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Understanding Organizational Behaviour

Oxford University Press Malaysia, 2009

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Ch. 6: 1

Motivation
CHAPTER

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Ch. 6: 2

Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you will understand:

What is motivation process?


Maslows need hierarchy theory.
The difference between Maslows and
McClellands theories.
How motivators are different from hygiene
factors.
The application of goal setting to system
performance.
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Ch. 6: 3

Learning Objectives (cont.)


In this chapter, you will understand:

The key relationships in expectancy theory and


its practical implications for motivating
employees.
The role of perceived inequity in employee
motivation.
How the contemporary theories of motivation
complement each other.
Issues to be addressed in implementing a
motivational program.
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Learning Objectives (cont.)


In this chapter, you will understand :

The background of job design as an applied


area of work motivation.
The job characteristics model of job design.
Financial rewards as motivators.

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6.1

What is Motivation?

Motivation is defined as forces within an


individual that influence the direction, intensity
and persistence of the individuals voluntary
behaviour.
Motivation affects a persons decision-making
process, which is internal in nature.

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6.2

Early Theories of Work


Motivation

Maslows Needs Hierarchy Theory


Herzbergs Two-Factor Theory
Alderfers ERG Theory
McClellands Need Theory

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6.2.1 Maslows Needs Hierarchy


Theory
Maslows hierarchy of
needs offer a pyramid of
lower-order needs such as
psychological, safety and
social needs and higherorder needs, namely,
esteem and selfactualisation.
Maslow postulated that
needs are only motivators
if they are unsatisfied.
Understanding Organizational Behaviour
Oxford University Press Malaysia, 2009

Physiological needs: The lowest and most


basic needs, primary needs, e.g. need of
hunger, sleep, cover from weather and thirst.
Safety needs: Emotional as well as physical
safety in this next level of needs.
Social/ Belonging needs: Affection and
affiliation needs. An example of this need will
be social acceptance.
Esteem needs: This level represents the
higher needs of humans, e.g. need for power,
need for achievement and status. This need
correspond to self-esteem as well as esteem
from others.
Self-actualization: The highest human needs.
Those who are self-actualized are self-fulfilled
and are aware of their potential.
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Ch. 6: 8

6.2.1 Maslows Needs Hierarchy


Theory

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6.2.2

Herzbergs Two-Factor
Theory

Herzbergs two-factor theory identifies


hygiene factors as source of job dissatisfaction
and motivation factors as the source of
satisfaction on job.
Motivators: Job satisfiers related to the job content.
Hygiene factors: Job dissatisfiers related to the job
context or factors that are preventive to individuals
dissatisfaction.
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6.2.2

Herzbergs Two-Factor
Theory

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6.2.3

Alderfers ERG Theory

Identifies three groups of needs: existence,


relatedness and growth needs to affect motivation.
According to ERG theory, each individual has
different level of each needs.
The theory explained how people progress up the
hierarchy and how does people can regress if they
failed to fulfill higher level needs.

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6.2.3

Alderfers ERG Theory

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6.2.4

McClellands Need
Theory

Need for achievement (nAch) is the desire to do better, solve problems or master
complex tasks.
e.g successful entrepreneurs who are high in need for achievement are known to
welcome challenging goals and thrive on competitions.
Need for power (nPower) is the desire to control others and influence their
behaviour.
e.g an effective leader would have high need for socialized power than
personalized power
Need for affiliation (nAff) is the desire for friendly and warm relations with others.
e.g employees who are high in need for affiliation would be suitable in roles
responsible to mediate conflicts or to create strong long term relationship

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6.3

Alternative Theories of
Work Motivation

Alternative theories termed as process motivation theories understand how


and why people are motivated.
Vrooms expectancy theory
states that work motivation is dependent on individuals belief regarding effort/
performance relationships and work outcomes.
Equity theory of motivation.
This theory postulates that people will act to eliminate any felt inequity in the
rewards received for their work in comparison with others.
Goal setting theory.
The process of setting goals with feedback for motivation and higher
performance
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6.3.1

Vrooms Expectancy
Theory

Vrooms expectancy theory states that the work


motivation is dependent on individuals beliefs
regarding effort/performance relationships and work
outcomes.

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6.3.1

Vrooms Expectancy
Theory

Expectancies represents an individuals belief that a


particular degree of effort will be followed by a particular level
of performance.
Probability range (0-1)
First level outcome
An expectancy of 1 indicates highest level effort will resulted in
the desired performance.
e,g employees with high self esteem and self efficacy may put an
effort without doubt towards their work performance.

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6.3.1

Vrooms Expectancy
Theory

Instrumentality refers to an individuals belief that a particular


outcome is contingent on accomplishing a specific level of
performance.
Probability range (1.0 to -1.0)
Desired second level outcome
An instrumentality of 1.0 outcome is attained depending on task
performance whereas an instrumentality of -1.0 means the
high performance reduces the possibility of achieving outcome.
e.g employee tend to belief to get an increment (1 level outcome)
and job promotion (2 level outcome) as the result of high grade
of performance appraisal.
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6.3.1

Vrooms Expectancy
Theory

Valence is the value to an individual attached to various


outcomes.
Refers to positive and negative values individuals place on
outcomes.
e.G the factor to increase one motivation is different between on
another such as family background, individual affectivity,
religion, interest, education background and other.

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6.3.2

Equity Theory of
Motivation

Equity theory postulates that people will act to


eliminate any felt inequity in the rewards received
for their work in comparison with others.
In such cases, an individual will take the following
actions to establish a sense of equity:
Change work output e.g unproductive work
Change the outcomes received e.g demand for
incentive
Quit from the work e.g dismissal
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6.3.3

Goal Setting Theory

Goal setting theory is the process of setting


goals with feedback for motivation and higher
performance.
Goal setting model and further researches
summarize it in the following ways:
Difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher
performance.
Specific goals may lead to higher performance.
Feedback facilitates higher performance.
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6.3.3

Goal Setting Theory

(cont.)

Abilities to perform and feeling of self-efficacy leads to


higher performance.
Goal commitment and acceptance is required for
higher performance.

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SMART Goals
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Result oriented
Time bound

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6.4

Limitations of Motivation
Theories

Human behaviours result from multiple


sources.
Managers should not assume that everything
means the same to everyone.
Work is not necessarily ones life focus.

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6.5

Challenges in Motivating
Organizations

6.5.1 Motivating Performance Through Diversity


6.5.2 Motivating Performance Through Different
Employment Patterns

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6.6

Job Design

Job design refers to any set of activities that alters specific jobs so as
to increase the job responsibilities, job activities or to change how the
job is to be executed.
E.g increasing of job responsibilities produce a multitasking employees an
all rounder (positive)
additional of job responsibilities subject to job burnout (negative)
Job rotation: It refers to moving employees from one job to another to
add variety and reduce boredom by allowing them to perform different
tasks.
E.g transferring to other department for impart knowledge and skills

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Ch. 6: 26

6.6

Job Design (cont.)

Job enlargement: It refers to expansion of the number of different


tasks performed by an employee in a single job. This process adds
to the variety of jobs and makes it more interesting and
challenging.
E,g A well rounder manager is capable to manage entire project
including pre and post project implementation.
Job enrichment: It means adding few more motivators to a job to
make it challenging and rewarding.
E.g Promoting to managerial post is considered as job enrichment
where the job content, will encourage employee to sustain his
achievement.
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Ch. 6: 27

6.7

The Job Characteristics


Model

Skill variety: The extent to which a job incorporates a number of


different activities and skills.
E.g improvement of employees skills set and capability.

Task identity: The extent to which the job incorporates the


performance of a whole or completely identifiable piece of work.
Task identity is high when a person works on a product from
beginning to the end and able to see the finished product.
E.g A condition where employee recognizing their job independently.

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6.7
The Job Characteristics
Model (cont.)
Task significance: The extent that the job affects the lives of other
people.
E.g they believe, that their work is meaningful, have responsibility for the
outcome and receive feedback from the job delivered.
Autonomy: The extent that the job allows an individual to experience
freedom, independence in executing a job or making decisions.
E.g A manager has the autonomy (power to make decision) to lead the team.
Feedback: The extent that the job provides response about on-the-job
performance or the effectiveness of their work.
E.g response or result for the job perforamance

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Ch. 6: 29

Review Questions
1. Why should a manager be well versed in the various
motivation theories?
2. How could a managers attempt to treat his or her
employees equally lead to perception of inequity?
Explain.
3. Someone in your discussion group has a low
expectancy for successful performance, what could
you do to increase this person expectancy?
4. How could a professor use equity, expectancy and
goal setting theory to motivate students performance?
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Ch. 6: 30