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ECM206 PROJECT

MILITARY SECRET BASE


MOHAMAD QAMEL BIN BADROL HISHAM
MOHD NIZARMAN BIN ZAMRI
M U H A M M A D R I D H W A N B I N A H M A D FA D Z L I
MUHAMMAD ZAHIR BIN YUSOF
SYED MUHAMMAD BAHTHIAR BIN SYED OSMAN

Our project

Military Hangar

Frame of the hangar

Aircraft hangar commonly used steel as a frame..


Why steel is used as a frame?
Because steel :
Able to resist multiple loads simultaneously including
dynamic loads from door systems, horizontal seismic
and wind forces, plus the large internal uplift forces
generated by hurricane-force winds.
Plastic Coating
Various Plastisol PVC coatings make good attractive
finishes for steel framed storage buildings. Light colours
are recommended particularly for sunny places. The
plastisol is more durable and abrasion resistant than
enamels. For storage buildings exposed to damaging
environmental conditions, double sided Plastisol (200
microns outside and 100 microns inside) is often the best
long term solution.

Wall and Roofing


Composite Double Skin
Composite Double Skin Sandwich Boards can be used for
roofing steel framed storage warehouses. A nearly flat
mini rib composite sandwich panel can be used on walls.
It can be self finish inside and out and can have windows
and doors fitted for a smart look. Double skin composite
elements are formed from two steel skins connected to
an infill of concrete with welded stud connectors.

Type of roof used is curved roof because it is less visible


from the air.

Flooring
Standard hangar physical characteristics include
asphalt or concrete ramps and reinforced concrete
floors with additional reinforcement at critical wheel
contact points.
Floor finishes are polyurethane resin or epoxy
consisting of a primer plus a top-coat or a mid-coat and
top-coat.
Floors should slope toward drains or the hangar door
and should be slightly above the site grade.
For your information
Military hangars require superior fire protection,
reinforcement, hardening, and maintenance/personnel
amenities because of the high value of the aircraft and
national security demands.

Bitumen airport pavement

Shell Bitumen
Shell Bitumens effective airport

pavement solutions help to improve


safety, increase durability and reduce
maintenance costs.
These solutions are all backed by
technical expertise, continual product
development and a proven local and
global track record.

Shell Cariphalte
A premium binder meeting the needs of high

performance airport pavements


Shell Cariphalte is a premium bitumen formulated

specifically to meet the key performance requirements


identified by the respective Airports Association:
Groove stability resistance to groove closure and
edge break
Resistance to permanent deformation
Resistance to moisture damage
Ease of construction with the asphalt
Resistance to fatigue.

Advantages of bitumen
Adhesive
Binds together all the

components without
bringing about any positive
or negative changes in
their properties

Water proof
Bitumen is insoluble in water and can serve as

an effective sealant

Strong
Though the coarse aggregates are the main load

bearing component in a pavement, bitumen or


asphalt also play a vital role in distributing the
traffic loads to the layers beneath

Durable
Bitumen lives up to twenty years if

maintained properly throughout the pavement


life.

Versatile
Bitumen is a relatively easy to use material

because of its thermoplastic property. It can


be spread easily along the underlying
pavement layers as it liquefies when heated
making the job easier and hardens in a solid
mass when cooled.

Economical
It is available in cheaper rates almost all over

the world

WAVE BREAKER

INTRODUCTION
Every Wave breaker is designed to suit the particular
site it is needed to protect.
There are presently 13 types ranging in width, draught
and freeboard.
Each Wave breaker has an effective maximum wave
height for which it remains effective as a breakwater.
If a greater wave height is required then a larger wave
breaker type would be required

MATERIAL USE

Made up of cellular reinforced concrete


units with Sulphate Resting Concrete
(SRC) walls on a Reinforced Concrete
frame.
Where conditions permit a lightweight
Plastic Aggregate Concrete (PAC) can be
used to acheive the correct Buoyancy.

ADVANTAGES

Protect from waves.


Very strong
Provide a clean edge to both sides of the
breakwater.

TIMBER BRIDGE

ADVANTAGES
Good resistance for de-icing agents
Timber bridges do not require expansion joints
Timber has inherently good damping properties
that are important for bridge structures.
Fast erecting time
Renovation and demounting is not difficult

ADVANCE MATERIAL
Glulam, an engineered timber product, provides
greater strength than sawn lumber for longer span
applications.
Glulam is manufactured by laminating individual
pieces of sawn lumber together with waterproof
structural adhesives. Glulam is available in a wide
range of lengths, widths, and depths.

EXAMPLE OF GLULAM

Antenna
Tower

Intoduction
It

known as Radio Most and


Towers.
One of tallest man-made
structure.
To transmit and receives
signal and information to
one place to another.

Material use
Steel

Lattice (Truss Tower).


Freestanding
Divide force equally
Protection:

Active coating.
Painting.

CEMENT

CEMENT USED
Over time, a variety of cements have been

developed to ensure of the concrete under different


conditions and these cement each contain different
amount of compound. The main types of cement
currently available in practice are :
Ordinary Portland cement
Rapid Hardening cement
Low heat Portland cement
Sulphate resisting cement (SRC)
Portland blast furnace cement

As for marine environment, a concrete which is durable is

what we required.
To achieve this only cement which perform well in this
environment should be use.
Both sulphate resisting cement & portland blast furnace
cement have required this characteristics.
In seawater there are salt that are particularly active :
Magnesium
Sodium Sulphate
As concrete is immersed in seawater in will have the
tendency to corrode. This is because during the process
of hydration, chemical reaction between the concrete and
the above salt mineral.
A solution to overcome this problem lies in the use of
cement with low tricalcium aluminate,C3A and such cement
is known as sulphate resisting cement.

STEEL

STEEL USED

Stainless steels are alloys of iron, chromium and


other elements that resist corrosion from many
environments.
Stainless steels can be very complicated from
the metallurgical standpoint because they can
contain significant concentrations of eight or
more elements and the properties of the various
alloys vary from alloy to alloy.

GRADE OF STEEL USED

The grade of the stainless steel we used is


GRADE 316. It is also known as AISI 316
(AMERICAN IRON AND STEEL INSTITUTE )
AISI 316 has extra molybdenum added to the
basic alloy to improve its corrosion resistance

EXAMPLE OF STEEL


The end.