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Transformers

Transformer
It is a static device.
It transfers electrical energy from one electrical circuit to other with
desired change in voltage and current, without changing the
frequency(f=50Hz) and power.
Constant flux device
Magnetically coupled and electrically isolated
Electro magnetic conversion device.

Principle of operation
It is based on
principle
of
MUTUAL
INDUCTION.
According
to
which an e.m.f. is
induced in a coil
when current in
the neighbouring
coil changes.

Constructional detail : Shell type

Parallel magnetic circuit


Windings are wrapped around the central limb of a laminated
core.
Sandwitch winding to reduce the leakage flux
Less amount of copper & more amount of insulation is
required

Constructional detail : Core type

Series magnetic circuit


Windings are wrapped around two sides of a laminated square
core.
More amount of copper & less amount of insulation is
required.
Economical for high voltage applications

Sectional view of transformers

Note:
High voltage conductors are smaller cross section conductors
than the low voltage coils

Core type

Fig1: Coil and laminations of


core type transformer

Fig2: Various types of cores

Shell type

Fig: Sandwich windings

The HV and LV
windings are split
into no. of
sections
Where HV winding
lies between two
LV windings
In sandwich coils
leakage can be
controlled

Cut view of transformer

Transformer with conservator


and breather

Working of a transformer
1. When current in the primary coil
changes being alternating in
nature, a changing magnetic field
is produced
2. This changing magnetic field gets
associated with the secondary
through the soft iron core
3. Hence magnetic flux linked with
the secondary coil changes.
4. Which induces e.m.f. in the
secondary.

Ideal Transformers
Zero leakage flux:
-Fluxes produced by the primary and secondary currents
are confined within the core
The windings have no resistance:
- Induced voltages equal applied voltages
The core has infinite permeability
- Reluctance of the core is zero
- Negligible current is required to establish magnetic
flux
Loss-less magnetic core
- No hysteresis or eddy currents

Ideal transformer

V1 supply voltage ;
V2- output voltgae;
Im- magnetising current;
E1-self induced emf ;

I1- noload input current ;


I2- output current
E2- mutually induced emf

Phasor diagram: Transformer


on No-load

Transformer on load assuming


no voltage drop in the winding

Fig shows the Phasor diagram of a


transformer on load by assuming
1.No voltage drop in the winding
2.Equal no. of primary and secondary turns

Transformer on load

Fig. a: Ideal transformer on load


Fig. b: Main flux and leakage
flux in a transformer

Equivalent circuit of a
transformer
No load equivalent circuit:

Equivalent circuit parameters referred


to primary and secondary sides
respectively

Transferring secondary parameters to primary side


Cu loss after transfer = cu loss before transfer

I 12 R2' I 22 R2
I2
R
I1
'
2

R2

R2
2
k

Where R21 - Equivalent secondary resistance w.r.t primary


R01 = R1 + R21
Where R01 Total primary resistance referred to secondary

Equivalent circuit referred to primary side :

Transferring primary parameters to secondary side :


Cu loss after transfer = cu loss before transfer

I 22 R1' I12 R1
I
R 1' 1
I2

R1

= k 2 R1
Where R11 - Equivalent primary resistance w.r.t secondary
R02 = R2 + R11
Where R01 Total secondary resistance referred to primary

Equivalent circuit referred to secondary side :

Equivalent circuit w.r.t primary :

where

Approximate equivalent circuit


Since the no load current is 1% of the full load current, the no
load circuit can be neglected

Transformer Tests
The performance of a transformer can be calculated on
the basis of equivalent circuit
The four main parameters of equivalent circuit are:
- R01 as referred to primary (or secondary R02)
- the equivalent leakage reactance X01 as referred
to primary
(or secondary X02)
- Magnetising susceptance B0 ( or reactance X0)
- core loss conductance G0 (or resistance R0)
The above constants can be easily determined by two
tests
- Oper circuit test (O.C test / No load test)
- Short circuit test (S.C test/Impedance test)
These tests are economical and convenient
- these tests furnish the result without actually
loading the
transformer
Electrical Machines

Open-circuit Test
In Open Circuit Test the transformers secondary winding is
open-circuited, and its primary winding is connected to a
full-rated line voltage.
R0

Core loss Woc V0 I 0 cos 0


cos 0

Woc
V0 I 0

Usually conducted on
H.V side
To find
(i) No load loss or core
loss
(ii) No load current Io
which is helpful in
finding Go(or Ro ) and Bo
(or Xo )

I m or I I 0 sin 0 I 02 -I w2
I 0 V0 Y0 ;

Yo

V0
I
I
G0 w
V0
X0

I c or I w I 0 cos 0

V0
Iw

I0
V0

B0

I
V0

Woc V02 G 0 ; Exciting conductance G 0


&

Exciting susceptance B0 Y02 G02

Woc
V02

Short-circuit Test

In Short Circuit Test the secondary terminals are short


circuited, and the primary terminals are connected to a
fairly low-voltage source
The input voltage is adjusted until the current in the
short circuited windings is equal to its rated value. The
input voltage, current and power is measured.
Full load cu loss Wsc I sc2 R01
R 01

Wsc
I sc2

Z 01

Vsc
I sc

X 01 Z 012 R012

Usually conducted on L.V side


To find
(i) Full load copper loss to pre determine the
efficiency
(ii) Z01 or Z02; X01 or X02; R01 or R02 - to
predetermine the voltage regulation

Voltage regulation

recall

no - load voltage full - load voltage


no - load voltage

Vs N s

Vp N p

Secondary voltage on no-load

N2

N1

V2 V1

V2 is a secondary terminal voltage on full load


Substitute we have
Voltage regulation

N2
V2
V1
N1
N2

V1
N1

Formula: voltage regulation


In terms of secondary values
I 2 R02 cos 2 I 2 X 02 sin 2
0 V2 V2
% regulation

0 V2
0 V2
where '' for lagging and '-' for leading
In terms of primary values
V1 V2' I1 R01 cos 1 I1 X 01 sin 1
% regulation

V1
V1
where '' for lagging and '-' for leading

Transformer Efficiency
Transformer efficiency is defined as (applies to motors,
generators and transformers):

Pout

100%
Pin

Pout
100%
Pout Ploss

Types of losses incurred in a transformer:


Copper I2R losses
Hysteresis losses
Eddy current losses
Therefore, for a transformer, efficiency may be calculated using
the following:

VS I S cos

x100%
PCu Pcore VS I S cos
Electrical Machines

Losses in a transformer
Core or Iron loss:

Total cu losses =
=
=

Condition for maximum efficiency :

The load at which the two losses are equal =

All day efficiency :


ordinary commercial efficiency

all day

out put in watts


input in watts

output in kWh
( for 24 hours)
Input in kWh

All day efficiency is always less than the commercial efficiency

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