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IMBASAN PERSEKITARAN

LUARAN (EXTERNAL
ENVIRONMENTAL SCANNING)

IMBASAN PERSEKITARAN
Environmental

scanning- the

monitoring, evaluation and dissemination of


information from the external and internal
environments to key people within the
corporation

Makro dan Mikro

Terdapat dua perspektif apabila kita melihat


kepada persekitaran luaran, iaitu makro dan
mikro). Makro adalah perspektif
keseluruhan manakala mikro adalah
perspektif subset kepada makro ataupun
perspektif secara fokus.

Untuk perspektif makro kita akan melihat


kepada PEST manakala perspektif mikro
pula kita akan menggunakan Porters Five
Competitive Forces ataupun Lima Gerak
kuasa Porter.

Figure 3.1: The Components of a Companys


Macro-Environment
MACROENVIRONMENT
The Economy
at Large

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c
Te

Le
gi
Re sla
gu tio
la n a
tio n
n d

y
g
o
ol
Suppliers

Rival
Firms

So
c
an ietal
dL
V
ife alue
sty
s
les

Substitutes

COMPANY

New
Entrants

IMMEDIATE INDUSTRY
AND COMPETITIVE
ENVIRONMENT

Buyer
s

on s
i
t
ula phic
p
Po ogra
m
De

Identifying External Environmental


Variables
Societal environment (Macro) - social

systems that influence long-term decisions

Economic forces
Technological forces
Political-legal forces
Sociocultural forces

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2009

4-7

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2009

4-8

Identifying External Environmental Variables


Task environment (Micro) - groups that directly

affect a corporation and are affected by the


corporation
Government
Local communities
Suppliers
Competitors
Customers
Creditors
Unions
Special interest groups/trade associations

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2009

4-9

Identifying External Environmental


Variables
PEST Analysis- monitoring trends in the
societal and natural environments

Political-legal forces
EconomicSocioculturalTechnological-

Prentice Hall, Inc. 2009

4-10

The Five-Forces Model of Competition

Copyright 2009 Pearson


Education, Inc.
Publishing as Prentice Hall

Ch 3
-11

MODEL LIMA GERAK KUASA KOMPETITIF PORTER


(PORTERS FIVE COMPETITIVE FORCES)

Substitute Products
(of firms in
other industries)

Suppliers
of Key
Inputs

Rivalry
Among
Competing
Sellers

Potential
New
Entrants

Buyers

Rivalry Among Competing


Sellers
Usually the most powerful of the five forces

The big factor determining the strength of rivalry is


how actively and aggressively are rivals employing
the various weapons of competition in jockeying
for a stronger market position and seeking bigger
sales
Is price competition vigorous?
Active efforts to improve quality?
Are rivals racing to offer better
performance features?
Are rivals racing to offer better
customer service?
Lots of advertising/sales promotions?
Active efforts to build a stronger
dealer network?
Active product innovation?
Active use of other weapons of rivalry?

What Causes Rivalry to be Stronger?

Active jockeying for position among rivals and frequent


launches of new offensives to gain sales and market
share
One or more firms initiates moves to bolster their
standing at expense of rivals
Lots of firms that are relatively equal in size and
capability
Slow market growth
Industry conditions tempt some firms to go on the
offensive to boost volume and market share
Customers have low costs in switching to rival brands
A successful strategic move carries a big payoff
Costs more to get out of business than to stay in
Firms have diverse strategies, corporate priorities,
resources, and countries of origin

Principle of Competitive
Markets
Competitive jockeying among
rival firms is dynamic and
ever-changing
As industry members
initiate new offensive and
defensive moves
As emphasis swings from
one mix of competitive
weapons to another

Competitive Force of Potential


Entry

Seriousness of threat depends on


Barriers to entry
Reaction of existing firms to
entry
Barriers exist when
Newcomers confront
obstacles
Economic factors put potential
entrant at a disadvantage
relative to incumbent firms

Common Barriers to
Entry
Sizable economies of scale

Inability to gain access to specialized


technology
Existence of strong learning/experience
curve effects
Strong brand preferences and customer loyalty
Large capital requirements and/or other
specialized resource requirements
Cost disadvantages independent of size
Difficulties in gaining access to distribution
channels
Regulatory policies, tariffs, trade restrictions

Principle of Competitive
Markets
Threat of entry is stronger when:
Entry barriers are low
Sizable pool of entry candidates
exists
Incumbents are unwilling or unable
to contest a newcomers entry efforts
Newcomers can expect to earn
attractive profits

Competitive Force of
Substitute Products

Concept
Substitutes matter when customers are
attracted to the products of firms in
other industries
Examples
Eyeglasses vs. Contact Lens
Sugar vs. Artificial Sweeteners
Newspapers vs. TV vs. Internet
E-mail vs. Overnight Delivery

How to Tell Whether Substitute


Products are a Strong Force

Sales of substitutes are


growing rapidly

Producers of
substitutes plan to add
new capacity

Profits of producers of
substitutes are up

Principle of Competitive
Markets
Competitive threat of substitutes
is stronger when they are:
Readily available
Attractively priced
Believed to have comparable
or better performance
features
Customer switching costs are
low

Competitive Pressures From Suppliers


and Supplier-Seller Collaboration

Whether supplier-seller
relationships represent a weak or
strong competitive force
depends on
Whether suppliers can exercise
sufficient bargaining leverage to
influence terms of supply in their
favor
Extent and competitive importance of
collaborative partnerships between
one or more sellers and their
suppliers

Competitive Force of
Suppliers

Suppliers are a strong competitive force


when:

Item makes up large portion of product costs, is


crucial to production process, and/or significantly
affects product quality
It is costly for buyers to switch suppliers
They have good reputations and
growing
demand
They can supply a component cheaper than
industry members can make it themselves
They do not have to contend with substitutes
Buying firms are not important customers

Competitive Pressures: Collaboration Between


Sellers and Suppliers

Rival sellers are forming long-term strategic


partnerships with select suppliers to

Promote just-in-time deliveries and


reduced
inventory and logistic costs
Speed availability of next-generation components
Enhance quality of parts being supplied
Reduce suppliers costs which paves way for lower
prices on items supplied

Competitive advantage potential may accrue


to industry rivals doing the best job of
managing supply-chain relationships

Principle of Competitive
Markets
Suppliers are a stronger force
the more they can exercise
power over:
Prices charged
Quality and
performance
of items supplied
Reliability of deliveries

Competitive Pressures From Buyers


and Seller-Buyer Collaboration

Whether seller-buyer relationships


represent a weak or strong
competitive force depends on

Whether buyers have sufficient


bargaining leverage to influence
terms of sale in their favor

Extent and competitive importance


of collaborative partnerships
between one or more sellers and
their customers

Competitive Force of
Buyers
Buyers are a strong competitive force when:

They are large and purchase a sizable percentage


of industrys product
They buy in large quantities
They can integrate backward
Industrys product is standardized
Their costs in switching to substitutes or other
brands are low
They can purchase from several sellers
Product purchased does not save buyer money

Competitive Pressures: Collaboration Between


Sellers and Buyers

Partnerships are an increasingly important


competitive element in business-tobusiness relationships
Collaboration may result in mutual benefits
regarding
Just-in-time deliveries
Order processing
Electronic invoice payments
On-line sharing of sales at the cash register
Competitive advantage potential may accrue
to industry rivals who do the best job of
managing seller-buyer partnerships

Principle of Competitive
Markets
Buyers are a stronger
competitive force the more
they have leverage to bargain
over:
Price
Quality
Service
Other terms and
conditions of sale

Strategic Implications of the


Five Competitive Forces

Competitive environment is
unattractive from the standpoint of
earning
good profits when:

Rivalry is strong
Entry barriers are low
and entry is likely
Competition from
substitutes is strong
Suppliers and customers have
considerable bargaining power

Strategic Implications of the


Five Competitive Forces

Competitive environment is ideal


from a profit-making standpoint
when:

Rivalry is moderate
Entry barriers are high
and no firm is likely to
enter
Good substitutes do
not exist
Suppliers and customers are in a
weak bargaining position

Competitors
Competitors organizations that offer

same, similar, or substitute products or


services in the business areas in which a
particular company operates

AKTIVITI PENGUMPULAN
MAKLUMAT TENTANG PESAING

Maklumat pesaing adalah penting untuk


kejayaan perniagaan syarikat dan kita
mempunyai banyak cara yang sah dan
beretika untuk mengumpul data yang
berkaitan dengan pesaing.

KANDUNGAN
KANDUNGANANALISIS
ANALISISINDUSTRI
INDUSTRI

Pengumpulan Maklumat
Tentang Persaingan
Menyatakan pesaing
yang akan dihadapi dan
kekuatannya
Maklumat seperti syer
pasaran, produk, dan
strategi promosi perlu
dikumpul untuk
memahami kekuatan
pesaing

KANDUNGAN
KANDUNGANANALISIS
ANALISISINDUSTRI
INDUSTRI

Pesaing Utama

membuat
pesaing
perniagaannya
mendapatkan
maklumat
kekuatan
kelemahan
utama itu.

analisis
utama
dengan
tentang
dan
pesaing

Contoh Ramli Burger


dengan Azmi Burger

ISI
ISIKANDUNGAN
KANDUNGANRANCANGAN
RANCANGANPEMASARAN
PEMASARAN

Bilangan pesaing
Bilangan pesaing
yang menjalankan
perniagaan di
tempat yang sama
akan menjejaskan
jualan.
Usahawan perlu
kenal pasti kekuatan
dan kelemahan
setiap pesaing

Analisis SWOT
Kekuatan
Kelemahan
Peluang
Ancaman

Faktor
Internal

lingkungan
internal
organisasi

Faktor
Eksternal

lingkungan
eksternal
organisasi

ANALISIS SWOT

FOKUS
INTERNA
L

FOKUS
EKSTERNA
L

KEKUATAN

KELEMAHAN

Apa yang
dilakukan dengan
baik?

Apa yang salah


sekarang?

PELUANG

ANCAMAN

Kemungkinan apa
yang ada?

Apa yang dapat


menjadi salah?

What is a SWOT analysis and


why should you use one?
A SWOT analysis guides you to identify the
positives and negatives inside your
organization (Strength & Weakness) and
outside of it, in the external environment
(Opportunity & Threat).

OPPOTUNITY(PELUANG)

Analisis persekitaran luaran boleh mendedahkan peluang


baru untuk keuntungan dan pertumbuhan. Beberapa
contoh peluang tersebut merangkumi berikut:

1. Kedatangan teknologi baru

2. memenuhi keperluan pelanggan

3. pelonggaran peraturan oleh agensi-agensi kerajaan

4. Tiada halangan perdagangan antarabangsa

5. Penglibatan dan sokongan kerajaan


secara proaktif

6. Program usahasama dalam dan luar


negara dan bergabung firma

THREAT(ANCAMAN)

1. Perubahan persekitaran luaran juga boleh hadir ancaman


bagi sesuatu syarikat. Antara contoh ancaman tersebut ialah:

2. Munculnya produk pengganti


Perubahan negatif kehendak pelanggan dari produk-produk
syarikat

3. Peraturan Baru

4. Peraturan-peraturan Perdagangan yang lebih ketat

5. Harga bahan binaan meningkat ekoran


ketidakstabilan ekonomi

6. Perubahan teknologi dan persekitaran


Industri Hartanah

7. Persaingan sengit antara firma