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How to write

synopsis

ANWAR ALI MALIK


BSN, MPH-I
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
2015-2017
malik.anwarali@yahoo.com
#03073279315

Objectives
What is a synopsis?
What are the sub headings of
synopsis?
What formats should be use in
synopsis?
How should we write in introduction
to references in synopsis?

Synopsis

1. Asynopsisis a brief summary of the major points of


a subject or written work or story, either as prose or
as a table; an abridgment or condensation of a work.
2. Briefcondensation,outline,
orsummaryof
mainpointsof anarticles, book, orplan.

the

3. Writtenstatementsubmittedto acourtby each of the


opposingparties,
setting
forth
facts,laws,
andprecedentsin support of their respectivecases.

Synopsis Headings
Title
Introduction
Review of
Literature
Materials and
Method
Objectives
Abstract
References

Title
It should be comprehensive to
reflect the main contents and
subjects of the research plan to be
undertaken by the student .

Introduction
Should contain brief background of the
selected topic.
It must identify the importance of
study, its relevance and applicability of
results.
It must clearly state the purpose of the
study.

Review of Literature
This is an important section for relevant research
articles from different sources, like library,
scientific journals, data bases, internet, major
supervisor, senior students and others actively
working in his/her selected area/topic of studies.
But the student must be critical in selection of
relevant
research papers, their review and
integration.
It is recommended that student(s) must study at
least 15-20 original research papers before
starting writing of synopsis and must have copies
of such papers with them.

Materials and Method


This
section
should
contain
elaborative
experimental method, analytical procedure and
statistical techniques to be followed, each
supported with appropriate and authenticated
literature citations, Name-Year system (see thesis
section).
One aspect which is mostly overlooked is the
discussion with a statistician at the planning stage
of experiment which otherwise is highly required
and very helpful for the students and supervisors.
Another aspect worth to consider is the research
facilities available in the department of the
student, university or any other sister institute
from where the requirements could be met.

Objectives
Objectives
are
statements
of
mentions. They inform the reader
clearly what the researcher plans to
do in his/her work.
The must identify the variables
involved in research.
Objective should start with an
action verb and be sufficiently
specific, measurable, achievable,
relevant and time bound (SMART).

Abstract
It should be comprehensive to
reflect the main contents and
subjects of the research plan to
be undertaken by the student

References
List the references in the same order as they are referred to in the synopsis
Make sure all references listed here are properly referred in the text.
Please note that reference [1] is a book, [2] is a patent, [3] is a journal article,[4] is
an article published in a conference proceedings and [5] is a web page.
[1] E. O. Doebelin, Measurement Systems Application and Design, 5th ed.,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 2004.
[2] J. K. Gustafsson, Analog-digital converter for a resistance bridge, Patent U. S.
3960010, June 1, 1976.
[3] B. Wang, T. Kajita, T. Sun and G. C. Temes, High-Accuracy Circuits for On-chip
Capacitive Ratio Testing and Sensor Readout, IEEE Trans. Instrum. & Meas., Feb.
1998, vol.47, no.1, pp. 16-20.
[4] V. J. Kumar, N. M. Mohan and V. G. K. Murti, Digital Converter for Push-pull type
Resistive Transducers, Proc. IEEE IMTC 2005, Ottawa, Canada, May 17-19, 2005,
pp.422-425.
[5] Data Sheet, PIC16F87XA, 28/40/44-Pin Enhanced Flash Microcontrollers,
Microchip Technology Inc.,2003.
http://ww1.microchip.com/downloads/en/DeviceDoc/39582b.pdf

PAGE FORMAT AND


LAYOUT
Font
A single font must be used throughout
the thesis or report, the only exceptions
being in tables, graphs, and appendices.
Headings may be bolded and no more
than 2 points larger than the rest of the
text.

Margins

All thesis and reports must have


consistent margins of at least 1.25
inches at the top, bottom, left, and right
edges of the page.
Page numbers must be placed at least
one inch from the bottom of the page.
Margins which are larger than those
required are acceptable, but smaller
margins are not.

Spacing

The thesis or report must be


double-spaced or 1.5-spaced.
Single spacing may be used only
in the Table of Contents,
footnotes and endnotes, charts,
graphs, tables, quotations,
captions, glossary, appendices,
and bibliography.
Prose quotations over three lines
long should be in block quote

Numbering of Pages

Beginning with the first page of the


Acknowledgements or Preface, if used, all
preliminary pages preceding the actual text
must be numbered in lowercase Roman
numerals; e.g., iii, iv, v, etc.
These numerals must be centered under the
text with at least one inch of space between the
number and the bottom of the page. If no
optional pages are used, the page numbers
must begin on the Abstract.
Do not number the copyright page, signature
page, title page, or dedication, but do include
each of them in the pretext page count.

The first page of the text begins at


Arabic numeral 1.
All pages within the text must contain
an Arabic page number, bottomcentered, at least one inch from the
bottom edge of the page.
The first page of every major section
(chapters, appendices, bibliography,
Vita, etc.) must begin on a new page.