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CELL CYCLE AND

CELL DIVISION

Objective
1.
2.
3.
4.

How do cell divide?


What are the phases of cell division?
What are the types of cell division?
What are the stages of cell division?

Three important characteristics :


1.
2.

3.

They reproduced their own kind


They transmit their characteristic to
the next generation
They develop from simple functional
structures into complex functional
organism.

What is the difference of cell


division and cell cycle?

Cell division is when


a cell splits in two to
make more cells

A full life span of a


cell is cell cycle that
include cell division
+ cell death and cell
division cycle is the
process of a cell to
divide into two.

The cell cycle


involves cell growth,
DNA replication,
distribution of the
duplicated
chromosomes to
daughter cells, and
cell division.
Cell division in
humans occurs
approximately every
24 hours.

Cell Cycle
A cell cycle is a series of events that a cell
passes through from the time until it
reproduces its replicate.
It is the growth and division of single cell
into daughter cell and duplication.
In Prokaryotic cell, the cell cycle occurs
via a process termed binary fission.
The Eukaryotic cells, the cell cycle can be
divided in two periods:
a. Interphase
b. Mitosis

What Is Binary
Fission?

a process in which the


genetic material of
the cell is copied and
then the parent cell
divides.

Cytokinesis division of the


cytoplasm to form
two daughter cells

EXAMPLE: Amoeba

TERMS TO KNOW

During interphase genetic material is called


chromatin
Chromatin all the DNA molecules and
associated proteins in the nucleus, when
referred to as chromatin, the chromosomes are
long, thin strands dispersed throughout the
nucleus in a tangles, fibrous mass chromosome
duplicates itself during interphase and the
original and duplicate are attached to each
other by a centromere when attached to each
other, original and duplicate are referred to as
(identical twin) sister chromatids
Centromere is the region of chromosomes
which spindle fiber is attached during cell
division (both mitosis and meiosis) it is a
part of chromosomes that links sister
chromatids .
Spindle fiber are part of the spindle
apparatus, which moves chromosomes
during mitosis and meiosis to ensure each
daughter cell gets the correct number of
chromosomes. It also form a protein structure
that divides the genetic material in a cell.
The spindle is necessary to equally divide
the chromosomes in a parental cell into two
daughter cell during both types of nuclear
division: mitosis and meiosis.
Chromatids is one-half of two identical
copies of a replicated chromosomes. During
cell division, the identical copies are joined
together at the region of chromosomes
called the centromere. Joined chromatids are
known as sister chromatids.

Centrosome is an organelle that is the


main place where cell microtulules get
organized.
Kinetochore is a protein structure on
chromatids where the spindle fibers
attach during cell division to pull sister
chromatids apart. Their proteins help
to hold the sister chromatids together.

Microtubules

A straight, hollow cylinders are


found throughout the cytoplasm of
all eukaryotic cells and carry out a
variety of functions, ranging from
transport to structural support.

Microtubules, which are about 25


nanometers in diameter, form part
of the cytoskeleton that gives
structure and shape to a cell, and
also serve as conveyor belts
moving other organelles
throughout the cytoplasm.

It is also the major components of


cilia and flagella, and participate in
the formation of spindle fibers
during cell division (mitosis).

Three types of
microtubules

1.
2.
3.
.

As the spindle apparatus forms, a microtubule can


take on three possible roles. It can become :
kinetochore microtubule,
polar microtubule
astral microtuble.
only the first two of these three types (kinetochore
and polar) make up the spindle apparatus, but all
three play an essential role in moving the
chromosomes.
Kinetochore microtubule, as its name suggests,
is the type of microtubule that attaches to the
kinetochores of the condensed chromosomes (this
is the type that draws the chromosomes toward
the centrosomes at the poles of the dividing cell).
Polar microtubule does not attach to a
chromosome. Instead, they emanate from the two
centrosomes and overlap with each other in the
center of the cell and, by sliding against each
other, force the centrosomes toward the poles of
the cell.
Astral microtubules extend outward from the
centrosomes forming an aster (Greek for star) of
radiating filaments which reach to the cell
membrane. The wall-attached filaments pull the
centrosomes toward one of the poles.

Centrosome cycle

The Eukaryotic cells

the cell cycle can be


divided in two periods:
a. Interphase

b.

Mitosis

the period of the cell cycle


during which the cell is not
dividing
the division of genetic
material, during which the
cell nucleus breaks down and During the S phase, DNA is
duplicated in order to provide
two new, fully functional,
a full compliment for the new
nuclei are formed

Cytokinesis

divides the cytoplasm into


two distinctive cells

cell, called a daughter cell.

The G phases are periods of


growth and differentiation of a
cell.

Interphase

The longest part of


cells life cycle
It is also called the
resting stage
because the cell isnt
dividing.
During this phase the
cell grows,
accumulating nutrients
needed for mitosis
and duplicating its
DNA.
Cells grow, develop, &
carry on all their normal
metabolic functions

G1 phase (gap 1 phase) is


the first gap, or growth
phase in the cell cycle.
For cells that will divide
again, G1 is followed by
replication of the DNA,
during the S phase.
The S phase (synthesis
phase) is period during
which a cell replicates its
DNA.
After the synthesis phase,
the cell proceeds through
the G2 phase.
The G2 phase is a second
gap phase, during which the
cell continues to grow and
makes the necessary
preparations for mitosis.

At G cell might spend a


couple of hours, or many
days.
The S phase typically
lasts between 8-10 hours .
The G2 phase
approximately 5 hours.
The G0 phase is a resting
phase of the cell cycle.

G Stage (Gap 1 phase)

G stands for gap.


It is also called as the growth
phase
The daughter cells grow and
increase in size during this
phase.
Cell prepares for DNA, RNA,
and protein synthesis.
During this phase 20 amino
acids are formed, from which
millions of proteins and
enzymes are formed, which are
required in S phase. During
this phase a type of RNA
(mRNA, rRNA, and tRNA) are
formed and during this phase
new cell organelles are formed.

G (RESTING STAGE)

The cell has not yet


start to divide.

It is sometimes referred to
as a "post-mitotic" state,
since cells in G0 are in a
non-dividing phase outside
of the cell cycle.

Some types of cells, such


as nerve and hearth
muscle cell, become
quiescent when they reach
maturity but continue to
perform their main
functions for the rest of
the organism's life.

S phase (Synthesis
Stage)

Duplication and replication


of DNA and centriole take
place
Following replication, each
chromosome now consists of
two sister chromatids (see
figure)
Precise and accurate DNA
replication is necessary to
prevent genetic abnormalities
which often lead to cell death
or disease.

G Stage (Gap 2 phase)

Pre- mitotic phase


The cells are carrying out
processes necessary for
mitosis to begin.
It is the second growth phase.
It is a period of rapid cell
growth and protein synthesis
which the cell is ready for
itself for mitosis.
The nucleus increases in
volume. Metabolic activities is
essential for cell division, occur
during this phase. RNA
(mRNA,tRNA, rRNA ) also occur
but not necessary part of the
cell cycle.
This phase has double the
number of chromosomes.
All the other cellular
components are duplicated for
the two daughter cells.

Mitosis is the stage of cells


life cycle when the cells DNA
gets divided into two
separate nuclei, just before
cell division.

Mitosis is a type of cell division


in which a parental cell
produces two similar daughter
cells that resemble the parental
cell in terms of chromosomal
number.

Mitosis occurs in two stages


1. Karyokinesis(division of the
nucleus)
2. Cytokinesis (division of
the cytoplasm), resulting in two
daughter cells

A. Karyokinesis
occurs in four stages
1. Prophase (Gr. Pro before, phases appearance)

It is the longest phase. During this phase the


chromatin is organized into distinct chromosomes by
coiling or spiralization.

The centrioles develop into asters and move towards


the opposite poles of the cell to establish the plane of
cell division.

Spindle apparatus begin to appear

Nucleolus and Nuclear membrane disintegrate and


disappear.

The chromosomes are set free in the cytoplasm.


2.
.
.

Metaphase (Meta after, phase appearance):


Often last only a few minutes
Events
Chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and
arrange in equatorial plane, right angles to the
position of asters to form metaphasic plate
Microtubules connect the centromere of each
chromosome to the two poles of the spindle
Spindle fibres are completely formed

The chromosome become short and thick with two


distinct chromatids each

A. Karyokinesis
occurs in four stages
3. Anaphase(ana up, phases - appearance)

The centromere of all the chromosomes


undergo longitudinal splitting and the
chromatids of each chromosome separate to
form daughter chromosomes

The daughter chromosomes move toward the


opposite poles from the equator by the
activity of spindle fibers

Anaphase ends when chromosomes stop


moving
4. Telophase (Telo end, phases appearance)

Chromosomes begin to disperse into a chromatin


Nuclear envelope re-forms around each cluster of
chromosomes
Spindle begins to break apart
Nucleolus becomes visible

The daughter chromosomes reach the


opposite poles
The chromosomes undergo despiralization to
form long, thin thread like structures called
chromatin
Nucleolus and nuclear membrane reappears
The spindle fibers disappear

B) Cytokinesis

(cyto cell, kinesis movement)


It is the division of cytoplasm. A
cleavage furrow develops in
the middle of the cell in
centripetal direction due to the
contraction of microtubules.
It occurs till the edges of the
plasma membrane meet.
They fuse to form a separate
membrane.

MEIOSIS

This process occurs in all sexually


reproducing single-celled and
multicellular eukaryotes, including
animals, plants and fungi.
In meiosis, the cell division of a
parent cell with diploid
chromosomes results to two
daughter cells with diploid
chromosomes.
Diploid chromosomes pertaining to
the complete number of
chromosomes of an organism.
They contain a homologous pair
of each chromosome.
For example: Humans have 23
pairs of chromosomes (n=23)
A diploid (2n) cell therefore
contains 2x23 = 46 chromosomes.

Two Rounds of Cell Division


1.

Meiosis I (Reduction
division)

2.

Meiosis is the process by


which replicated
chromosomes undergo
two nuclear divisions to
produce four haploid
cells, also called
meiocytes (sperms and
eggs).
In meiosis I,
chromosomes in a
diploid cell resegregate,
producing four haploid
daughter cells.

Meiosis II (Equational
division)