Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 29

TURBOMACHINES

[ physical interpretation: what are we doing today? ]

Turbomachines are fluid machines that are based on a spinning rotor

The rotor will typically have blades, deflectors, or buckets on it to effect


interaction with the fluid

We can loosely divide turbomachines into two categories, pumps and


turbines

Pumps add energy to the fluid and turbines remove it

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ physical interpretation: what are we doing today? ]

Who cares?

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ radial, mixed, and axial flow machines ]

Turbomachines can be further subdivided into three other categories


depending on whether they are radial, mixed flow, or axial flow
configurations

This is defined by the manner in which the flow moves relative to the machine
rotor
radial flow turbomachine

axial flow turbomachine

In radial flow machines, there exists a significant radial flow component at the
inlet, exit, or both -- in mixed (not pure radial) machines, the flow can have
some radial and axial components through the rotor row
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps ]

Centrifugal pumps represent one of the most common radial flow


turbomachines

There are two main components to the machine, a rotating impeller and a
stationary housing or volute
a centrifugal pump

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps ]

As the impeller rotates, it pulls fluid in through the eye at its centre and
then is thrown radially outward to the walls of the casing

The casings are generally shaped to reduce the velocity and kinetic energy of
the flow, converting this to a gain in pressure energy
a centrifugal pump

Pumps can be single or double suction (double suction reduces inlet velocity)

Pumps can also be single or multistage --- discharge from the first impeller
flows into the eye of the second stage, each stage augments the pressure
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory ]

For analysis, we simplify the three dimensional, unsteady flow in a pump


to a steady (in the mean) one dimensional flow

We consider simple vector triangles to resolve the velocity directions and


magnitudes at pump inlet and outlets
a centrifugal pump

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory ]

The absolute velocity, V, of the flow entering or leaving the passage is a


vector sum of the blade velocity, U, and the relative velocity W
V=W+U

- [1]

where:

U1 = r1

- [2]

U2 = r2

- [3]

here 1 denotes entrance


conditions and 2 denotes exit

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory ]

We know from the moment of momentum equation that the torque required to
rotate the pump impeller is given by
- [4]

- [5]

here the V1 and V2 are the


tangential components of the
absolute velocities V1 and V2

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory ]

Quantification of the power added to the fluid by the pump can be easily had
by examining the following

We know
- [6]

subbing in our expression [5] for


Tshaft
- [7]

which we can write (employing U =


r)
- [8]

[8] shows us how power is


transferred to the fluid

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory ]

It is also important for us to quantify the head a pump supplies to a fluid, this
can be had via [9]
- [9]

combining [9] with [8] we can


write
- [10]

[10] represents the ideal head rise


a fluid experiences in passing
through a pump

We realize that this amount will be


ultimately compromised by the
head losses through the pump
components
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: net positive suction head (NPSH) ]

Pressures can become very low on the suction side of a pump

In some situations pressures can drop to below the vapor pressure of the
fluid, at this pressure bubbles will form in the liquid and the liquid will
effectively boil at the current temperature

Cavitation can significantly reduce efficiency and cause the pump structural
damage

It is the difference between the total head on the suction side near the pump
impeller inlet, ps/ + V2s/2g, and the liquid vapor pressure head, pv/ that
characterizes the potential for cavitation

This difference is called the NPSH, where


- [11]

There are two types of NPSH, the NPSH required, NPSHR and the NPSH
available, NPSHA
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: net positive suction head (NPSH) ]

The NPSHR refers to that amount of head that must be maintained or


exceeded to avoid cavitation

The NPSHA refers the head that actually occurs for the entire hydraulic system,
we can determine this value by calculation if the system parameters are
known, otherwise it is determined from experiment

If we apply the energy equation between the liquid free surface and suction
side of the impeller, we get
- [12]

Where hL represents the losses from the free surface to the impeller inlet

Therefore, the head available at the inlet is

- [13]
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: net positive suction head (NPSH) ]

Then we can say


- [14]

Then we can say that to successfully avoid cavitation


- [15]

We learn from [14] that as the pump elevation, z, or hL increase, the NPSHA
decreases, thus there is always a finite height (above some datum) at which
the pump will not operate

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: net positive suction head (NPSH): example ]

GIVEN: Water is pumped at 0.5


cfs, at this flowrate the
NPSHR is 15 ft, water
temperature is 80oF and
atmospheric pressure is
14.7 psi

REQD: Determine the max height above the water free surface, z1 that
the pump can be situated to avoid cavitation the only loss to be
considered is the inlet filter that has a loss coefficient KL=20

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: net positive suction head (NPSH): example ]

SOLU: 1. We know the available


NPSH can be computed

- [E1]
2. Our max elevation will occur when the
limiting condition of NPSHA=NPSHR
- [E2]
3. The only headloss we have to consider is the minor loss, so let us
pick up the velocity
- [E3]
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: net positive suction head (NPSH): example ]

SOLU: 4. The velocity then


- [E4]

5. Now we can solve for hL


- [E5]

6. Now we pick up the vapor pressure and specific weight at 80oF


from tabulated values, and solve for z1max

- [ans]
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws ]

We have learned that the principal dependent pump variables are the actual
head rise, ha, the shaft power, Wdotshaft, and of course the pump efficiency,

It is reasonable to expect that these variables will depend on the geometrical


configuration which we would typically represent by a characteristic diameter, D,
and other relevant lengths, li; other important variables would include the
flowrate, Q, the shaft rotational speed, , the fluid viscosity, , and finally, the
fluid density,

The results of dimensional analysis, show us that three primary parameters will
emerge from the variables mentioned above, CH, CP, and

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws ]

Where
- [16]

- [17]

- [18]

CH is deemed the head rise coefficient, CP is the power coefficient, and of


course, represents the efficiency

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws ]

We observe from the preceding expressions [16-18], that the typically high
Reynolds numbers that are associated with pumped flows will render the last pi
term negligible, and relative roughness pi term will also be neglected on the
basis of the highly irregular shape of the pump casing being the governing
geometric factor

This said, we can say that the similarity laws may be expressed as
- [19]

- [20]

Here, we call the


bracketed term, the flow
coefficient, CQ
- [22]

- [21]
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws ]

Now we can say that if two pumps are operated at the same flow coefficient
- [23]

then
- [24]

Here, subscripts 1 and 2 refer to two


geometrically similar pumps

The existence of these pump scaling laws


allow us to utilize laboratory data to predict
different operating conditions

- [25]
- [26]

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws ]

Pictured above we have typical performance data for a 12 inch impeller


centrifugal pump (left) and dimensionless characteristic curves that represent a
family of geometrically similar pumps
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws: example ]

GIVEN:

REQD:

An 8 inch centrifugal pump operating at 1200 rpm is geometrically


similar to the 12 inch pump depicted in the performance characteristic
curves shown in the figure below. Assume the 12 inch pump is
operating at 1000 rpm and water is the working fluid at 60oF

For peak efficiency predict the discharge, actual head rise, and shaft
horsepower for the smaller pump

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws:
example ]

SOLU:

1. Now, we have learned, for a geometrically similar family of pumps,


the flow coefficient will have the same value for the same efficiency

2. So, at peak efficiency, CQ=0.0625, therefore for our 8 inch pump


- [E1]
- [ans]

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws:
example ]

SOLU:

3. Now, we can pick up the actual head rise and shaft horsepower
following the same methodology, as at peak , CH=0.19, and CP=0.014

thus
- [ans]

- [ans]
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws:
example ]

SOLU:

4. We just solved for shaft horsepower (supplied to the shaft), now we


seek to determine the power actually acquired by the fluid
- [E2]
5. From this we can compute the pumps efficiency,
- [E3]

thus, this corroborates our graphical finding earlier in the solution !

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws: specific speed ]

The diameter, D, can be eliminated when the flow coefficient and head rise
coefficient are combined
- [26]

This dimensionless parameter, Ns, is called the specific speed

It is customary to specify a value of specific speed at the flow coefficient


corresponding to peak efficiency

Pumps with low flows and high heads will have lower specific speeds

Pumps with high flows and low heads will have higher specific speeds

The specific speed, Ns, is used to help determine which pump type is most
appropriate for a given application
87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ centrifugal pumps: theory: pump parameters and similarity laws: specific speed ]

- [26]

If the flowrate, head, and speed are specified, Ns can be computed and
appropriate pump type can be selected

87-351 Fluid Mechanics

TURBOMACHINES
[ turbines: a brief
look ]

Most turbines are classified as either impulse or reaction turbines

An impulse turbine is driven by a tangential inflow, the total head of this flow
(elevation, pressure, velocity), is converted to velocity head at the exit of the
flow supply nozzle
There is no pressure drop across the rotor in an impulse turbine (all of the
pressure drop occurs at the nozzle)

A reaction turbine is driven by an axial flow, the rotor in a reaction turbine


experiences a large static pressure drop

impulse turbine

reaction turbine

TURBOMACHINES
[ turbines: a brief
look ]

A Pelton Wheel is an example of an impulse turbine, you can find one in your
lawn sprinkler

An automotive turbocharger is an example of a reaction turbine (gas


compressor)

single stage turbo


intercooled, double stage compressor