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Basic Terms in Logic

Michael Jhon M. Tamayao

Learning Objectives
Identify

and define the basic terms in

Logic.
Differentiate the terms according to their
use.
Apply the terms in practical cases.

Introduction
Terms

basic elements that make up a


language system.
The language of logic girds towards order.

What is LOGIC?
logos

= word, reason or
principle
Logic science of correct
reasoning.
! Systematized
! Evokes ORDER
What does Logic put into order?

1.)

All men are mammals


All students are men
:: All students are mammals.

2.)

All monkeys eat banana


George Lincoln eats banana
:: George Lincoln is a monkey

What

logic puts in order is the


way we reason out.
Logic makes explicit the rules of
reasoning.

Inference

the process of deducing or


extracting a statement (conclusion) from the
previous statement/s.
Argument the verbal expression of
inference.
Syllogism the format of arguments with
three statements.
Conclusion the statement being supported.
Premises the statement/s that support/s
the
conclusion.

Key Terms
ARGUMENT

SYLLOGISM

PREMIS
ES
CONCLUSI
ON

INFEREN
CE

What is the importance of


studying the Arguments?
The

answer:
It is the way we support
our claims to truth and validity.

Truth

and validity are the two


aspects that measure the worth
of an argument.

What is TRUTH in Logic?


Truth

the correspondence or
equivalence of the mind to
reality/object.

Stateme
nt
The Horse is
white

Object

The

truth value of a statement is


not proven by logicians but of
empirical scientists, researchers
and private detectives.
Logicians only study the
reasoning found on statements
and not the question of their
truth values.

Judgment

the act by which the


mind affirms or denies an attribute of
a subject.
The simplest act of the mind in which
it can attain truth.
Proposition statement that affirms
or
denies something.
verbal expression of judgment

Simple

Apprehension - more
elementary act of the mind than
judgment
conceiving a notion of something.
The Horse is white.
verbally expressed as a
term/name.
Terms the two notions in a
proposition: subject and predicate

Acts of the
Mind

Verbal
Expression

Simple
Apprehension

Term/Name

Judgment

Proposition

Inference

Argument/Syllogis
m

Propositions: Quality and


Quantity

1. Quality affirmative
negative
Affirmative - predicate is affirmed
of the subject.
ex. The audience is kind.

Negative - predicate is denied


of the subject.
ex. The audience is not kind.

2. Quantity universal or particular


Universal the predicate is affirmed
or denied of the whole subject.
Ex. All men are beings with heart.
Not all men are beings with heart.

Particular the predicate is affirmed


or denied of only part of the subject.
Ex. Some men are haughty.
Some men not are haughty.

Four-fold Scheme of
Proposition
A-type:

universal and affirmative

All men are mortal


I-type:

Particular and Affirmative


Some men are philosophers

E-type:

Universal and Negative

Not all philosophers are rich.


O-type:

Particular and Negative

Some men are not rich.

Terms

also have quantity but


not quality
Singular terms
ex. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Universal Terms
ex. Men, horse

What is meant by
VALIDITY?
An

argument is valid if the


premises do provide conclusive
grounds for the conclusion.
Otherwise, the argument is
invalid.
Validity follows the different rules
of inference.

Validity

pertains to
arguments/reasoning.
Truth pertains to propositions.
Logic has for its first principle
the independence of truth
and validity.

Independence of truth from


validity
Example:

All men are animals


All creatures are men
::All creatures are
animals.

FALSE

Although two statements are false,


the argument is still valid.

Key Terms
TRUTH and VALIDITY
simple
apprehension
Judgment
inference

Sound

Argument the
reasoning in the argument is valid
and all the statements are true.
Example:
All computers are technological
products
All abacuses are computers
:: All abacuses are technological
products.

2 Kinds of Arguments
1.) Deductive argument
- An argument that has premises which
gives conclusive grounds for the truth
of the conclusion, or if the premises
claim to support the conclusion with
necessity.
- The process is exact.
e.g. All priests are humans.
All Popes are priests.
:: All Popes are humans.

2.) Inductive Argument


- Makes the wilder claim that its
premises
support
but
do
not
guarantee the
necessity of its
conclusion.
- The conclusion is only given a
high
probability of correctness and
not exactly valid or invalid.
Ex. Of all the 50 million swans I saw,
nothing is black.
:: No swan is black.

Key Terms
DEDUCTIVE

INDUCTIVE

Exact

Probable

Valid

Strong

or invalid
Not a matter of
degree
(All or
Nothing)

or weak
A matter of
degree
(More or Less)

What is a FALLACY?
Fallacy

bad method of argument,


whether deductive or inductive.
one or more of its premises are
false, or the reasoning from them
may be invalid, or the language
expressing them may be
ambiguous or vague.
typical faults in arguments
that sounds persuasive.

Ex.

All Stars are hot.


I am a Star.
:: I am hot.
There is ambiguity in the meaning
of the word star.

Recap
Logic

the science of correct reasoning.


Inference the process of deducing or
extracting a statement (conclusion) from
the previous statement/s.
Argument is a kind of reasoning/inference
in which statements are offered to support
or justify another statement.
Syllogism the format of arguments with
three statements.

Conclusion

the statement being supported.


Premises the statement/s that support/s the
conclusion.
Truth the correspondence or equivalence
of the mind to reality/object.
Judgment the act by which the mind
affirms or denies an attribute of a
subject.
Propositions verbal expression of
judgments.

Simple

Apprehension conceiving of the


notion of something.
Term verbal expression of notions.
Quality may either be affirmative or
negative.
Quantity may either be universal or
particular.

Valid

argument an argument which has


premises that provide conclusive grounds
for its conclusion.
Sound Argument an argument with valid
reasoning and all its statements are true.
Deductive argument an argument with
premises that claim to support the
conclusion with necessity.

Inductive

Argument argument with


premises that support but do not
guarantee the necessity of its conclusion.
Fallacy a bad argument that has one or
more false statements and/or invalid
reasoning that sounds persuasive.

END
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