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UME508

Design of Machine
Elements
Introduction to static
Loading & Cotter Joint

Design Against Static Load


Stress Strain Relationship
Shear Stress and Shear
strain
Stress due to bending
moment
Stress due to torsion
moment
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Stress-Strain Relationship

Assumptions for the Stress


strain analysis
The material is homogeneous
The load is applied gradually
The line of action of force P
passes through the geometric
axis of the cross section.
The cross section is uniform.
There is no stress concentration
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Shear Stress and Shear Strain

Stresses Due to Bending


Moment

Assumptions for the Stresses


due to bending moment
The beam is straight with uniform
cross section.
The forces acting on the beam lie
in a plane perpendicular to the
axis of the beam.
The material is homogeneous ,
isotropic and obey Hooks law
Plane cross sections remain plane
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Sign conventions for Bending


Moment

Stresses due to Torsional


Moment
Mtr

M tl

JG

Assumptions for Torsional


moment
The Shaft is straight with circular
cross section.
The plane transverse section
remains plane after twisting
The material is homogeneous ,
isotropic and obey Hooks law
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Eccentric Axial Loading


P Pey

A
I

An Example

Cotter Joint

A cotter joint is used to connect rigidly two coaxial rods or bars which are subjected to axial
tensile or compressive forces . It is a
temporary fastening .

Cotter Joint

A cotter is a flat wedge shaped piece


of rectangular cross section and its
width is tapered (either on one side or
on both sides) from one end to
another for an easy adjustment.

Example
Joint between piston rod and cross head
of a steam engine

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Assembling of Cotter Joint


Video

pro engineer_ spigot cotter joint assembly.mp4

Fig. 4.11 Cotter Joint

P= Tensile force
d=diameter of end
rods
d1=outside dia. Of
socket
d2=inside dia. Of
socket
or outside dia. Of
spigot
d3=dia. Of spigotcollar
d4= dis. Of socketcollar
a=distance from
end of slot
To the end of spigot
b=mean width of
cotter

Notations Used

FBD of Forces

Tensile Failure of Rods

Tensile failure of Spigot

Shear Failure of Spigot

Crushing/Compressive Failure
of Spigot

Tensile Failure of Socket

Shear Failure of Socket

Crushing Failure of Socket

Shear Failure of Cotter

Bending Failure of Cotter

Standard Proportions
d1= 1.75d
d4= 2.4d

d2= 1.21d

d3= 1.5d

a=c= 0.75d

b= 1.6d

t= 0.31d

t1= 0.45d

Clearance= 1.5 to 3mm


Taper for cotter= 1 in 32

Cotter Joint: Procedure for


design
Calculate d
Calculate t= 0.31d
Calculate d2 of the spigot
Calculate d1 of the socket
Calculate d3= 1.5d and d4= 2.4d
Calculate a=c= 0.75d
Calculate width b of cotter by considering shear and
bending. Take the value larger from above
considerations
Check for the crushing and shear stresses in spigot
and socket

Knuckle Joint
Two rods subjected to
tensile force are fastened
together
Their axes either coincide
or intersect and lie in one
plane
The joint allows a
small angular
moment of one rod
relative to another
It can be easily
connected and
disconnected

Applications: Elevator chains, links of suspension


bridge, fulcrum of levers, etc

Knuckle Joint

Notations Used in Knuckle


Joint

FBD for Knuckle Joint and


Tension Failure of Rod

Shear Failure of Pin

Crushing Failure of Pin in Eye


and Fork

Bending Failure of Pin

Tensile Failure of Eye

Shear Failure of Eye

Tensile and Shear failure of


Fork
Fork is a double eye
Replace b with 2a to find corresponding
equations

Procedure for Knuckle Joint


Calculate diameter of each rod
Calculate D1 = 1.1 D
Calculate a and b as a = 0.75D
1.25D

and b =

Calculate diameters of pin by shear and


bending and take maximum value from
these
Calculate d0 = 2d and d1 = 1.5d
Check tensile, crushing and shear stresses
for eye and fork

Problem
It is required to design a knuckle
joint to connect two circular rods
subjected to an axial tensile force
of 50kN. The rods are co-axial
and a small amount of angular
movement between their axes is
permissible. Design the joint and
specify the dimensions of its
components.
Select
suitable
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