Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 13

HYDRONEPHROSIS

Develops due to outflow obstruction of the ureter,


bladder or urethra.

Obstruction destroys renal function due to elevated


ureteral pressure and decrease renal blood flow
leading to cellular atrophy and necrosis.

Complete ureteral obstruction causes progressive


dilation of the renal pelvis during the first few weeks,
with concomitant atrophy of the cortex.

Incomplete utereral obstruction destroys renal


function more slowly

ETIOLOGY

UNILATERAL HYDRONEPHROSIS:
Abdominal masses compressing the ureter
Ureteral neoplastic, calculi, stenosis or stricture.
Accidental ligation of thee ureter during
ovariohysterectomy
Torsion of the renal pedicle
Ectopic ureter or pyelonephritis

BILATERAL HYDRONEPHROSIS:
Obstruction of the urinary bladder trigone or urethra by
neoplasia
Prostatism, calculi, or pelvic trauma

CLINICAL SIGNS:
Unilateral hydronephrosis is asymptomatic unless the
enlarged kidney distends the abdomen. When kidney is
infected, signs of pyelonephritis (fever, leucocytosis,
flank pain) may develop

Bilateral hydronephrosis is also asymptomatic until


signs of uremia (polyuria, anorexia, vomiting, oral
ulcer ) associated with renal failure develop

DIAGNOSIS
History and clinical signs
Radiography- Excretory urogram
Ultrasonography: Hypoechoic and distended renal
pelvis
TREATMENT
Conservative: Removal of primary cause
Fluid therapy
Surgical therapy: Nephroureterectomy

PYELONEPHRITIS
Caused by bilateral infection characterized by
inflammatory swelling of renal pelvis and compromised
renal function.
Etiology: ascending infection from the lower urinary
tract or from hematogenous seeding of bacteria
Clinical signs : asymptomatic unless systemic signs
develop
Systemic signs (fever, lumbar pain, anorexia, vomiting)
Signs of cystitis (dysuria, hematuria)
Signs uremia in advanced cases

DIAGNOSIS :
History and clinical signs
Leukocytosis is often present
Urinalysis: bacteriological culture of urine sample ,
presence of casts is indicative of renal disease,
Radiography: excretory urography- reveal dilation of renal
pelvis and a decrease in renal size with chronic bacterial
pyelonephritis
Ultrasonography reveals hypo echoic renal pelvis
TREATMENT:
Antibiotic therapy for at least 4 weeks
IF NO RESPONSE NEPHRECTOMY

URETERAL ECTOPIA
Ureters do not open into the trigone of the urinary bladder
din the usual location.
Ectopic ureter terminate in the urethra or in the vagina in
dogs
It is hereditary in condition
Urinary incontinence is the presenting symptoms
Definitive diagnosis is done by excretory urography.
SURGICAL CORRECTION IS THE USUAL TREATMENT

URINARY BLADDER NEOPLASIA


Transitional carcinoma, is most common in dogs
Squamous cell carcinoma, adenosarcoma, fibrosarcoma,
and myxosarcoma also reported
In cats transitional cell carcinoma and squamous cell
carcinoma are most common
Transitional cell carcinomas metastasize from regional
lymphnodes and lungs but also from liver, long bones and
eyes.
ETIOLOGY
Unknown

CLINICAL SIGNS: frequent micturation, blood in


urine, dysuria, loss of body weight
DIAGNOSIS: Clinical Signs
Cytological examination of urine reveal tumor
cells
Radiography: Double contrast cystography
outlines bladder masses & thoracic radiographs
for metastasis
Ultrasonography: reveals tumor mass
Microscopic examination of biopsy confirms
diagnosis
TREATMENT:
Partial cystectomy
cystectomy

BLADDER INJURY
Rupture of urinary bladder is most common traumatic
injury in dogs and cats
ETIOLOGY:
External abdominal trauma
Pelvic fractures
Puncture wounds, traumatic palpation, and
Catheterization of the bladder
CLINICAL SIGNS:
Abdominal pain, Vomition and CNS depression
Urination may or may not present
Abdominal distention
Dehydration

DIAGNOSIS
History of trauma and clinical signs
Abdominal paracentesis reveals presence of urine
Laboratory exadmination: elevted PCV, total plasma
proteins amd serum creatinine urea nitrogen, inorganic
phosphorus 24-48 hours after rupture.
Radiography: retrograde positive contrast cystography
Ultrasonography

TREATMENT
Correct uremia, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance
Caudal ventral midline laparotomy
Identify the site of rupture of the bladder
Freshen the wound edges
Close the tear using inversion sutures
Lavage and clean the abdominal cavity
Close the laparotomy wound

PATENT URACHUS / PERSISTANT URACHUS


The fetal urachus lies within the umbilicus and joins the
urinary bladder to the allantois cavity.
After birth, the urachus closes and turns into the fibrotic
midline (ventral) ligament of the bladder.
When the urachus remains open, urine continues to
dribble from the umbilicus
Urine scalds occur on the ventral abdomen and the
animal may have a foul smelling odor and recurrent
urinary tract infection.
Contract cystography offers a definitive diagnosis of the
condition
Surgical excision is the treatment of choice