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EPITHELIAL TISSUE

HISTOLOGY LECTURE

Fundamental types of
tissues
I- epithelial tissues
II- connective tissues
III- muscle tissues
IV- Nervous tissues

Fundamental Tissues
Fundamental
tissues

cells

Extracellular
matrix

function

epithelial

Aggregated
polyhedral cells

Small amount

Lining surface
of cavities &
glandular
secretion

Connective
tissues

Fixed or
wandering
types

abundant

Support &
protect tissues
& organs

Muscle tissues

Elongated
contractile cells

Moderate
amount

Strong
contraction &
movements

Nervous tissues

Elongated with
fine processes

Very small
amount

Transmission of
nerve impulse

organs
Group of tissues performing special functions
Composed of;
A. Parenchyma- cells responsible for organs

specialized functions
B. Stroma- supportive cells of the parenchyma
* all stroma are connective tissues except brain

and spinal cord.

EPITHELIAL TISSUE

Functions of Epithelial
tissues
1. serve as cover, lining, protection of

surfaces, cavities
2. absorption

3. secretions

Generalities
1. variable shapes and sizes
2.closely adherent with each other
3. avascular
4. lies on basement membrane
5. shows polarity
6. arranged usually in layers or in sheets
7. presence of surface modifications

Variable shape and size


of cells
- depends on functions

of cells
- nucleus;
A. Important in
determining the shape
of cells
B. Determines the

layers of epithelial
cells

Avascular
- nutrients and oxygen

received from blood


vessels in connective
tissue
A. Lamina propia
( digestive, respiratory
and urinary system)
B. Papillae small
evaginations of
connective tissues

papillae

polarities
1. basal pole
2. apical pole
3. lateral surface

Presence of basement membrane


Extracellular matrix

characterized by felt-like sheet


- semi permeable
Functions;
- filter substances moving
towards the cell
-provide support to epith cells
- mediate cell to cell
interaction
- serve as scaffold or rigidity
- involve in epithelial repair
and regeneration

Basement membranes
A. Basal lamina
Network of fine fibrils
B. Reticular lamina
- located beneath the basal lamina

Differences between basement


membrane & basal lamina
Basement membrane

Basal lamina

- fine extracellular layer seen

Entire structure or sheet

where epithelial cells are


located

ultrastructurally
- believed to be secretion
from lateral surface of
epithelial cells
-also called as external
lamina
- functions as semipermeable
barrier regulating exchanges
of substances between cell

Composition of basal
lamina
- type IV collagen
- laminin
- nidogen & perlecan
* role in maintaining cellular polarity. Localize

endocytosis , signal transducers

Reticular lamina
- composed of type III collagen

Appositional arrangement of cells


Specialized

intercellular
junctions;
1. tight junctions
2. adherent junctions
3. gap junctions

Tight junctions
- other name; occluding junction or zona

occludens
- location; apical surface
- forms a band completely encircling each
cell,
- fusion of the membranes of cells formed seal
in between the cells.

Functions of tight
junction
1. serve as transcellular path for molecules

crossing between cells


2. serve as fence to substances moving from

apical to lateral surface, and basal surfaces


3. maintains distinct membrane domains;
The different components allow sides of epithelium
to display different receptors and different functions.

Adherens junction
Also called zona adherens
- encircles epithelial cells
- located below the tight junction
Function;
- anchors cell to neighboring cells
=mediated by cadherines ; react which calcium

present in cell membranes


- bands or holds pack of cells

Desmosomes
- contain larger

cadherins
Function;
- attached cable like
filaments of
cytoskeleton ,
referred as
tonofilaments

Gap junction
- function;

Mediate in intercellular communication

Permits exchange of smaller molecular substances


in between cells
a. Fast transduction of cyclic nucleotides and ions
b. Allows coordinated movements

* Composition of gap junction; connexine

Gap junctions
A. Hemi-desmosomes
- adhesive structures attached to the basal
lamina
- serve as anchoring junction
B. Focal adhesion
- anchoring junction found in cells of epithelial
repair

Apical specialization
- special structures found at the apical end of

columnar and cuboidal cells


Functions;
- 1. increase apical surface area for better
absorption
- 2. allows movement along epithelial surfaces

Surface specialization structures


1. microvilli
2. cilia
3. stereocilia

Microvilli
- located on apical surface

of epithelial cell
Function; absorption
* intestine; * called

brushborder or striated
border
- surface (+) glycocalyx
bound to proteins &
enzymes for digestion of
certain molecules

Stereocilia
Less common type
Loc; absorptive epithelial cell

lining male reproductive


system
- inner ear

Functions;
1. increase surface area to

facilitate absorption
2. motion detecting function
( inner ear )

Differences between microvilli and


stereocilia
microvilli

stereocilia

- contain microfilament

- longer, less motile


- branchy at the distal end

and actin binding protein

Cilia
- long highly motile

apical structure
larger than microvilli
- contain microtubule

but not
microfilament

Types of cilia
A. Motile cilia
- abundant in cuboidal & columnar cells
- exhibit rapid beating patterns to move current of fluid and
suspended material in one direction along epithelium
B. Non- motile cilia
- usually single
- enriched with receptors and signal transduction
- form complex to detect light, odour, motion and flow of

liquid

Types of Epithelium
I- Covering or Lining Epithelium
Function;

- cover or line cavities or surfaces of the body

II- glandular epithelium or secretory

epithelium
- forms glands for secretion

Lining Epithelium
A. Classification according to the number of layers
1- simple- single layer
2- stratified- multiple layer
3. pseudostratified
4. transitional
B. Classification according to shape of cells
1. squamous or flat
2. cuboidal
3. columnar

Simple epithelium

Stratified epithelium

Pseudostratified
epithelium

Transitional epithelium

According to shape of the


superficial layer
A. Squamous or flat
A. Keratinized
B. Non- keratinized
B. Cuboidal
C. columnar

Squamous epithelim
Non keratinized

keratinized

Cuboidal & columnar


cuboidal

columnar

Glandular Epithelium
- secretory epithelijm
Functions;
1. produce and secrete macromolecules
2. synthesize, store, release substances like

proteins lipids and carbohydrates

classification
I- exocrine glands
- remain connected with the epithelial surface
through ducts
- secretions are delivered to the surface
II- endocrine glands
- no connection on the surface
- ductless
- secretions are distributed through blood vessels
adjacent to the endocrine cells

Exocrine glands
Parts;
1. secretory portion
- supported by a stroma
- present in both exocrine and endocrine glands

2, tubular portion
- transport secretion from the secretory portion to
the surface of the epithelium

Classification of exocrine
glands
1. simple
Ducts has no branches
2. compound
Ducts has branches

Classification of secretory portion


1. tubular
- a. Short or long tubules
-b. coiled
2. acinar or round

Unicellular glands
Scattered along

epithelial linings
Secretory cells like

goblet cell
- secretes mucus to

lubricate and aids


function of organs

Mechanisms of releasing secretory


products
1. merocrine secretion

2. holocrine secretion
3. apocrine secretion

Merocrine secretion
Most common method

of protein and
glycoprotein secretion
- involves typical

exocytosis; from
membrane bound
vesicles to secretory
granules

HOLOCRINE SECRETION
Cells accumulate its

product,
continuously,
when enlarged, it
undergo
differentiation
Culminate complete
cell disruption and
release its product
and cell debris into
gland lumen

Apocrine glands
Products accumulate

at the cells apical


portion, extrude to
release the product
together with small
amounts of
cytoplasm and cell
membrane
E.g. Mammary gland;
sweat glands

Classification of merocrine glands


according to nature of secretion
1. serous
2. mucous
3. mixed serous and mucous

Myoepithelial cells
Mode of transport

across the cell ;


transcellular
- through sodium,

potassium pump