Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 46

LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

(LECTURE 3)
BY

UROOJ FATIMA

Recall of Previous lecture


Kinetic molecular theory
Viscosity
Surface tension
Cohesive forces
Adhesive forces
Meniscus Concave or Convex
Surfactant

Exercise
Which one of the following have highest surface

tension, and which one have lowest


benzene
carbontetrachloride
ethanol
hexane
mercury
methanol
water

Solids
When the temperature is so low that the molecules of

a Liquid do not have enough energy to escape even


partially from their neighbors, the substance
solidifies.

Solids
Solids are substance in which particles are closely

pack to one an other due to strong intermolecular


force of attraction.
The nature of the solid depends on the types of
forces that hold the atoms, ions, or molecules
together.

Question
Why, for instance, metals can be pounded into

different shapes but salt crystals shatter, and why


diamonds are so hard.

Crystalline Solids
Crystalline solids typically have flat, well defined planar

surfaces called crystal faces, which lie at definite


angles to one another.
These faces are formed by orderly layers of atoms
The order is determine by X-ray diffraction

10

Crystalline Solids
We classify crystalline solids according to the bonds

that hold their atoms, ions, or molecules in place


Crystalline Solid

Crystalline Solids
We classify crystalline solids according to the bonds

that hold their atoms, ions, or molecules in place

Classification of Solids

On the basis of Order

Metallic Solid
Metals are often denser than other kinds of solids because

their atoms are packed even more closely. The metallic


bond is relatively strong. As a result, most metals have high
melting points and serve as tough, strong materials for
construction.

Bonding in Metallic solids


The strength of metal is too strong for London dispersion

and there are not enough electrons for covalent bonds.


The metal nuclei float in a sea of electrons which lead to
metallic bonds
Metals conduct because the electrons are delocalized and
are mobile.

Co-ordination number
No of bonds or number of atoms join by a central atom, is

called Co-ordination number of that a central atom


E.g. what is the co-ordination number of elements in the
diagram

Metallic solids
We can explain the structures and properties of many

metals if we suppose that the spheres representing the


cations adopt a close-packed structure, in which the
spheres stack together with the least waste of space

Metallic Solids
If you observe closely you

see three layers


Second layer is in between
the dips or gaps of the
first layer.
Third layer is in between
the dips or gap of the
seconds layer and lie
directly over the first layer
.
So basically there are two
layers.

Metallic Solids
Similarly on different

arrangements of layers
we get different
symmetries.
If a dip between three
atoms is directly covered
by another atom, we
obtained a tetrahedral
hole which is formed by
four atom at the corners
of a regular tetrahedron

20

21

Metallic Solids
A

fragment of the
structure
formed by
repetition of two layers
as ABA as figure shows
the hexagonal symmetry
of the arrangementand
the origin of its name,
hexagonal close-packed

Crystalline solid
Crystalline solid: well-ordered, definite arrangements

of molecules, atoms or ions.


Crystals have an ordered, repeated structure.
The smallest repeating unit in a crystal is a unit cell.
Unit cell is the smallest unit with all the symmetry of the
entire crystal.
Three-dimensional stacking of unit cells is the crystal
lattice.

Unit Cell
Three common types of unit cell.

Primitive cubic, atoms at the corners of a simple cube,

Body-centered cubic (bcc), atoms at the corners of a cube


plus one in the center of the body of the cube,

each atom shared by 8 unit cells;

corner atoms shared by 8 unit cells, center atom


completely enclosed in one unit cell;

Face-centered cubic (fcc), atoms at the corners of a cube plus


one atom in the center of each face of the cube,

corner atoms shared by 8 unit cells, face atoms shared by 2 unit


cells

Unit Cells

Unit Cells

Primitive cubic structures


A Primitive cubic structures has an atom on each corner of a cube. The atom
touch along the edges. They are composed of only one type of layer .
These types of structure are very rare an only reported in polonium.

Primitive cubic structures


A Primitive cubic structures has an atom on each corner of a cube. The atom
touch along the edges. They are composed of only one type of layer .
These types of structure are very rare and only reported in polonium. This is due
to there strong covalent bonds which avoid close packing (48% free space)

Unit cells
All crystal structures can be expressed in terms of only 14

basic patterns of unit cell called Bravais lattices


A Bravais Lattice is a three dimensional lattice. A

Bravis Lattice tiles space without any gaps or holes. There


are 14 ways in which this can be accomplished.
Regular pentagons cannot cover space without gaps.

Similarly, regular heptagonal (seven-sided) and higher


polygonal shapes cannot be stacked together to cover all
space; hence they do not occur among the Bravais lattices.

Bravais lattices

Ionic solid
Ionic solids have higher melting points than

molecular solids because inter-ionic forces are much


stronger than intermolecular forces.

The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride

Two equivalent ways of defining unit cell:


Cl- (larger) ions at the corners of the cell, or
Na+ (smaller) ions at the corners of the cell.

The cation to anion ratio in a unit cell is the same for


the crystal. In NaCl each unit cell contains same
number of Na+ and Cl- ions.
Note the unit cell for CaCl2 needs twice as many Clions as Ca2+ ions.

The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride

The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride

The Crystal Structure of Sodium Chloride

Face Centered

Molecular Solids
Intermolecular forces: dipole-dipole, London dispersion

and H-bonds.
Weak intermolecular forces give rise to low melting points.
Room temperature gases and liquids usually form
molecular solids and low temperature.
Efficient packing of molecules is important (since they are
not regular spheres).
Molecular solids are relatively soft and typically melt at
relatively low temperatures.
Examples are Benzene, Wax, plastic, wood etc

Network solids
Network solids (such as diamond) have very high

melting points because they do not melt until the


covalent bonds between their atoms have been
overcome.
Diamond is a whole molecule
Due to this network, network solids shatter rather
then break

Network Solids
Intermolecular forces: dipole-dipole, London

dispersion and H-bonds.


Atoms held together in large networks.
Examples: diamond, graphite, quartz (SiO2), silicon
carbide (SiC), and boron nitride (BN).
In diamond:

each C atom has a coordination number of 4; each C atom is


tetrahedral; there is a three-dimensional array of atoms.
Diamond is hard, and has a high melting point (3550 C).

Network Solid

Network Solid
In graphite

each C atom is arranged in a planar hexagonal ring;


layers of interconnected rings are placed on top of each other;
the distance between C atoms is close to benzene (1.42 vs. 1.395
in benzene);
the distance between layers is large (3.41 );
electrons move in delocalized orbitals (good conductor).

Network Solids

Network Solid
Ceramic materials
Ceramic are typically non-crystalline inorganic oxides with a

network structure that is produced by heat treatment of a powder.


They include many silicate minerals, such as quartz
Ceramic materials have great strength and stability, because covalent
bonds must be broken to cause any deformation in the crystal.

Summary of lecture
Classification of Solid
Molecular Solid
Network Solid
Ionic Solid
Metallic Solid

Crystal lattice

FCC
BCC
Primitive cubic

Bravais lattice

Оценить