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GENERAL PRACTICES OF

HYDROTESTING IN
CROSSCOUNTRY PIPELINE

CONSTRUCTION DESIGN
CODE
Onshore pipeline:- ASME 31.4 Product pipeline
ASME 31.8 Gas pipeline
Offshore pipeline:- DNV Rules for Submarine
Pipeline

WELDING CODE
Onshore pipeline:- API 1104
Offshore pipeline:- DNV Rules for
Submarine Pipeline

HYDROTESTING CODE
Onshore pipeline:- API 1110 Pressure
Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipeline.
Offshore pipeline:- API 1110 Pressure
Testing of Liquid Petroleum Pipeline.

ACTIVITIES INVOLVED ON
HYDROTESTING
PRE-HYDROTESTING ACTIVITIES
HYDROTESTING
POST-HYDROTESTING ACTIVITIES

PRE-HYDROTESTING
ACTIVITIES
FINAL LENGTH IS ACHIEVED FROM CLEARED
PIPEBOOK

VOLUME IS DERIVED FROM FINAL LENGTH


CLEANING
GAUGING
ARRANGEMENTS FOR TEMPERATURE
RECORDING
CHECK FOR EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION

CLEANING
With AIR :-Usually unidirectional cup
pigs,magnetic pig are used with or without
brush. Generally, brush is Used.
With water :- some quantity of water is flooded
then again with or without brush pig is lunched
for cleaning . Once cleaning is achieved we
should.
proceed for the next step.

GAUGING
Gauge plate generally 95% of the smallest ID with
Thickness:- 10-12mm or suitable
Material :-aluminium is used
The gauge plate is fixed in the PIG and launched
with the water and then received on the other side
& examined to ensure the pipe is free from
deformations .Once the Gauge plate is received
in good condition then we should proceed to the
next activity.

ARRANGEMENTS FOR
TEMPERATURE RECORDING
ONSHORE:-Thermocouples are fixed at
equal intervals as per specification,ie one on
soil and the other touching the pipe surface.
OFFSHORE:-Arrangements are made to
record sea-bed temperature.

CHECK FOR EQUIPMENT


CALIBRATION

DEAD WEIGHT TESTER


THERMOCOUPLES
FLOWMETERS
STROKE COUNTERS

PRESSURE / TEMPERATURE RECORDERS

AIR VOLUME WATER COLLECTION


TANK.

HYDROTESTING
FILLING
THERMAL STABILIZATION
AIR VOLUME
CALCULATION/DEPRESSURISATION
PRESSURE HOLDING
CONCLUSION
DE-PRESSURISATION

THERMAL STABILIZATION

PIPE IS LEFT FOR STABILIZATION


ONSHORE:-THERMOCOUPLE (PIPEWALL & SOIL)
OFFSHORE:- PIPEWALL TEMPERATURE & SEA BED IS
RECORDED AT EVERY 2 HRS INTERVALS
IN ONSHORE THE THERMAL STABILIZATION WILL BE
DEEMED TO HAVE BEEN ACHIEVED WHEN DIFFERENCE IN
TWO CONCECUTIVE SET OF THERMOCOUPLE READING
(AVERAGE) SHOULD BE WITHIN 01 deg C.
IN OFFSHORE THE THERMAL STABILIZATION WILL BE
DEEMED TO HAVE BEEN ACHIEVED WHEN DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THE AVERAGE PIPEWALL TEMPERATURE AND
AVERAGE SEABED TEMPERATURE OVER THE SECTION
LENGTH IS WITHIN 01 deg C.

FILLING
Some quantity of water is pumped and then
PIG is launched with water.After some
water is pumped another PIG is launched
followed by Water, in this way the PIG is
pushed by the water till water comes from
other end and after all the PIGs have been
received in the header, then the system is
isolated.

AIR-VOLUME CALCULATION
ONSHORE
OFFSHORE

AIR VOLUME CALCULATION


ONSHORE

The system is pressurized for the 50 % of the hold pressure and then practically 0.5bar pressure is
dropped and the water collected is measured say as Vp then the theoretical volume for a drop of 0.5
bar at 50 % hold pressure is calculated say as Vt.
Vt = (0.884 ri /t + A) x 10-6 x Vg x P x K
Vg = Geometrical volume of the test section
P = Pressure rise in bar
ri = Nominal inner radius of the pipe (mm)
t
= Nominal pipe thickness
A = Isothermal compressibility of water at the pressurization temperature in
the P range ( bar-1) x 10-6 (refer water compressibility factor Vs pressure
and temperature chart)

= A Dimensionless coefficient that is equivalent to a value of 1.02 for


longitudinally welded pipe
Vp / Vt

1.06 for acceptance.

AIR-VOLUME CALCULATION
OFFSHORE

Plot pressure/volume
Record reading of added volume of water during initial pressurization at every increment of 1
bar with the help of pump stroke counter or flow meter.
Plot curve for actual pressure / volume added of water.
The linear section of the curve shall be extrapolated to the volume axis.this shall correspond to
static head pressure.
If air content exceeds 0.2% of the test section volume the pressure shall be brought down slowly to
1 bar above static head.Air if any shall be vented out from all available vent valves.Again the
test section shall be pressurized up to 50% of test pressure and air content check shall be
repeated as per above- mentioned procedure.
When air content is less than or equal to 0.2% of the test section volume, the pipeline under test
shall be held at 50% pressure for a period of 2 hrs and shall be depressurized to static head,
during which time a leak check shall be conducted on all topside connection.
The above plot curve is continued till 100% test pressure and any deviation of more than 10%
from the theoretical line corresponding to 100% water content, the test shall be terminated.The
pressure will be released and an investigation shall be carried out to determine the cause of the
deviation prior to re-pressurization.
This is an alternate method to the calculation shown in slide No:-15 ,this is convenient to use
when the section is very big.

PRESSURE/VOLUME
CALCULATION
V =V x
P

D (1-2) + 1
Et
B

P = INCREMENTAL PRESSURE (BAR)


= POISSONS RATIO( FOR STEEL 0.3 BAR)
D = PIPELINE OUTSIDE DIAMETER ( METERS)
t = NOMINAL PIPEWALL THICKNESS (METER)
B = BULK MODULOUS OF STEEL ( BAR)
E = YOUNGS ELASTIC MODULUS OF STEEL (BAR)
V = GEOMETRICAL VOLUME OF THE SECTION ( M3 )

PRESSURE HOLDING
PRESSURE RANGE FIXING FOR ONSHORE AND
OFFSHORE
MAXIMUM PRESSURE IS DERIVED FROM
P = 2ST / D
P = PRESSURE, S = YELD STRENGTH , T = THICKNESS
D = DIAMETER OF THE SECTION
S SHALL BE 90% OR AS MENTIONED IN SPECIFICATION
MINIUM PRESSURE IS DEREVIED FROM 1.25 TIMES OF
DESIGIN PRESSURE OR AS PER SPECIFICATION.

PRESSURE HOLDING
ONSHORE
PRESSURE IS RECORDED FROM THE
DEAD WEIGHT TESTER AT EVERY
01hrs INTERVELS.
TEMPRATURE IS RECORDED FROM
THE THERMOCOUPLE AT EVERY 2 hrs
INTERVELS

CONCLUSION
PRESSURE CHANGE DUE TO WATER TEMP: CHANGE
P =
B
T
0.884 ri / t
P = PRESSURE CHANGE RESULTING FROM A TEMPERATURE CHANGE
(BAR).
T = ALGEBRAIC DEFERENCE BETWEEN WATER TEMPERATURE AT THE
BEGINNING OF THE TEST AND WATER TEMPERATURE AS MEASURED
AT THE END OF THE TEST (0C )
B = DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THERMAL EXPENSION OF WATER AND STEEL AT
TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE AS MEASURED FROM ENCLOSED TABLE
AT THE END OF THE TEST.
ri = NOMINAL INNER RADIUS OF PIPE, t = NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS OF PIPE.
A = ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR OF WATER.

CONCLUSION
CALCULATION OF PRESSURE CHANGE (P ) DUE
TO WATER BLEEDING.

P=VP x 106 / ( 0.884 (ri/ti) + A) x V


VP = VOLUME OF WATER BLEEDED
V = VOLUME OF THE TEST SECTION
ri = NOMINAL INNER RADIUS OF PIPE, t = NOMINAL WALL THICKNESS
OF
PIPE.
A = ISOTHERMAL COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR OF WATER.

CONCLUSION

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

AFTER CALCULATING
P Due to change in temperature
P Due to water bleeding
Initial pressure in the pipeline
Final pressure in the pipeline
Accountable pressure loss / gain due to Change in temperature.
Accountable pressure loss due to dripping / bleeding of water.
Allowable unaccountable pressure loss is 0.3 kg/cm2 max.

Actual Unaccountable pr drop = Actual pr drop Accountable pr drop


The permissible unaccountable pr drop is 0.3 kg/cm2
If the Actual unaccountable pr drop is more than 0.3 kg/cm2 then the
test is not acceptable and concluded as leak in the system.If the value is less
than
0.3 kg/cm2 then the test is acceptable and released for dewatering.

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