for buildings in the eastern United States from the early 19th
century through the 1920s.
68.Building Restoration-bildiNG restrSHn: The re-creating of the
form and details of a building, as it appeared at a particular time.
69.Building Stone-bildiNG stn: Stone used in building construction
such as limestone, marble, granite or sandstone.
70.Bulls-eye Window -boools- wind: A round window, surrounded by
decorative molding often found in gables or pediments.
71.Camber Window-kambr wind: Window that has a slight arch at
the top.
72.Canale: In Spanish Colonial architecture, a waterspout used to direct
rainwater through the face of the parapet and away from the walls.
73Cartouche: An ornamented tablet or shield often framed by elaborate
carving.
74.Cast Iron Architecture- kast rnrkitekCHr: Ornamental cast
iron that replicated stone columns and beams that was popular in many
American cities especially New York, St. Louis, and New Orleans. The cast
iron architecture was characterized by the use of repetitive modules.

75.Ceiling Dome-sliNG dm: A dome used for the interior ceiling. May
be part of a Decorative stylized canale in architectural fiberglass (GFRP),
Florida double dome system with interior and exterior domes.
76.Chimney-Chimn: The vertical structure that contains one or more
flues and carries of smoke and combustion products from a fireplace.
77.Cement-siment: Made from heated limestone and shale, Portland
cement when combined with aggregate, glass fibers and polymers is cast
to create GFRC (glass fiber reinforced concrete).
78.Chateau Style-SHat stl: Also known as Chateauesque style. A
style of architecture based on the monumental French Chateaus of the
16th century.
79.Chimney Hood-Chimn hoood: Noncombustible covering that
protects the opening at the top of the chimney from snow and rain but
allows smoke to escape.
80.Chimney Pot-Chimn pt: A round decorative shape on top of the
chimney, used to increase its height and as a decorative element.
81.Cinquefoil: A pattern having five lobes divided like cusps, found in
windows in the Gothic revival style.
82.Circular Window-srkylr wind: A window having the shape of
a full circle.
83.Coffer-kfr,kfr: Recessed panels in the ceiling, arch or dome;
they may be square or octagonal and sometimes are highly ornamented.
84.Clock Tower-klk tou()r: A tower for a clock. May feature chimes.

85.Column-klm: In classical architecture consists of the capital the


shaft and a base shaft may be either monolithic (one piece,) built up of a
number of cylinders, or may be split vertically, to wrap a structural column.
86.Console- knsl,knsl: A bracket, in the form of the scroll which
projects from a wall and supports a door head, cornice, fireplace mantel,
shelf, etc. also known as an ancon.
87.Corbel: A projecting bracket, often decorated, designed to support an
architectural element above it.
88.Cornice-krnis: A molded horizontal projection that crowns the top of
a wall where it meets with the edge of a roof.
89.Corner Pilaster-krnr: An engaged pilaster, located at the corner of
the building or colonnade.
90.Corona- krn: The overhanging vertical member of a cornice in
classical architecture.
91.Cresting-krestiNG: A decorative design along the ridge of a roof,
cornice, coping or parapet. Usually highly ornamented and often perforated.
92.Crocket-krkit: Gothic ornaments of medieval origin, usually plant like
in form, placed along the edge of the sloping surface of pinnacles or spires.
93.Cushion Capital-koooSHn kapitl: Capital of the Romanesque style
and Gothic style that somewhat resembles a cushion.
94.Dentil: One of a row of tooth like blocks, set in a molding or cornice.
95.Dome-dm: A roof structure generally shaped like a segment of a
sphere, but may also be polygon or oval in plan.

96.Doric Order-dorik rdr: The Doric Order is the


oldest and simplest of the three Greek architectural
orders and was invented by the Dorian Greeks.
97.Dormer -drmr: And architectural element
which projects from a sloping roof.
98.Eaves-vz: The underside of the part of the roof
that projects beyond the exterior wall.
99.Drip Molding- drip mldiNG A horizontal
molding over a door or window designed to channel
rainwater away from the wall surface and as a
decorative element.
100.Entasis- entsis: A slight convex curve added
to the tapered profile of classical columns.

Nora Mehana

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