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FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

AIRCRAFT
STRUCTURES
TOPIC 3
Material for Sheet Metal
Construction
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Date
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

INTRODUCTION

On completion of this topic you should be able to:

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Describe materials for sheet metal construction.

Describe and identify structural fasteners including solid rivet,


blind rivet , special fasteners and fasteners for cowlings and
access panel

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Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Alloy
Advantage Over Other Materials
Old days Aluminum prove that
aluminum does not have any
commercial value.
When it is alloyed with other
elements, the strength increased
without decreasing its material
properties.
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Aluminum Alloy
Alloying Agents and Designation
Germans found a way to improve aluminum
characteristics.
Add copper, magnesium and manganese,
called Duralium.
Use numbering system to differentiate the
alloying agent which the first no. denotes the
primary alloying element and the other specify
the specific alloy.
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Alloy
No.
Series

Chief
Alloying
Element

1xxx

Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Designation
e.g..

Characteristic

Pure Aluminum

1100

- Pure Aluminum

2xxx

Copper

2017,2024,2117

- Old popular alloy


- Supersede 2017, different proportion. Used by
most modern aircraft.

3xxx

Manganese

3003

- Used for cowling and non load bearing


application

4xxx

Silicon

5xxx

Magnesium

5052

- Welded aluminum parts such as fuel and oil


pipes.
- Cannot be hardened by heat treating but soften
by annealing.

6xxx

Magnesium And
Silicon

6061

7xxx

Zinc

7050,7075

8xxx

Other Elements

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- Increases the strength


- Used in high strength application

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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Heat Treatment
Heat treatable alloys
2017, 2024, 2117, 6061 and 7075 most
familiar heat treatable alloys
Heated to a critical temperature and
quenched in brine, water or oil will become
hard and increase the ultimate tensile
strength.
Aluminum will become soft for a couple of
days after heated and quenched.
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Heat Treatment
Solution Heat Treatment
When aluminum alloy parts are heated together
to their critical temperature, the alloying agent
go into the solid solution with the aluminum.
When it is rapidly quenched, the grain will be
fine and the metal will becoming hard and
strong.
But when there is a delay during the quenching
time, the grain become larger and an area of
dissimilar metal will form within the alloy. It can
cause the intergranular corrosion.
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.
Heat Treatment

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Precipitation Heat Treatment

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After solution heat treatment, it is


held at temperature below the
critical temperature for a period of
time before it is allowed to cool
and it becomes stronger.
It is called the artificial aging.
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SHEET
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.
Heat Treatment

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Annealing
Metal is heated in an oven to a
temperature and then it is allowed
to cool very slowly.
Turning off the heat but keep it in
oven.
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Temper Designation
Heat-treatable Alloys
Designation

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Description

-O

Full soft or annealed condition

-F

Material just came from the fabrication


process with no special heat treatment

-T

The material is heat-treated.

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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Non Heat Treatable Alloy


Only can be hardened by strain hardening or
work hardening
Indicated by letter H followed by number to
indicate the degrees of hardness.
Example: -H28
Degree of
hardness
number

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2 = 1/4 hard
4 = hard
6 = hard
8 = full hard

11

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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Magnesium
Lighter than aluminum. Used for control
surfaces.
They discontinue using magnesium because :Corrodes easily
Difficult to work
Highly flammable
Some aircraft parts were replaced magnesium
with corrugated aluminum alloy skins and
plastic.
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Magnesium
Pure magnesium must be alloyed in order to
be used in aircraft.
It has an advantage
light weight to high strength ratio.
non-magnetic properties.
Fabrication of magnesium alloy and aluminum
alloy are different.
Magnesium alloy are difficult to form unless it
is heated.
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
13

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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Stainless Steel.
Used for many components of the aircraft.
Two commercially build aircraft :Seaplane
High speed military aircraft.
Usage :Stainless steel honeycomb structure for the
outer skins.
To withstand the heat build up during high
speed flying.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
14
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Material for Sheet Metal


Construction.

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Titanium
Increased usage for the past two
decades
Popular in aviation 6AL-4V, 6 %
aluminum and 4 % vanadium

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Topic 4
STRUCTURAL
FASTENERS
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Structural Fastener

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Head Shapes Solid Rivet


In the past, there many rivet heads, but now a
days there are only 4 standard shapes.
i. Universal Head (AN470)
ii. Round Head (AN442)
iii. Round Head (AN430)
iv. Flush Head (AN426)

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Structural Fastener

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

i. AN470 (MS20470) Universal head is the


most popular.

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Structural Fastener

ii. AN 442 round head is


used for internal structure
only. It is thicker than the
AN 470 and has round
shape head.

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Structural Fastener

iii. AN 430 round head is


used for internal structure
only. It is thicker than the
AN 470 and has round
shape head.

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Structural Fastener

iv) AN 426 is flush head rivet where the

usage requires a smooth skin is


important.
The standard size is 1000 angle at
the rivet head
There is also 1200 rivet head is
used but only for a small number
of the new airplane especially
from the Boeing Company.
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Alloy Types
i. AD
ii. D
ii. DD
iii. B
iv. E

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Structural Fastener

Alloy Types AD
Mostly use is AD made of 2117
aluminum alloy contains copper and
magnesium.
The rivet is identified by a small
dimple on the rivet head.

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Structural Fastener

Alloy Types D and DD


D rivet is made of 2017 raised dot
DD rivet is made of 2024 two-raised
dash.
Both are called icebox rivet.
They must be heat treated before use
and will harden after they reached their
aging time.
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

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Structural Fastener

Alloy Types D and DD


To preserve the softness, this rivet will be
placed in a freezer to slow down the curing
aging time.
D rivet must be driven within one hour after
they are removed from the icebox.
DD rivet age much quicker, and they should
be driven after 10 minutes, they are taken out
from the icebox
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Structural Fastener

Alloy Types B
- Alloy Types B rivets are the 5056aluminum alloys.
- It is use to hold the magnesium part
together.
Identified with a cross mark.

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Structural Fastener

Alloy Types E
New rivet was discovered by using alloy 7050T73.
This alloy is used for structural application
and construction of the new jet transport.
This alloy is assigned with a letter E.
They are used to replace the 2024-T73 and
2024-T31 in the internal structure areas
without increasing it size or number.
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Structural Fastener

Dimension
Diameter is measured in increment of 1/32
The length increment is 1/16.
Manufactures
Head

Length
1/16
Diameter
1/32
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Structural Fastener

Rivet Identification

AN470 AD 4 - 4
Head style

material

diameter

length

MS20470 AD 4 - 4
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Structural Fastener

Eg. MS20470AD4-4
i. 470 universal head
ii. AD 2117 aluminum alloy
iii. 4/32 = 1/8 the diameter
iv. 4/16 = the length

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Structural Fastener

Blind Rivets
Use when one access are
available
More expensive
Use special puller gun to drive
the rivet in.
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Structural Fastener

Pop Rivet
Use only to nonstructural part.
Widely used in home built aircraft.

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Structural Fastener

Friction-Lock Rivet
The head must be trimmed
after it breaks for
completing the process.
Very sensitive to vibrations
Must inspect if there is any
indication of smoking
rivets.

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Structural Fastener

Mechanical-lock Cherry Rivets


Have the device and puller or rivet head
Locks the center stem into place when
installed according to the manufacturers
instructions.
Can resist vibration.
Eg. Huck Loks, Cherrylocks, OlympicLoks and Cherrymax.
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Structural Fastener

Cherrylocks Rivets

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Structural Fastener

Safe Locking
Collar

Pulling Stem
Driving Anvil

Rivet Sleeve

Bulbed Blind
Head

Cherrymax Rivet

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Structural Fastener
Continuous integral locking collar

Fully serrated stem


For incremental pull-up.

Flush breaking stem


Greater locking
collar volume driven
into locking groove
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Sleeve reduced internal diameter to


precisely align the locking groove
Double taper
design

Larger second shank diameter


for extra sleeve expansion and
great blind side bearing area
Protruding head undercut eliminates
deburring

Olympic-Lok Rivet
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Structural Fastener

Huck-Loks Rivet
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Structural Fastener

Summary of Blind Fasteners


Main advantage : Does not fall off due to
vibration and this will create constant
shear strength as the solid shank rivet.
Good finishes of the rivet head.
Easy to make repair especially to the
hard to get places.
They are stronger than the solid shank
rivet.
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
40

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

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Structural Fastener

Blind rivet removal.


File the lock ring on the manufactured
head to a point where it is weakened.
Then tap the center stem out, drill the
depth of the head and tap out the
remaining shank
Use vacuum or shaking the parts to
take out the debris.
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SPECIAL
FASTENER

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Structural Fastener

Special Fastener
Special fasteners are used in
special application in the
construction of the aircraft.
Some of them require specials
hand tools and some of them does
not required any special tools at all.
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Structural Fastener

Conventional (Hi-Shear)
Made from a heat
treated steel and has the
tensile strength equal to
the AN Bolt.
Sometimes describe as
the threadless bolt.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

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Structural Fastener

Conventional (Hi-Shear)
Can be installed with a special pneumatic tool
or conventional rivet gun with special conical
gunset.
Hi-shear rivet installation tool consist of a
special collar set that fits a conventional air
hammer and uses a standard bucking bar.
To remove, the collar must be cut off and the
pin driven out.
A cape nose chisel or a special hollow milling
cutter that removes most of the collar is used
for removal.
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Structural Fastener

Hi-Lok Fasteners
Improvement from the Hi-shear
Sleeve with
shearing section
before the Hi-Lok
is installed.

Sleeve with shearing section


after the Hi-Lok is installed.
(The shear section has been
removed)

Stem
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46

Page No: 46

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Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Hi-Lok Fasteners

Available in different alloy composition such as


aluminum, stainless steel and titanium.
Replacing the Hi-shear because of availability in
different alloy composition.
Advantage in installation: can be installed by
ordinary hand tools such as Allen wrench or
open end.
Other advantage is that the shank size does not
change with installation or shrink because
AIRCRAFT collar
STRUCTURES
47
actually the retaining
is squeezed on.
Subject Code: : Aircr
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Structural Fastener

Hi-Lok Hi-Tigue Fastening System.


Has an expanded section on its shank just
above the threads.
Break away shear nut
Remaining lock
collar

Shear off
groove

Hole reamed undersize of


ball and shank

Hi-tigue bead area


Protruding head pin

Tap pin into place with


hammer
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

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Structural Fastener

Hi-Lok Hi-Tigue Fastening System.


Can be installed by the same tool as the
Hi-Loks.
Used where high shearing and high
bearing strength are required.

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Structural Fastener

Hi-Lite Fastener
Same as the Hi-Lok but it is lighter.
The threaded area is shorter in the transition
from the shank to thread.
High fatigue strength and a stronger collar
thus the pin threads can be shortened for
reducing weight.

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Structural Fastener

Lockbolt Fastener
Solid shank can be so effective for large a/c
because the strength is reduced.
Lockbolt was first used in 1960s for large
transport aircraft.
Widely used in aerospace industry.

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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

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Structural Fastener

Lockbolt Fastener
The tension type was designed to withstand
tension or bearing loads.
The shear-type Lockbolt has less locking
groove than the tension type.
The tension-type Lockbolt has a thicker collar
than the shear type.

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Structural Fastener

Cherrybuck Titanium Shear Pins


Made from titanium alloy: 6AL-4V & Ti/Col)
fused into one fastener.
Doesnt have any locking collar
Usually used in engine jet nacelles
reduce the FOD especially to engine.

Ductile Ti-Cb

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6AL4V 95ksi Ti
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Structural Fastener

Huckbolt Fasteners.
Same as the Lockbolt
Available in pull and stump types and available
in tension and shear.
Tension has four to five locking grooves for
collar attachment.
Shear has two locking grooves.
The collar is squeezed into locking grooves
located at the end of the bolt.
Also available in countersink and flat heads.
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Structural Fastener

Taper-Lok Fasteners.
The strongest structural fastener used in
aircraft.
Installed into a tapered hole which has to
1 taper.
The amount of taper is enough to preload the
hole as the fastener as being pulled down by
the washernut.
As the washernut tightens, the line of force
and radial lines preload the metal surrounding
the tapered hole.
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Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

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Structural Fastener

Jo-Bolts Fastener
Used for high strength structural fastener with
close-tolerance holes.
Used where high strength is concerned with
physical clearance does not allow the use of
AN, MS or NAS bolts.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 56

56

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Jo-Bolts Fastener
Used to: Join structural members
Attach parts to sub-structure.
Need to install with installation tools.
Once the bolt is inserted into the hole, the bolt
is rotated, causing the nut to pull up to the
metal.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 57

57

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Threaded Rivets/Rivnuts
Use to attach components to the sheet
metal eg. rubber deicer boots to aircraft
control surfaces especially on aircraft
wings and tail surfaces.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 58

58

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Threaded Rivers/Rivnuts
A special cutter is used to prepare the hole for
rivnuts by cutting a small notch. This notch will
prevent the rivnuts from turning when use as
a nut
A puller is used to insert the rivnut inside the
hole, and it squeeze to upset the hollow
shank of the rivnut and grip the skin.
The tools are then unscrewed from the rivnut.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 59

59

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

ACCESS PANEL
AND COWLING
FASTENER
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 60

60

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Access Panel and Cowling Fastener


Also known as turn-lock fastener.
The purpose is to have a quick and easy
access or removal to access panels for
inspection and servicing purposes.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 61

61

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Structural Fastener

1)Dzus Fastener
Requires only a quarter turn to lock and
unlock the access panel door.
Stud
Grommet
Removable Part eg. Cowling,
access panel etc.
Stud Assembly
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 62

62

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Rivet

Fixed part

Spring
Spring Assembly

Assembled Dzus Fastener


Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 63

63

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Dzus Fastener
A hard spring-steel wire is riveted across
an opening on a fixed part of a surface.
The stud is mounted on the access panel
and secured by metal grommet.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 64

64

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Dzus Fastener
The turning of the stud towards clockwise
will pull the stud down and straddling the
spring into the beveled slot cut into the
stud and securing the to the spring.
Make sure that the Dzus fastener is locked
properly to ensure no losing parts by
hearing the clicking sound.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 65

65

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Structural Fastener

grommet

stud
panel

support

rivet
receptacle

Receptacle-type Dzus
Fastener

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 66

66

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

Dzus Fastener
Identification.
Cast letter and number are on the head. The
letter shows the head style and the numbers
designated for the length and the diameter.
The first number is for the diameter of the
stud measured in 1/16 increments and the
second number shown the length measured
in 1/100 increments
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 67

67

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

2) Airloc Fastener
Consists of steel stud and cross pin in a
removable cowling or door and a sheet
spring-steel receptacle in a stationary
member.
To lock this type of fastener, the stud will slip
into the receptacle and is rotated one quarter.
The pin will drop into the indentation in the
receptacle spring and holds the fastener
locked.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 68

68

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Structural Fastener

3) Camlock Fastener.
Consists of a housing containing a spring and
a stud with a steel pin.
All of this assembly parts is held onto the
removable portion of the cowling or access
door with a metal grommet.
The stud fits into the pressed steel receptacle
and a one-quarter turn locks the steel pin in a
groove in the bottom of the receptacle.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 69

69

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL
FABRICATION
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 70

70

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Selection of the Proper Rivet.


- When repair a structure, the outcome must not
scarify the original quality of the structure.
- All repairs has to done accordingly to the
manufacturers manual.
- All the rivet that we use for repair, it has to
match the strength of the materials that are
riveted.
- The shear strength is the same but the bearing
strength will be slightly higher.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 71

71

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Single Shear Strength of Aluminum Alloy Rivets - Pounds


Composition
Of Rivet
(Alloy)

Ultimate Strength
of Rivet Metal
(lb/in2)

AD 2117

Diameter of rivet (inches)


1/16

3/32

27,000

83

186

D 2017

30,000

92

DD 2024

35,000

107

1/8

5/32

3/16

1/4

5/16

3/8

331

518

745

1325

2071

2981

206

368

573

828

1472

2300

3313

241

429

670

966

1718

2684

3865

The shear strength of a rivet depend on the materials and diameter of the rivet

Prepared by:
Mariana

Single
Shear

Double
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
Shear
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 72

72

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Thickness
of sheet
(in)

Bearing Strength of 2024-T3 Clad Aluminum (lb)


Diameter of Rivet (inches)
1/16

3/32

1/8

5/32

3/16

1/4

5/16

3/8

0.016

82

123

164

204

246

328

410

492

0.020

102

253

205

256

307

410

412

615

0.025

128

192

256

320

284

512

640

768

0.032

164

145

328

409

492

656

820

984

0.040

205

307

410

512

615

820

1025

1230

0.051
261 391
522
653
784
1045
1306 1568
The0.064
bearing strength
on the alloy,
sheet,
- of sheet
492 metal
656 is dependant
820
984
1312thickness
1640of the
1968
and the size of the installed rivet
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 73

73

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Selection
Join two pieces of 0.040 2117-T3
Rivet diameter used 1/8 (0.125)
Fr. The chart, 1/8 AD rivet is 331lbs
for the shear strength and bearing
strength is 410lbs.
Bearing strength > Shear strength
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 74

74

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Diameter = Three times the
thickness of the thickest sheet being joint.
Patch

Skin
0.040
0.032

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 75

75

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Length = Grip Length + 1.5 D


Grip Length is the thickness of the metal
joined.
Grip Length

D = 3 times
the thickest
metal.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 76

1
D

76

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

- Properly formed rivet.

D
D
1D

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 77

77

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Cutter
To cut rivets to the appropriate length
when needed.
This may be done when the rivet is
too long to be used.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 78

78

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Riveted repair item must produce the maximum
strength.
No. of rivets determine the strength of the joint.
It has to be considered with the relationship
between the rivet and the sheet and the space in
between the holes.
The spacing and distance from the edge also
determine the strength of the joint.
Must fall between the minimum and maximum
distance (refer to maintenance manual and
acceptable methods).
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 79

79

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Thickness
(in)

No. 0f 2117-T4 (AD) Protruding Head Rivets Required/Inch of


Width (W)

Number of
Bolts

Rivet Size
3/32

1/8

5/32

3/16

1/4

AN-3

0.020

6.5

4.9

3.9

--

--

--

0.025

6.9

4.9

3.9

--

--

--

0.032

8.9

4.9

3.9

3.3

--

--

0.036

10.0

5.6

3.9

3.3

2.4

--

0.040

11.1

6.2

4.0

3.3

2.4

--

0.051

--

7.9

5.1

3.6

2.4

3.3

0.064

--

9.9

6.5

4.5

2.5

3.3

Notes:- 1) For stringers in the upper surface of a wing, or in a fuselage, 80% of the

number of rivets shown in the table may be used.


2) For intermediate frames, 60% of the number shown may be used.
Prepared by:
Mariana

3) For single lap joints, 75%Page


of the
shown may be used.
No:number
80

80

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Edge Distance
The distance between the
first row of rivet to the edge
of metal.
The edge distance between
2d ~ 4d
If too close the sheet will
tear, if too far back it will lift.
single, double and triple row
rivet distance should not
less than 2DAIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

Prepared by:
Mariana

SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 81

ED
ED

ED

81

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


P

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Pitch
Pitch is the distance between P
the rivet hole to the adjacent rivets
The distance is in between 3D ~ 12D
single row rivet should not be less than
3D
double row rivets should not be less than
4D
triple row rivets should not be less than
3D
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 82

82

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Gauge or Transverse Pitch
The distance between the center of the rivets on
different row
Should be 75% of the rivet pitch
Rows should be staggered.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURESTP
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 83

83

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Equipment : Skin and Patch of 0.040
2024-T3 sheet aluminum alloy
Thickest metal sheet = 0.040 sheet
Patch Skin

Skin

Line of Crack
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 84

84

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Diameter = 0.040*3
= 0.12
Closest size = 0.125 = 1/8
Length
= 0.040+0.040+ (1/8*1.5)
= 0.2675 ~
Therefore rivet size is MS 20470AD4-4

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 85

85

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Layout Patterns.
Rivet required
Rows : two row

= 11

First row = 6 rivets

Second row = 5 rivets

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 86

86

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet Layout Patterns.


Edge Distance :
Assume 2 D
= 2 * 1/8 = 5/16
Pitch :
Assume 5 D
= 5 * 1/8 = 5/8
Transverse Pitch/ Gauge
= 5/8 * 0.75
= 15/32
=
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 87

87

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Project A-15a ( Surface Patch )

Given skin 2024-T3 0.040 Aluminum Alloy


4.5 X 5.5( patch)
6.0 X 6.0 (skin)
Crack = 2 / 2.5 / 3
Find :Rivet diameter ( RD )
Rivet length ( RL )
Number of rivet ( NR )
Edge distance ( ED )
Pitch
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 88

88

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Protruding Head Rivets


Drill Size
Twist drill use are mostly from number and
letter sizes.
Rivet that is used in aircraft construction is
between 3/32 to 3/8
Usually the hole drilled for the rivet is larger
about three to four thousandths of inch.
Proper drilling, pilot drill and finish with final
drill
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 89

89

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Pilot Drill

Prepared by:
Mariana

Final Drill

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 90

Rivet Placing

90

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Protruding Head Rivets


Drill Size
Twist drill use are mostly from number and
letter sizes.
Rivet that is used in aircraft construction is
between 3/32 to 3/8
Usually the hole drilled for the rivet is larger
about three to four thousandths of inch.
Proper drilling, pilot drill and finish with final
drill
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 91

91

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Too tight scrapped Give clearance without


Rivet shank swelled up
the protective coating. scrapping the coating.
and fill in the gap after
compression.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 92

92

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Rivet
Diameter

Pilot Size

Final Size

3/32

3/32
(0.0937)

40 ( 0.098)

1/8

1/8
(0.125)

30 (0.1285)

5/32

5/32
(0.1562)

21 (0.159)

3/16

3/16
(0.1875)

11 (0.191)

(0.250)

F (0.257)

5/16

5/16
(0.3125)

O (0.316)

3/8

3/8 (0.375)

Prepared by:
Mariana

V (0.377)

Hole Preparation for


Protruding Head
Rivets
Drill Size

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 93

93

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Drilling the Hole


Make sure the drill bit is sharp
and secured tightly into the
chuck.
Safety precaution
No burrs on the drill shank
that could prevent it tightly
into the chuck.
Screw the chuck down to
hold the drill bits and lock it
by using the chuck key.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 94

94

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Drilling the Hole


Safety precaution
i.
Run the drill to see the drill is
wobbling or not. If wobbling make
sure the shank is not bend or
clean the inside chuck for any dirt
or burrs.
ii. Wear eye protection because the
chips can fly and use ear
protection due to the loud noise it
produced.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 95

95

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Make the location of the hole by


pen or pencil and make an
indentation by using the center
punch.
Use a wood at the back of the
drilled metal sheet.
Right handed, hold the handle
and trigger with your right hand.
Left hand and rest the thumb and
fore finger to the equipment/metal
sheet.

Prepared by:
Mariana

Page No: 96

96

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Protruding


Head Rivets
Should have a good balance,
right hand will try to push the
hole but the left hand to pull it
from the hole.
Drill the hole slowly and then
drill it at full speed.
After the drill has penetrate the
material, ease the pressure
until it go all the way through
the material and make sure the
chuck head does not
scratching the metal sheet.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 97

97

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Deburring the Hole


Burrs are leftover after
drilling the hole.
Using a drill bits which
is larger than the pilot
hole
Use a counter sink if
recommended by the
manufacturer.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 98

98

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Flush


Rivets
To get a smooth surface.
To prevent Form Drag or Profile
Drag.
Flush Rivet that are used in an
aircraft is the AN426 (MS20426)
rivets.
Conventional flush head angle
1000
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES

Prepared by:
Mariana

SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 99

99

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets


Countersinking
Used when the top sheet is thicker than the tapered
portion of the rivet head.
The counter sink when used need to be adjusted
for the required depth.

Prepared by:
Mariana

Rivet Diameter
(in)

Minimum Skin
Thickness (in)

3/32

0.032

1/8

0.040

5/32

0.051

3/16

0.064

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 100

100

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets
Countersinking
Make sure that when use the countersink, it is
perpendicular to the surface of the aluminum sheet.
The counter sink should make a uniform cut and
depth.
When use it make sure that it is not spinning and
scratching the metal.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 101

101

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Flush


Rivets
Countersinking
Make sure that when use the
countersink, it is
perpendicular to the surface
of the aluminum sheet.
The counter sink should
make a uniform cut and
depth.
When use it make sure that it
is not spinning and scratching
the metal.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 102

102

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets

Dimpling for an aluminum sheet that


is too thin.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 103

103

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Coin Dimpling
- Forges or coin the metal into the dies.
- Male die fits through the rivet hole in the material
and the coining ram in the female with a controlled
pressure.
- The pressures on the die coins or forges, the
edges of the hole to exactly fit the shape of the dies.
- They are dimpled at 1000 angle so the dimples
may be stacked or nested.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 104

104

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets
Coin Dimpling - forges or coin the metal into
the dies.
Male Die

Prepared by:
Mariana

Female Die

Nesting of
AIRCRAFT
STRUCTURES
Dimples
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 105

105

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets
Coin Dimpling
Male die fits through the rivet hole in the
material and the coining ram in the female
with a controlled pressure.
The pressures on the die coins or forges, the
edges of the hole to exactly fit the shape of
the dies.
They are dimpled at 1000 angle so the dimples
may be stacked or nested.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 106

106

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets
Radius Dimpling
Fold the material down to form a dimple.

Open Position
Prepared by:
Mariana

Closed Position

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 107

107

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets


Radius Dimpling
Does not have a parallel sides
Angle greater than 1000.
Used when its equipment is smaller
than need for coin dimpling and
where the coin dimpling cannot be
done.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 108

108

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets


Hot Dimpling
Magnesium and 7075 aluminum cannot be
cold dimpling.
The material is too brittle that the material will
crack when it is dimpled.
The material used for dimpling is the same
accept that the material need to be heated
first.
Heat and pressure
is
applied
carefully
so
that
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
109
Subject Code: : Aircr
Prepared by:
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: material.
109
it will not temper
the
Date
: 9 Augu
Mariana

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Hole Preparation for Flush Rivets
Stacking of Sheets For Flush Riveting
Depends on the thickness of the sheet that
is joined.

Top Skin
Countersink,
Bottom Skin
Drilled
Prepared by:
Mariana

Top Skin Dimpled,


Bottom Skin
Countersunk
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 110

Top Skin Coin


Dimpled,
Bottom Skin
Dimpled
(Coin or Radius)
110

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Installation
Must installed properly due to the rivets
sharing the total load together.
The strength of the rivet installation is
determined by the way the rivets are driven.

D
D
1D
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 111

111

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Hand Riveting
To build a small component.
Use a bucking bar with a cupped head and
a hammer.
A handset is use to transfer the hammer
knocking force.
Handset
Bucking Bar with a
Cupped head

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 112

112

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Compression Riveting
Time consuming is the factor.
Use when rivets are driven on the edge of a sheet or in
a stringer
Produce a uniform pattern rather than the bucking bar
and the rivet gun.
Use a C-yoke squeezer or an alligator-Yoke squeezer
Consist of a stationary jaw and movable jaw.
A dolly with a rivet cupped head is put at the stationary
jaw, and a flat dolly at the movable jaw
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 113

113

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 114

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

114

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Compression Riveting
When the trigger is pushed, the movable
jaw is moved by a piston thus squeeze
the rivet.
The height can be determined by shim
placed between the jaws and the dollies.
It is trial and error process
Has a minimum strain hardening effect
on it.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 115

115

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Moving
Jaw

Moving Jaw

Flat Dolly

Cupped Dolly

Washers

Stationary
Jaw

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 116

116

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Gun Riveting
Mostly used in aircraft construction
Use pneumatic source
Retainer
Spring

Rivet Gun

Rivet Set
Trigger
Prepared by:
Mariana

Pneumatic
Source
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 117

117

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Types of Rivet Guns
Fast hitting, short strokes produced
light blows
Usually used for 3/32 or 1/8 rivetsbody of gun made from aluminum.
Light any easy to use

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 118

118

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Types of Rivet Guns
Long stroke guns, heavy blows
drive larger rivet and heavy
It only gives one stroke whenever the
trigger is pushed

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 119

119

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Types of Rivet Guns


Handles styles are offset handle, pistol grip, push
button or straight handle.
Usually rivet gun used air to power it up.
The rivet gun always used with a bucking bar to
compress the rivet
Rivet gun can damage if the trigger is pulled when
there is no rivet in it or the rivet set is not tight,
without the proper restraint, the inside piston will be
damage.
DO NOT PLAYING THE RIVET GUN
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 120

120

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Set
Various rivet head are used with the rivet
set.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 121

121

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Set
The universal rivet head can be used for
almost rivet head.
A single flush rivet set can be used for any
kind of flush rivet.
Use the correct rivet set. Radius of the
depression in the set must be larger than
that of the rivet head.
This is to centralize the blowing force at the
center of the rivet.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 122

122

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Set
If the depression is too large it will indent
the material
If the set is too small it will indent the rivet
head.
Others : rivet set must fit squarely on the
rivet head.
Some of the rivet head are made to shape
can it be used at any tight place.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 123

123

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Bucking Bars
Rivet is actually driven by the bucking bar.
Rivet gun is used to push the rivets but the
bucking bar compressed rivet end shank.
The position of the bucking bar is very
important since it will give the formation of
the shop head or bucked head.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 124

124

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 125

125

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Bucking Bars
If the bar is slightly slanted, the rivet will be
dump over, if too much pressure, the bucked
head will be thin.
Many shape and size of bucking bar. This
will be use according to the ease of usage.
To get a good bucked head, the bucking bar
and the rivet gun should be aligned and
it has to be perpendicular to the
rivet.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 126

126

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

Bucking Bars
Bucking bar
need to be
polished so
that it would
not scratch the
rivet.

Prepared by:
Mariana

Rivet Diameter Approx. weight


(pounds)
(in)
3/32

2~3

1/8

3~4

5/32

3 ~ 4.5

3/16

4~5

1/4

5 ~ 6.5

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 127

127

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Rivet Installation
1)Set-up and Adjustment of the
Rivet Gun

Prepared by:
Mariana

Adjust the air flow to the rivet gun by


using the air regulator.
Put the rivet set to a wood and pull the
trigger until it make a good depression
on the wood but not to shatter the
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
128
wood.
SHEET METAL REPAIR
Page No: 128

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


2) Driving the Rivet

Prepared by:
Mariana

Drill several holes and do trial rivets on that


hold to gain confidence and the
comfortable gripping force.
The rivet head must be align with the rivet
head.
The bucking bar is also placed at the
opposite side of the rivet shank.
Get a good feel and balance force before
you started AIRCRAFT
the riveting.
STRUCTURES
129
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 129

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


3) Evaluating the Rivet
Good technician must be able to identify a
good rivet size.
Properly formed shop head is one-half the
shank diameter.
The rivet bucked head must be flatted and
if checked by a thin feeler gauge (0.020),
and if the feeler gauge can go through, the
rivet have to be taken out.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 130

130

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


4) Removal of Bad Rivets

Prepared by:
Mariana

Light indent the rivet head by center


punch. Use a bucking bar on the other
side.
Use a drill which is smaller than the
rivet shank and just drill until the
manufacturer head.
Use another pin punch to peel off the
rivet head.AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
131
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 131

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Removal of Bad Rivets
If use chisel, do not scratch the skin
around the rivet head.
Gently use another smaller pin punch
and tap the pin punch to tap out the
rest of the shank.
If the hole is enlarged, use a larger
rivet.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 132

132

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

N.A.C.A. Method of Flush Riveting


Possible to drive a rivet that the shop head
will be flush with the outside skin and the
protruding manufactured head will be on
the inside of the structure.

Countersu
nk
Prepared by:
Mariana

Driven
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 133

Milled
133

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION

N.A.C.A. Method of Flush Riveting


The hole is drilled but the rivet is inside the
structure.
The shank is upset to fill the countersunk hole and
is allowed to stick up above the surface for just a
few thousandth inch.
A microshaver is used to shave the upset head.
Produces the maximum smoothness and
uniformity of the surface.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 134

134

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Team Riveting
Necessary to do team riveting due to
the big structure. Especially the
fuselage section

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 135

135

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

SHEET METAL FABRICATION


Team Riveting
One tap rivet is put in the hole (tap by
riveter)
Two tap rivet is OK (tap by the bucking
bar holder)
Three tap, rivet is not OK (tap by both and
the rivet is marked for replacement).

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 136

136

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


To make sure that the sheet metal
that we cut is accordance to the
required size.
- Aircraft technician must do all
the computation, forming and
assembling himself and the part
that he builds must fit.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 137

137

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


Terms and definition

A) Grain of the Metal


The lines inside a piece of metal formed
by the surfaces of the grains after an
ingot is press on a roller.
When laying out pattern, we should orient
the metal so the bends will be made
across the grain as much as practical.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 138

138

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming

B) Bend Radius
The radius of the inside of a bend.
Annealed (-O) can be bent with smaller
radius compared with heat-treated
aluminum alloy
Bend radius

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 139

139

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming


C) Neutral Axis
An imaginary line run through the center of a
piece of material that is bent.
The material along the neutral plane is
neither shrunk nor stretched.
Neutral
Axis

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 140

140

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming


D) Mold Line
The extension beyond the radius of the bend.
Is used in the development of a flat pattern
for a formed piece of sheet metal.

Mold line
Mold line
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 141

141

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

E) Mold Point
The point of intersection between the mold
line.
To find the point where the bend will starts

Mold
Point

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 142

142

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


F) Bent Tangent Line
A line made in a sheet metal layout that indicates
the point at which the bend is started.
The metal is straight at this line but beyond it, it will
curved.

Bent tangent
line

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 143

143

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

G) Setback
The distance between the mold line and the
bent tangent line.
Setback for a 900 is equal to the inside
radius of the bend plus the thickness of the
metal being bend.
For a bend over 900,a K-Factor must be used
Setback = Bend Radius + Metal Thickness

Prepared by:
Mariana

Setback

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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REPAIR
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No: 144

144

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Setback = Bend Radius + Metal Thickness

Setback

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
METAL
REPAIR
Page
No: 145

145

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

H) Flat
The distance between the bend tangent
lines or from the end of a piece of metal
to the bend tangent line.
Metal in a formed piece of material is not
bent.

Prepared by:
Mariana

Flat

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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No: 146

146

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming

I) Bend Allowance (BA)


The amount of material actually used to make
bend in a piece of sheet metal.
Bend allowance depend upon the thickness
of the metal and the radius of the bend.
BA = [(0.01743 X R) + (0.0078 X T)] X (Degree of Bend)

Bend Allowance
Prepared by:
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Page
No: 147

147

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming


Bending Layout

Flat 3

Flat 1
SB
1

SB 1

SB 1

Prepared by:
Mariana

Flat 2

SB 1

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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No: 148

148

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming


Sight Line

Flat 1

Flat 2

Flat 3
BA 2

BA 1
Total Length
Prepared by:
Mariana

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No: 149

149

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


J) Sight Line
A line drawn on the sheet metal layout that is
one bend radius from the inside bend tangent
line.
The sight line is lined up directly below the
nose of the radius bar in the cornice brake.
When the metal is clamped in this position,
the bend tangent line is in the correct position
for the start of the bend
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
SHEET
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Page
No: 150

150

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming


Sight Line

Sight Line
Bend Tangent Line

Radius Bar

Brake Bed

Brake Leaf

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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Page
No: 151

151

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Bending the metal sheet


Due to the elastic characteristic of a
material, when we bend the sheet
metal, always bend it a little bit more
than what is required.
This will make the required angle stay
after bending
eg : to bend 900, just bend it to ~ 930
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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Page
No: 152

152

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


Folding A box
When folding a box, drill relief hole.
When performing more than one bend, there
always a possibility of interfering the upper
jaw.
In this case, bend as much as possible, and
forming the rest of the bend over a hardwood
block cut with the proper radius block and
pressure block by hammering it down until the
required radius is achieved.
Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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Page
No: 153

153

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


Forming Compound Curve
A curve formed in more than one plane
Usually in manufacturing they use drop
hammers to make the compound curve.
A male die is dropped onto a female die
and the compound curve is achieved.

Prepared by:
Mariana

AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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Page
No: 154

154

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

Layout and Forming

Forming Compound Curve

Smaller part, use hydro press. It is placed over


a hard steel male die and is held in place by
locator pins on the die fitting through index
holes in the blank.
The die with a blank is placed down on the bed
of the hydropress and a rubber pad in the ram
of the press is forced down over the die with a
high pressure.
The sheet metal is forced down into all of the
STRUCTURES
155
recesses of theAIRCRAFT
die
and
down
along
its
sides.
Subject Code: : Aircr
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SHEET METAL REPAIR
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Page No: 155

Date

: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


Forming Compound Curve
To form a concave curve, in bulb angle,
the flange is shrink.
To form a convex curve, the metal on the
flat with the bulb angle must be
stretched.
To form a compound curve channel, by
using two hardwood blocks clamped in a
vise.
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No: 156

156

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Forming Compound Curve


Usually, start near the ends of the curve
and back the metal with a piece of
wood.
Work from each end toward the middle,
folding the metal over just a little each
time you hit it

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Page
No: 157

157

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Bumping
Use the same method, as the above by
hammering from each end towards the
center.
In a process of forming deep parts, the
material usually work hardens and
difficult to form.
Then the material need to remove and
annealed.
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No: 158

158

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Bumping
It has to be dove in a furnace, but for
nonstructural items, just soften the material by
bumping it to its shape and use welding torch.
Reheat the material by using a welding torch
by applying a large but soft neutral flame.
Make sure that the heat is just to heat the
carbon off.
When the part cools, put it back between the
forming block and hold down plate and
finishing bumping to its shape.
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No: 159

159

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Flanging Lightening Holes


Thin metal from which aircraft are made usually
has ample strength, but its basic structural
limitation lies in its lack of stiffness and rigidity.
When a large number of these holes are to be
cut, it is economical to make a two piece
flanging die of steel.
Cut the proper size hole in the compartment
with a punch press or hole saw or fly cutter.
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No: 160

160

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


Flanging Lightening Holes
Deburr the edges to be sure no rough
spots.
Slip the male die through the hole in the
metal and position it over the female die.
Then put the assembly in an arbor press
and press the male die to the female die.

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No: 161

161

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Flanging Lightening Holes


This forms the metal smoothly and uniformly
without work-hardening it.
The weight saved in an airplane structure by
the use of lightening holed is definitely
appreciable.
Male Die

Female Die

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No: 162

162

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming

Joggling
Sometimes it is necessary to install a
doublers inside an aircraft structure and tie it
to an extruded angle.
In order for the doublers to lie flat against both
the skin and the angle, its edges must be
joggled.
Joggled Part
Skin
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No: 163

163

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Layout and Forming


Joggling
The end of one of the piece is bend up just
enough to clear the other, and then it is bent
back so it will be parallel to the original piece
Parts should be joggled to fit rather than
attempting to pull them into fitting with rivets.
Form joggles with a soft hammer or a block of
wood, and be sure to maintain an ample
radius in the bends.
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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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Page
No: 164

164

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Sheet Metal Structure

The important part of the repair is to


restore the integrity and strength of the
component.
All the repair must follow structural repair
manual (SRM) or maintenance manual.
Do remember, a fatal accident can occur if
the repair does not restore the original
condition.
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Page
No: 165

165

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repairability of Sheet Metal Structure


Nowadays part are getting expensive, usually,
they are removed and then replaced.
Due to complexity of the construction that it is
more economical to be produced in big
workshops or the manufacturer itself.
Major repair to stressed skin should not be
attempted unless a proper jigs are available.
It is to hold the structure so that the repair will
be close to the original shape and strength.
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Page
No: 166

166

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Assessment Of Damage
Need to think whether it is worth it to repair
a structure or just to replace the structure
Damage that can be seen by the eyes is
easily evaluated, but the damage that is not
apparent, will make a difference of profit or
loss of an aircraft operator
When examining the structure, use the SRM
or IPC to determine the components that
are not visible and evaluate every piece of
skin, rib, former, stringer, and fitting.
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Page
No: 167

167

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Inspection Of Riveted Joints.

Hidden deformation need to be notice


When checking the rivet damage, be sure to
inspect the rivet both the rivet head and the
shop heads.
A method to inspect is to slip a 0.020 inch feeler
gauge under the rivet head, if it goes under, the
rivet may have been stretched.
When rivet damaged s suspected, drill out the
rivet and examine the hole for any indication of
elongation or tearing.
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Page
No: 168

168

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Inspection Of Corrosion.
Usually corrosion formed in an enclosed
area are hard to detect unless there is
required inspection needed.
In sheet metal repair, it is important to
detect, remove and treat corroded
structural component before the
corrosion progress to far.
After treatment, the part should be
primed either epoxy or zinc primer
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No: 169

169

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Specific Sheet Metal

Any repair to the aircraft must refer back to


Structural Repair Manual (SRM ) or
maintenance manual. Both contains the same
information.
SRM defer from repair manual or manufacturer
service as SRM only pertaining to the inspection
and repair of the a/c structure.
if there is any doubt regarding the SRM , can
consult the manufacturer.
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Page
No: 170

170

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure

Approved of the repair


For the a/c to remain airworthy must
meet the criteria set up by the governing
bodies and manufacturer.
Must use approved data
Use the AC 43.13 or aircraft
manufacturer in the service manuals.
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Page
No: 171

171

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure


Criteria Of A Repair
Any structural repair must allow all of the stresses to
enter, must sustain these stresses and allow them to
return to the structure.
Although the strength is less but it is not sacrifice the
metal.
All repair should use metal of same thickness and
type to the original material.
There must be no abrupt changes in the cross
sectional area.
Use a patch which is not square, an orthogonal
shape is okay.
The rivets that are taken out must be reinstalled
back to the original position.
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No: 172

172

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure


Replacement Of a Panel
Sometimes it is better to replace rather
than repair a panel due to a damage.
The installation of a new panel must use
the original rivet sizes and spacing.
Be sure that the new panel has the
sufficient edges distance as the original
one.
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No: 173

173

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure


Design of a patch for a stressed skin.
Usually an octagonal shape is the popular
patch-type.

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No: 174

174

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure


Flush patch for a stressed skin.
A flush patch is enough to replace a
small damage.
It has a uniform strength in all direction.
For maximum streamlining, patch may
be installed on the inside skin using
flush rivet.
A plug of a smaller thickness can also be
used by riveting it in the hole where the
damage is clean out.
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No: 175

175

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure

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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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METAL
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Page
No: 176

176

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure


Stringer repair
To restore stiffness and strength
Low surface of stringer in a cantilever is the
greatest load applied.
Usually to repair a stringer, a splicing
technique is used.
After the splicing has been done, the edge of
splice is cut to an angle for stream lining.

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Page
No: 177

177

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure

Prepared by:
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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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Page
No: 178

178

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure

Waterproof repair for watercraft.


repair on watercraft must be waterproof
and adequately protected from
corrosion.
The type of repair should be the same
as the previous repair , only use with
rubber-like sealant.
The rivet should be dipped in the sealant
and drive while
they
are
wet.
AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
179

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No: 179

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure

Trailing edges repair


made from aluminum alloy and formed
into a V-section
When it is distorted or cracked, it should
be straightened out as much as possible
and insert formed of the same thickness
material slipped inside and riveted in
place.
Usually the head will be upset, means
that the rivet head will be inside
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No: 180

180

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair Of Stressed Skin Structure

Corrugated skin repair


Usually on the small aircraft due to
gain stiffness.
When the corrugated skin is
dented or bent, repair is needed to
restore the strength and stiffness.
Usually the corrugated is available
from the manufacturer.
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Page
No: 181

181

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair of Stressed Skin Structure

Inspection openings
Inspection inside the skin, where
there is no inspection panel exists.
DO NOT CUT THE HOLE ON THE
HIGHLY STRESS AREA.
Check with the manufacturer
manual.
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AIRCRAFT STRUCTURES
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No: 182

182

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair of Stressed Skin Structure


Repair to a pressurized structure.
Repair must be follow the manufacturer/
service manual.
Do not want any stress concentration to
concentrate at one point.
This will fail the structure after several
cycle of pressurization and
depressurization.
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No: 183

183

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair of Stressed Skin Structure


Former or bulkhead repair.
Bulkhead are primary load carrying members
of a fuselage.
Usually perpendicular to the longerons, keel
beam or stringer.
Formers are often called rings, body frames
etc.and former ring are connected to
longerons and stringers by rivets.
Identified by the station numbers especially
used on large aircraft.
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Page
No: 184

184

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair of Stressed Skin Structure

Spar repair.
The general methods of spar repair is to
follow SRM or maintenance manual.
Some repair may involve an insert to the
damaged section of the spar.
Before riveting, any contact material
surface has to be coated with zinc
chromate.
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Page
No: 185

185

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Repair of Stressed Skin Structure

Leading edge repair


Involve with nose rib, skin and
spar.
The leading edge is usually laid
out in sections from butt to tip.
But any repair, must follow
manufacturer manual.
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No: 186

186

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu

Malaysian Institute of Aviation Technology

FOR TRAINING PURPOSE ONLY

Thank You
DCAM No. AO/0110/03
KP(JPS)5195/US/38

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Page
No: 187

187

Subject Code: : Aircr


Date
: 9 Augu