Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 138

CAD

Computer Aided Design


MEE 403
Kuwar Mausam
ME Deptt.,GLA University,
Mathura
Kuwar.mausam@gla.ac.in
1

Module No.1

12

Introduction:
Introduction to CAD/CAED/CAE, Elements of CAD, Essential Requirements of CAD,
Concepts of Integrated CAD/CAM, Necessity & Its Importance, Engineering Applications
Computer Graphics-I
CAD/CAM Systems, Graphics Input Devices-Cursor Control Devices, Digitizers,
Keyboard Terminals, Image Scanner, Speech Control Devices and Touch, Panels,
Graphics Display Devices-Cathode Ray Tube, Random & Raster Scan Display, Color
CRT Monitors, Direct View Storage Tubes, Flat Panel Display, Hard Copy Printers and
Plotters.
Computer Graphics-II
Graphics Standards, Graphics Software, Software Configuration, Graphics Functions,
Output Primitives- Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm and Bresenhams Circle
Generating Algorithm.
Geometric Transformations:
World/Device Coordinate Representation, Windowing and Clipping, 2 D Geometric
Transformations- Translation, Scaling, Shearing, Rotation & Reflection Matrix
Representation,
Composite
Transformation,
3DTransformations,
Multiple
Transformation.
2

Module No.II

12

Curves:
Curves Representation, Properties of Curve Design and
Representation,
Interpolation
Vs
Approximation,
Parametric
Representation of Analytic Curves, Parametric Continuity Conditions,
Parametric Representation of Synthetic Curves-Hermite Cubic SplinesBlending Function Formulation and Its Properties, Bezier CurvesBlending Function Formulation and Its Properties, Composite Bezier
Curves, B-Spline Curves and Its Properties, Periodic and Non-Periodic
B-Spline Curves.
3D Graphics:
Polygon Surfaces-Polygon Mesh Representations, Quadric and
Superquadric Surfaces and Blobby Objects; Solid Modeling-Solid
Entities, Fundamentals of Solid Modeling-Set Theory, Regularized Set
Operations; Half Spaces, Boundary Representation, Constructive Solid
Geometry, Sweep Representation, Color Models. Application
Commands for AutoCAD & Pro-E Software
3

Module
No.III
Numerical Methods
With
Programming in 14
C/C+
+:
Introduction,
Errors
in
Numbers,
Binary
Representation of Numbers, Root Finding- Bisection
Method, Newton Raphson Method, Curve FittingLeast Square Method, Numerical DifferentiationNewtons Interpolation, Numerical IntegrationTrapezoidal and Simpson Method
Finite Element Method:
Introduction, Principles of Finite Elements Modeling,
Stiffness Matrix/Displacement Matrix, Stiffness
Matrix for Spring System, Bar & Beam Elements,
Bar Elements in 2D Space (Truss Element).
Continuum Problems: Classification of Differential
Equations, Variational Formulation Approach, Ritz
Method, Generalized Definition of An Element,4
Element Equations From Variations.

Books for CAD

COMPUTER AIDED DESIGN BY


R.K.SRIVASTAVA
CAD\CAM BY GROOVER AND ZIMMERS
CAD BY S.SINGH
MATHEMATICAL ELEMENTS FOR COMPUTER
GRAPHICS-ROGERS &ADAMS
COMPUTER ORIENTED NUMERICAL
METHODS BY RAJARAMAN
CAD\CAM BY IBRAHIM ZED
FEM BY S.S.RAO
5

Module No.1
Introduction:
Introduction to CAD/CAED/CAE, Elements of CAD, Essential Requirements of CAD,
Concepts of Integrated CAD/CAM, Necessity & Its Importance, Engineering
Applications
Computer Graphics-I
CAD/CAM Systems, Graphics Input Devices-Cursor Control Devices, Digitizers,
Keyboard Terminals, Image Scanner, Speech Control Devices and Touch, Panels,
Graphics Display Devices-Cathode Ray Tube, Random & Raster Scan Display,
Color CRT Monitors, Direct View Storage Tubes, Flat Panel Display, Hard Copy
Printers and Plotters.
Computer Graphics-II
Graphics Standards, Graphics Software, Software Configuration, Graphics
Functions, Output Primitives- Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm and
Bresenhams Circle Generating Algorithm.
Geometric Transformations:
World/Device Coordinate Representation, Windowing and Clipping, 2 D Geometric
Transformations- Translation, Scaling, Shearing, Rotation & Reflection Matrix
Representation,
Composite
Transformation,
3DTransformations,
Multiple
Transformation.

What is CAD
CAD= C +
A +
D
C:- Computer
A:- Aided (HELP)
D:- Design
Now we leave first two terms .
And make a discussion on the Design.

What is design?
Or
What is design Process?

BUT>>>>>>>>>
Before starting on the details discussion ONE Question:-

WHY WE STUDY CAD?

SIMPEL: TO CREAT A BACKGROUND FOR DESIGN


PROCESS.
TO ASSIST OUR SISTER ENGINEERING BRANCH.
TO UNDERSTAND THE FUNDAMENTALS WHICH
WORKS BEHIND THE ANY DESIGN AND DRAFTING
SOFTWARE.
AND THE LAST NO ONE CREAT A PERFECT DESIGN
WITH OUT THE KNOWLEDGE OF MATHEMATICS OF
DESIGN.

Theme of the Course


Starting

from geometric concepts we


proceed to compute something in several
steps as:
Geometry -> Algebra -> Algorithm -> Program
Ex: Circle -> implicit/parametric equation->Smiths
algorithm->computer implementation in C/C++/MATLAB
(OpenGL)
x2 + y2 = 1
x = cos(t) y = sin(t)
10

11

What is Design?
Design, usually considered in the context of applied arts,
engineering, architecture, and other creative endeavors, is
used both as a noun and a verb.
As a verb, "to design" refers to the process of originating and
developing a plan for a product, structure, system, or
component.
As a noun, "a design" is used for both the final (solution) plan
(e.g. proposal, drawing, model, description) or the result of
implementing that plan (e.g. object produced, result of the
process). More recently, processes (in general) have also been
treated as products of design, giving new meaning to the term
"process design
12

DESIGN PROCESS
The Design process
deals with the conversion
of ideas in to reality.
OR
IT is the form of human
activity which aims at
fulfilling human needs
OR
The design process is the
process of produce the
prototype, which is used
as the sample for
reproducing the
particular, goods or
service as many time to
satisfy consumers needs

RECOGNITION
OF NEED
DEFINITION OF
PROBLEM
SYNTHASIS
ANALYSIS AND
OPTIMIZATION
EVALUATION

PRESENTATION

13

14

15

Steps in the design process:(Given by Shigley)


1. Recognition of need
2. Definition of the problem
3. Synthesis
4. Analysis and Optimization
5. Evolution
6. Presentation
16

The Design Process An Engineering


Activity
1. Need
2. Concept
3. Modeling and Simulation
4. Analysis FEM (Geometrical Data)
5. Optimize Shape / Structure / Topology
6. Evaluate testing / Inspection / Comparison
7. Communicate prepare drawings and details

17

Taking assistance of Computers in Design


1. Manual Design
2. Geometric Models and Graphics
3. Move / Animate / Visualise
4. Use Analysis tools and software
5. Optimize Maximize / minimize the objective
functions: Structure, Shape, Topology
6. Evaluate test and check the model
7. Communicate Drafting and detailing
18

Some traditional design procedures:-

1.
2.

Design by craft evolution.


Design by drawing.

1.

Design by craft evolution:The designing of Bullock cart , rowing boat, razor etc
are some product produce by craft evolution process.
Features of craft evolution:The craft man doesnt prepare the dimensioned
drawing of their products.
They can not offer proper justification for the design.
The product design was very time consuming.
The change in product design is very slow or nearly
negligible.
19

Design by drawing:To over come the limitation of design by craft, a new method
of design is developed this method is called Design by
Drawing.

Features of Design by drawing :1. The dimensioning of product is


specified.
2. The complete manufacturing or design
of the product can be subdivided into
separate pieces, which can be made by
different people.
3. When the product is to be developed by20
trial and error, the process is carried out

Some Popular Design Approaches

User-centered design, which focuses on the needs,


wants, and limitations of the end user of the
designed artifact.
Use-centered design, which focuses on the goals
and tasks associated with the use of the artifact,
rather than focusing on the end user.
KISS principle, (Keep it Simple, Stupid), which
strives to eliminate unnecessary complications.
There is more than one way to do it (TMTOWTDI), a
philosophy to allow multiple methods of doing the
same thing.
Murphy's Law (things will go wrong in any given
situation, if you give them a chance.

21

FLOW CHART FOR DESIGN PROCESS WITHOUT


INLEMENTATION OF CAD

22

23

RECOGNITION
OF NEED

DEFINITION OF
PROBLEM

CAD ELEMENT\TOOLS

SYNTHASIS
GEO.
MODELLING

ANALYSIS AND
OPTIMIZATION

EVALUATION

ENGG.
ANALYSIS

DESIGN
REVIEW AND
EVALUATION

PRESENTATION
AUTOMAT
EDRAFTIN
G

24

FLOW CHART FOR DESIGN PROCESS WITH


INLEMENTATION OF CAD

25

26

PRODUCT CYCLE
All product cycle starts from the customers and markets and involves three steps. --Product specification
Design and optimization engineering
Drafting

Product
Concept

Design
Engineering

Drafting

Costumer
And Market

New
Equipment
and Tooling

Process
Planning

Quality
control

Production

Product
Schedules

Product cycle without implementation of CAD

27

CAD
Product
Concept

Costumer
And
Market

Quality
control

CAQc

CADD
Design
Engineerin
g

New
Equipment
and
Tooling

Production

Computer
control, robets,
machine OR
CAM

Drafting

Process
Planning

Product
Schedules

CAPP

Product cycle
with
implementation
of CAD

Computerized
Scheduling,
Mrp, Shop floor
Control

28

Typical product cycle

29

30

OVERVIEW OF CAD
What is CAD?
CAD if often defined in a variety of ways and includes a large
range of activities. Very broadly it can be said to be the
integration of computer science (or software) techniques in
engineering design.
OR
CAD is a creation and development of prototype on a
computer to assist the engineer in design process.
OR
CAD can be defined as the use of computer system to assist
in the creation, modification analysis or optimization of design.
OR
CAD also describe as the automation of the design process.
CAD plays the role in the area such as design, analysis,
production, planning, documentation, tool fabrication, quality
control and testing.
Cad system is also useful in improving the performance and
productivity.
31

32

A typical
CAD process

33

34

At one end when we talk of modeling, it encompasses the following:


Use of computers (hardware & software) for designing products
Numerical method, optimizations etc.
2D/3D drafting
3D modeling for visualization
Modeling curves, surfaces, solids, mechanism, assemblies, etc.
The models thus developed are first visualized on display monitors using a
variety of techniques including wire frame display, shaded image
display, hidden surface removed display and so on. Once the designer
is satisfied, these models are then used for various types of analysis /
applications. Thus, at the other end it includes a number of analysis
activities. These could be:
Stress (or deflection) analysis, i.e. numerical methods meant for estimating
the behavior of an artifact with respect to these parameters. It includes
tools like the Finite Element Method (FEM).

Simulation of actual use


Optimization
Other applications like
CAD/CAM integration
Process planning
35

Aspects to CAD:1. Modeling


2. Display/ Visualization
3. Applications

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

MODELING
Modelling typically includes a set of activities like
Defining objects
Defining relation between objects
Defining properties of objects
Defining the orientations of the objects in suitable coordinate systems
6. Modification of existing definition (editing)

36

The figure below explains what a typical CAD model would need
to define, what kind of entities need to be defined and what
relationships exist between them.

37

38

DISPLAY / VISUALIZATION
Displaying the model requires the following:
Mapping objects onto screen coordinates: Models are typically made in a model
coordinate system. this could be the world coordinate system, or a coordinate system
local to the object. these coordinate systems are typically three dimensional in
nature. To display the object on a 2D screen, the object coordinates need to be
mapped on to the 2D coordinate system of the screen. This requires two steps:
Viewing transformations: The coordinates of the object are transformed in a
manner as if one is looking at the object through the screen. This coordinate
system is referred to as the viewing coordinate system.
Projections: The object in the viewing coordinate system is then projected onto
the two dimensional plane of the screen.
Surface display or shading / rendering: In displaying the objects on the screen one
often likes to get a shaded display of the object and get a good feel of the three
dimensional shape of the object. This requires special techniques to render the
surface based on its shape, lighting conditions and its texture.
Hidden line removal when multiple surfaces are displayed: In order to get a proper
feel of the three dimensional shape of an object, one often desires that the lines /
surfaces which are not visible should not be displayed. this is referred to as hidden
39
line / surface removal

Once a model is visualized on the screen and approved by the conceptual


designer, it has to go through a number of analysis. Some of the kinds of
usage this model might have to go through are the following:
Estimating stresses / strains / deflections in the objects under various static
loading conditions
Estimating the same under dynamic loading conditions
Visualizing how a set of objects connected together would move when
subject to external loading. This leads to a whole set of activities under
simulation. These activities would vary depend upon the application the
object is to be subject to.
Optimizing the objects for
Developing 2D engineering drawings of the object
Developing a process plan of the object
Manufacturing the object using NC / CNC machines and generating the
programs for these machines so as to manufacture these objects.

40

Applications:Its include the following:

An overview of the hardware systems used in CAD

2D and 3D transformations used to shift between coordinate systems

Projection transformation used to get the object in screen coordinate


systems

Modeling of curves and surfaces

Modeling of solids

41

42

CAE
(COMPUTER AIDED ENGINEERING)
CAE DEFINED AS A PRODUCT DESIGN DEVELOPMENT PHILOSOPY THAT BRINGS TOGETHER ALL THE
ENGINEERING ACTIVITIES.
OR
CAE IS A COMBINATION OF TECHIQUES IN WHICH MAN AND MACHINE ARE BLENDED IN TO A PROBLEM
SOLVING TEAM WITH THE BEST CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH.

CAD
CAD
(DRAFTING)

CAE

CAM

CAPM
(COMPUTER
ADIED
PRODUCTION
MANAGEMENT)

1.Material
inventory control
2.Plant layout
3.Pay Roll
4.Production
Planning and
Control
5.Group tech.
6.Computer aided
scheduling

43

DATA
MANAGEMENT

COM. AIDED
DRAFTING

QUALITY
ACCURANCE

CAD

CAE

CAPM

BUILD AND TEST


PROTOTYPE

CAM

COMPUTER
SIMULATION

CAE ACTIVITIES

44

CIMS
COMPUTER INTREGATED MANUFACTURING SYSTEM
CIMS IS AN INTREGATION OF CAD\CAM SYSTEM THAT CONTROL ALL ACTIVITIES FROM
PLANNING, DESIGN OF PRODUCT TO ITS MANUFACTURING AND SHIPPING.
Mechanical
design

Product
specification

Mechanical
drafting

CIMS

Manufacturing

Process design
and control

Product design
and planning

Business
Management

Post production
management

Main component of CIMS


The aim of CIMS is to optimize the entire operation from design to manufacture to
45
sale.

46

Elements of CAD
Computer aided design consists of 3 levels i.e. Drafting, Modeling, Analysis and
blended in to two main factors.
1.Human factor
2.Machine factor
These factors working together to active the optimum design.
Level I
Level II
Drafting & Documentation
Geometric Modeling

Level III
Analysis & Testing

47

CAD SYSTEM

SYSTEM
FACTOR

HUMAN
FACTOR

DATABASE
GEOMETRIC
MODELING

HARDWARE

ENGINEERING
ANALYSIS
SOFTWARE

DESIGN
REVIEW &
EVALUATION

AUTOMATED
DRAFTING

Element of CAD

48

Human Factor
Human factor is the key of the success of CAD system. This concerns the training of designer or
the engineer, with out when the CAD system become redundant.
The trained designer may be activity involved in CAD process due to following factors.
Geometric modeling
Engineering/ Computer Aided analysis
Design review and evaluation
Automated drafting
1:-Geometric

Modeling
In computer aided design geometric modeling is concerned with computer compatible
mathematical description of the geometry of an object. The mathematical description
allows the images of the object to be displayed and manipulated on a graphic terminal
through signals from the CPU of the CAD system.
In geometric modeling the designer constructs the image of the object. On the CRT
screen of the interactive computer graphics system by in putting three type of
command
The first type of command generates basic geometric elements. Such as points lines
and circle.
The second type of command is meant to accomplish translation scaling, rotation or
other transformations of the elements.
The third type of command joins the various elements to give the desired object.
During the above process the computer converts the commands into a mathematical
model stores it in the computer data files and displays it as an image on the CRT
screen.
.
49

There are several different methods of representing the object in geometric


modeling. The basic form uses wire frames to represents the object. In this form
the object represent by the interconnecting lines.
Types of wire frame modeling.
1.2D
2. 2.5D
3. 3D
1. 2D:- Two dimensional representation is used for a flat object.
2. 2.5 D:- This goes some what beyond the 2D capability by permitting a 3D object to be
represented as long as it has no side wall details.
3. 3D:- This allows more complex or 3D geometry.
The new advance method of geometric modeling is solid modeling in three dimensions. In
this the colors are added to image the resulting pictures become realistic.
There are two basic approaches of solid modeling:Constructive solid geometry (CSG or C-rep) also called building block approach.
Boundary representation [B-rep]
C-rep or CSG It allows the user to build the model out of solid graphic primitives, such
as rectangular block, cubes, sphears, cylinders and pyramids.
B-rep It is used to draw outline or boundary of object or CRT screen. e.g To draw
unusual shapes.
Another feature is colour graphic capability. Colour images helps to clarity components in
assembly.
50

2 d wire frame model

3-d wire
frame
model

2.5-d wire
frame
model
51

2:-Engineering Analysis In the formulation of any design project, some sort of analysis is
required the analysis may be stress-strain calculations heat transfer computation or the use of
differential equation to describe the dynamic behaviour of the system being designed.
The computer can be used to aid in this analysis work.
Trunkey CAD/CAM system can be integrated to engineering analysis software which can be called
to operate on the current design model. The two most powerful analysis features of CAD system is

a.Finite Element Method


b.Analysis of Mass Properties.
3:-Design review and evaluation
Checking the accuracy of the design can be accomplished conveniently on the graphics terminal.\
Semi-automatic dimensioning and tolerance routines which assign size, specification to surfaces
indicated by the user help to reduce the possibility of dimensioning errors.
The designer can zoom in on part design detail and magnify the image on the graphics screen for
close scrutiny. A procedure called layering is often helpful in design review.
The another related procedure for design review in interference checking one of the most
interesting evaluation features available on some computer aided design system is kinematics.
The available kinematics package provides the capability to animate the motion of simple
designed mechanisms such as hinged components and linkages. The capability enhances the
designers visualization of operation of mechanism and helps to ensure against interference with
other components.
52

4:-Automated Drafting
Automated drafting involves the creation of hard copy engineering drawings directly from
CAD database. Some times automation of drafting process represented the principal
justification for investing the CAD station.
Computer aided drafting station is known as the design work station. The CAD work
station is the system interface with the outside world. The work of CAD work station
Interface with the central processing unit of the computer.
Generate the steady graphic image for the user.
Provide digital description of the graphic image.
Translate computer command into operating function.
Be user friendly.
Some times automated drafting also used with features of automatic dimensioning
generation of cross hatched area, scaling of drawing and capability to developed
sectional view and enlarged views of particular par details.
2:System Factor :
The other component or element is system factor. It contains two main sub components
a:-Hardware b:-Software.
A:-Hardware The hardware stands for physical component hardware list.
The CAD workstation
Display devices
Interaction devices
Output device
B:-Software It is second subsystem which is a set of instructions, procedures and
rules that direct the operation of the computer. Now present time many softwares are
available.

53

Essential requirements of CAD

CAD hardware software and humanware


connectivity

The complete CAD system consist of CPU, Hard disc, key boards,
digitizers, tabulate monitor, the plotter, scanner etc.
54

Reasons for Implementation of CAD System


1.To increase the productivity of the designer
2. To improve the quality of design
3. To improve communication
4. To create the database for manufacturing
5. For better and improved design
6. For reducing the engineering personnel requirement
7. For easier modification and alternations
8. For minimized design and transaction errors
9. For greater accuracy
10. For shorter lead time

55

Main Advantages or Benefits of CAD


Improved engineering productivity

Shorter lead time


Improve the quality of design
Helps in design analysis
Lower design error
Grater accuracy in design calculation
Reduced engineering personal requirement
Customer modifications are easier to make
Improve accuracy of design
Provides better functional analysis to reduces prototype testing
Assistance in preparation of documentation
Design have more standardization
Improved productivity in tool design
Reduce training time for routine drafting tasks
Lower response to requests for quotation
To improve communication
Easier modification and alteration
Design/drawing are more understandable
56

Computer Graphics I
Computer systems
Graphics input devices- cursor control
devices, Digitizers Scanners, speech
oriented devices and touch panels
Graphics display devices CRT, color
CRT monitors, DVST, Flat- panel display
Graphics output Devices.

57

COMPUTER SYSTEM FOR CAD


OR
BASIC REQUIREMENT CAD SYSTEM
There are two type of requirement for any cad software:Hardware requirement
Software requirement
1:- Hardware Requirement
There are three basic hardware component of a general purpose computer:Central Processing unit
Memory
Input\output device section
HARDWARE STRUCTURE.
CPU
INPUT/OUTPUT
DEVICE

Control
unit
ALU

MEMORY

Computer

Peripheral device
(printer)
Outside world
Mass Memory
(Tape, disk
etc)
58

59

Graphics Display devices

CRT
Color CRT monitors
DVST
Flat- panel display

60

Introduction

Normally the display o/p devices divided in to two category:1. Display devices for display the images on computer monitor.
2. Plotting, printing devices for the hard copy generation.
In today world most of the display devices follow the RASTER Scan technique and
most of the raster devices works on the DIGITAL FRAME BUFFER
DIGITAL FRAME BUFFER:- This frame buffer store a matrix of Pixel intensity
value, so this is called Memory Bank.
This memory bank change according to the requirement.(up to a certain limit.)
In a simple monochrome display the buffer contains the one memory bit for each
pixel in the each display device, thus if there are 1280x1024 pixels on the
display device, the buffer contains the same number of memory bits in a single
bit plane.
The memory bits have binary value of either 0 or 1 .
Zero value for unlighted pixel.
One value for lighted pixel.
If color and shade are required then additional bit are allocated on each pixel.
Total number of color available is 2n.
Total number of color are limited by Speed and bandwidth of display system. 61
Normally 4096 color are available in common cad system.

Frame
Buffers
A frame buffer may be thought of as computer memory
organized as a two-dimensional array with each (x,y)
addressable location corresponding to one pixel.
Bit Planes or Bit Depth is the number of bits corresponding to
each pixel.
A typical frame buffer resolution might be
640 x 480 x 8
1280 x 1024 x 8
1280 x 1024 x 24

62

Monochrome Display
(Bit-map Display)

1 bit
2 levels

Electron
Gun

63

Fig. 1-19 A Single-bit-plane black-and-white buffer raster CRT graphics device


64

Fig. 1-20 An N-bit-plane gray level frame buffer


65

3-Bit Color Display


3
red
green
blue

COLOR: black red green blue yellow cyan magenta white


R
G
B

0
0
0

1
0
0

0
1
0

0
0
1

1
1
0

0
1
1

1
0
1

1
1
1

66

Fig. 1-21 A 24-bit-plane color frame buffer


67

True Color Display

24 bit planes, 8 bits per color gun.


224 = 16,777,216
N

Red

Green
Blue

68

Fig. 1-22 A 24-bitplane color frame


buffer with 10-bit-wide
look up table

69

Color Map Look-Up Tables


Extends the number of colors that can be displayed by a
given number of bit-planes.

RED

max

GREEN

255

0
0
0
1
0

67
67 100110100001

Pixel in
bit map
at x', y'

0
0

BLUE

1
1
0

x
Bit map

1001 1010 0001

Pixel displayed
at x', y'

max

Look-up table

Display

Video look-up table organization: each table entry is a 12 bit per entry.
A pixel with value 67 is displayed on the screen with the red electron gun
at 9/15 (binary 1001) of maximum, green at 10/15, and the blue is 1/15.
70

71

Performance measurements
The performance of a monitor is measured by the following
parameters:
Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m2
also called a Nit).
active (black) to inactive (white) and back to active (black) again,
measured in milliseconds. Lower numbers mean faster transitions
and therefore fewer visible image artifacts.
Contrast ratio is the ratio of the luminosity of the brightest color
(white) to that of the darkest color (black) that the monitor is capable
of producing.
Power consumption is measured in watts.
Viewing angle is the maximum angle at which images on the
monitor can be viewed, without excessive degradation to the image.
It is measured in degrees horizontally and vertically.

72

73

Comparative table of Electronic Information Displays

74

CRT
CATHODE RAY TUBE

75

Main Component of CRT


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Vacuum tube
Elector gun
Control grid
Cathode
Beam Focusing unit
Deflection system:- a. Vertical system
b. Horizontal system

7.CRT screen

Fig. illustrates the basic operation of a CRT. A beam of electrons (cathode rays), emitted
by an electron gun, passes through focusing and deflection systems that direct the
beam towards specified position on the phosphor-coated screen.

The phosphor then emits a small spot of light at each position contacted by the electron
beam. Because the light emitted by the phosphor fades very rapidly, some method is
needed for maintaining the screen picture.

76

A refresh CRT is used.


The primary components of an electron gun in a CRT are the heated
metal cathode and a control grid.

Heat is supplied to the cathode by directing a current through a coil of


wire, called the filament, inside the cylindrical cathode structure.

This causes electrons to be? boiled off? the hot cathode surface. In
the vacuum inside the CRT envelope, negatively charged electrons are
then accelerated toward the phosphor coating by a high positive
voltage.

The accelerating voltage can be generated with a positively charged


metal coating on the in side of the CRT envelope near the phosphor
screen, or an accelerating anode can be used, as in fig.

Sometimes the electron gun is built to contain the accelerating anode


and focusing system within the same unit.

77

Spots of light are produced on the screen by the transfer of the CRT
beam energy to the phosphor.

When the electrons in the beam collide wit the phosphor coating, they
are stopped and there are stopped and their kinetic energy is
absorbed by the phosphor.

Part of the beam energy is converted by friction into heat energy, and
the remainder causes electron in the phosphor atoms to move up to
higher quantum-energy levels. After a short time, the? Excited?
Phosphor

Electrons begin dropping back to their stable ground state, giving up


their extra energy as small quantum of light energy.

What we see on the screen is the combined effect of all the electrons
light emissions: a glowing spot that quickly fades after all the excited
phosphor electrons have returned to their ground energy level.

The frequency (or color) of the light emitted by the phosphor is


proportional to the energy difference between the excited quantum
state and the ground state.
78

Different kinds of phosphor are available for use in a


CRT.
Besides color, a major difference between
phosphors is their persistence:
How long they continue to emit light (that is, have
excited electrons returning to the ground state) after
the CRT beam is removed.
Persistence is defined as the time it takes the emitted
light from the screen to decay to one-tenth of its
original intensity.
Lower-persistence phosphors require higher refresh
rates to maintain a picture on the screen without
flicker.
A phosphor with low persistence is useful for
animation;
A high-persistence phosphor is useful for displaying
highly complex, static pictures.
79

RASTER-SCAN DISPLAYS

In a raster- scan system, the electron beam is swept across the


screen, one row at a time from top to bottom.

As the electron beam moves across each row, the beam intensity
is turned on and off to create a pattern of illuminated spots.

Picture definition is stored in memory area called the refresh


buffer or frame buffer.

This memory area holds the set of intensity values for all the
screen points. Stored intensity values are then retrieved from the
refresh buffer and? Painted? On the screen one row (scan line)
at a time.

Each screen point is referred to as a pixel (shortened forms of


picture element).

80

Refreshing on raster-scan displays is carried out at the rate of 60 to 80


frames per second.

At the end of each scan line, the electron beam returns to the left side of
the screen to begin displaying the next scan line.

The return to the left of the screen, after refreshing each scan line, is called
the horizontal retrace of the electron beam.

On some raster-scan systems (and in TV sets), each frame is displayed in


two passes using an interlaced refresh procedure.
81

Random scan

Random scan monitors draw a picture one line at a time and for
this reason are also referred to as vector displays (or strokewriting or calligraphic displays).
The component lines of a picture can be drawn and refreshed
by a random-scan system in any specified order.
Sometimes the refresh display file is called the display list,
display program, or simply the refresh buffer.
To display a specified picture, the system cycles through the
set of commands in the display file, drawing each component
line in turn.
After all line- drawing commands have been processed, the
system cycles back to the first line command in the list.
Random-scan displays are designed to draw al the component
lines of a picture 30 to 60times each second.

82

83

Video
Controller

Cycles through the frame buffer, one scan line at a time. Contents of the memory
are used the control the CRT's beam intensity or color.

X address
M
e
m
o
r
y

Linear
address

Raster scan
generator
Y address

Data

Set or increment

Pixel
value(s)

Set or decrement

Horizontal
and vertical
deflection
signals

Intensity
or color

84

85

1. Persistence
2. Resolution
3. Addressability
4. Aspect ratio

86

How long small spots continue to emit


light after the beam is moved. How long it
takes to the emitted light from the screen to
decay to one-tenth of its original intensity.
Lower persistence requires high refresh rate &
it is good for animation
High persistence is useful for displaying highly
complex static picture.
Graphics monitors are usually constructed with
10 to 60 microseconds.
87

Intensity
distribution

Resolution is the number of pointes per inch or centimeter


that can be plotted horizontally & vertically.
The smaller the spot size, the higher the resolution.
The higher the resolution, the better is the graphics system
High quality resolution is 1280x1024
The intensity distribution of spots on the screen have
Gaussian shape.
Adjacent points will appear distinct as long as their
separation is greater than the diameter at which each spot
has intensity of about 60% of that at the center of the spot.
88

Addressability is a measure of the spacing


between the centers of vertical and horizontal
lines.
The picture on a screen consists of intensified
points.
The smallest addressable point on the screen is
called pixel or picture element
In graphics mode there are 800x600

89

This number gives the ratio between


vertical points and horizontal points
necessary to produce equal length lines
in both directions on the screen. Aspect
ratio = means: vertical line with 3
points is equal in length to horizontal line
of 4 points.

90

DVST(DIRECT VIEW STOREGE TUBE)

91

CONTINUE: In the DVST the picture is stored as the charge in the


phosphor mesh ,therefore complex picture can be drawn
with out flicker at high resolution. Once displayed the
picture remain on the screen until it is completely erased.
This the way the name storage tube suggested .
Flood gun
Screen
Storage Grid

Writing electron gun


92

The refresh display was obsolete by DVST because there


was refresh buffer memory could only display a few hundred
vectors on the screen without flicker.
The speed of the electron beam in he DVST is slower than
refresh display due to elimination of refresh cycle.
The picture is stored as a charge in the phosphor mesh
located behind the screens surfaces. Therefore complex
picture could be drawn without flicking.
Once the picture displayed it remains on the screen until it is
explicitly erased. This is why the Storage tube name was
suggested.
The DVST cannot provide colors, animation, and use of a
lightpen as an input device.
93

Flat panel display (LCD)


Ver .polarizing filter
Ver .glass grooved panel

Hor. Glass groove panel

Hor. molecule

Color filter

Twisted LCM
backlight

s
cr
e
e
n

voltage
Ver .molecule

Horizontal polarizing
94
filter

LCDs: organic molecules, naturally in crystalline state, that


liquefy when excited by heat or E field
Crystalline state twists polarized light 90.

95

Liquid- crystal displays (LCDs) are commonly used in systems,


such as calculators and portable, laptop computers.
These non-emissive devices produce a picture by passing
polarized light from the surrounding or from an internal light
source through a liquid- crystal material that can be aligned to
either block or transmit the light.
A flat-panel display can then be constructed with a nematic
liquid crystal, as demonstrated in fig.
Two glass plates, each containing a light polarizer at right
angles to the other palate, sandwich the liquid-crystal material.
Rows of horizontal transparent conductors are built into one
glass plate, and columns of vertical conductors are put into the
other plate.
The intersection of two conductors defines a pixel position.
Normally, the molecules are aligned as shown in the fig.
Polarized light passing through the material is twisted so that it
will pass through the opposite polarizer. The light is reflected
back to the viewer.
To turn off the pixel, we apply voltage to the two intersecting
conductors to align the molecules so that the light is not
96
twisted.

Transmissive & reflective LCDs:


LCDs act as light valves, not light emitters, and thus rely on an
external light source.
Laptop screen: backlit, transmissive display
Palm Pilot/Game Boy: reflective display

97

The TFTLCD is explained as Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal


Display. The Liquid Crystal Displays which are used in famous
LCD TVs and TFTLCD TVs are referred to as Nematic Phase liquid
crystals. There lies a Thin Film(layer) Transistor arranged and so, it
is called as Thin Film Transistor Liquid Crystal DisplayThese
Liquid crystals takes neither a solid or liquid form.
The only difference is that, the TFT LCD has a sandwich-like
structure with liquid crystal filled between two glass plates.
The Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) have the tendency to change
the properties of light passing through the crystals, when they are
stimulated by some external electrical charge. With this property,
the Liquid crystals move according to the difference in voltage
between the Color Filter Glass and the TFT Glass. The amount of
light supplied by Back Light is determined by the amount of
movement of the liquid crystals in such a way as to generate color.

98

Plasma display panels


Similar in principle to
fluorescent light tubes
Small gas-filled capsules
are excited by electric field,
emits UV light
UV excites phosphor
Phosphor relaxes, emits
some other color

99
99

100

Plasma panels, also called gas discharge displays,


are constructed by filling the region between two
glass plates with a mixture of gases that usually
include neon.
A series of vertical conducting ribbons is placed on
one glass panel, and a set of horizontal ribbons is
built into the other glass panel.
Firing voltages applied to a pair of horizontal and
vertical conductors cause the gas at the intersection
of the of two conductors to break down into a
glowing plasma of electrons and ions.
Picture definition is stored in a refresh buffer, and
the firing voltages are applied to refresh the pixel
positions (at the intersections of the conductors) 60
times per second.

101

Plasma Display Panel Pros


Large viewing angle
Good for large-format displays
Fairly bright

Cons
Expensive
Large pixels (~1 mm versus ~0.2 mm)
Phosphors gradually deplete
Less bright than CRTs, using more power
102

Color Display (CRT)

103

Color CRT Monitors


The beam penetration method for displaying color pictures has been used with randomscan monitors.
Two layers of phosphor, usually red and green, are coated on to the inside of the CRT
screen, and the displayed color depends on how far the electron beam penetrates into
the phosphor layers.
Shadow-mask methods are commonly used in raster-scan systems (including color TV)
because they produce a much wider range of color than the beam penetration method.
A shadow-mask CRT has three phosphor color dots at each pixel position. One
phosphor dot emits a red light, another emits a green light, and the third emits a blue
light.
This type of CRT has three electron guns, one for each color dot, and a shadow- mask
grid just behind the phosphor ?coated screen. Fig. illustrates the delta-delta shadowmask method, commonly used in color CRT systems.
104

Input device

Key board
Mouse
Light pen
Joystick
Trackball
Digitizer

105

Input
Devices

Locator Devices:

to indicate a position and/or orientation


to select a displayed entity
Tablet, Mouse, Trackball, Joystick, Touch Panel, Light Pen

Keyboard devices:
to input a character string
Alphanumeric keyboard (coded - get single ASCII character,
unencoded - get state of all keys - more flexible)

Valuator Devices:
to input a single value in the space of real numbers
Rotary dials (Bounded or Unbounded), Linear sliders

Choice Devices:
to select from a set of possible actions or choices
Function keys

106

Key board

107

Mouse

108

Light pen

109

JOY Stick

110

Track ball

111

Digitizing tablet is considered to be a locating as well as a


pointing device.
It is a small, low resolution digitizing board often used in
conjunction with graphics display.
The tablet is a flat surface over which a stylus or a puck (a
hand-held cursor to differentiate it from a display screen
cursor) can be moved by the user.
Operation is based on sensitizing its surface area to be able
to track the pointing element (stylus or puck) motion on the
surface.
The most common sensing technology electromagnetic is
used in this, where the pointing elemnt generates an out of
phase magnetic field sensed by a wire grid in the tablet
surface (the pad).
112

Most tablets have designated areas to input digitizers


(usually called graphics areas.). The remaining area of the
tablet surface is used to input menu commands, therefore
called the menu area.
Screens of the graphics display which the tablet is connected
to is mapped to the graphics area via the tablet calibration
process
The mapping process (figure 1.15) lets the motion of the
screen cursor follow that of the pointing element. If the
pointing element leaves thee boundaries of the graphics
area on the tablet, the screen cursor always disappears from
the screen.

113

114
Fig. 1-15 Mapping between a tablet graphics area and a display screen

OutPut devices
Monitor
Printer
Plotter

115

Monitor

116

Printer

117

Plotter

118

Computer Graphics-II
Graphics Standards, Graphics Software, Software
Configuration,
Graphics
Functions,
Output
Primitives- Bresenhams Line Drawing Algorithm
and Bresenhams Circle Generating Algorithm.

119

Computer Graphics-II
Graphics standards

Graphic World With out Graphic standards: Old or existing software to run on new system are prohibitive.
To run old one user pay some additional cost .
The procedure of running of old software on new one is time
consuming.

Benefits Of Graphics Standards: Program portability to any graphics installation.


Programmer portability, a programmer can easily changes his
task without the need to learn new set of graphics commands
again.
Graphics standards serves guideline for manufacturer of
graphics equipments in providing useful combination of
graphics capability in a device, thus save time in creating own
graphics commands.
120

Structure of Graphics standards


Application
data
structure

Application
Program

Graphics
System

I/O device

With out standards


Graphics System
Application
data
structure

Application
Program

Kernal
core
system

Device
handler
driver

Hardware
Hardware
Independent dependen
t
With Graphics
Standards

I/O device

121

Some Commonly used Graphics Standards


1) GKS(Graphics Kernal System)
2) PHIGS(Programmers Hierarchical
Interactive graphics system)
3) VDM(Virtual Device Metafile) or CGM
4) VDI(Virtual Device interface) or CGI
5) IGES(Initial graphics Exchange
Specification)
6) NAPLPS(North American Presentationlevel protocol syntax)
122

GKS(Graphics Kernal System)


GKS is an ANSI or ISO Standard.
It is device, host and application Independent.
It support both 2 and 3 dimensional data and
viewing.
It is a linkage between the application
program and graphics support package.
:- American National Standard Institute

123

PHIGS
(Programmers Hierarchical Interactive graphics
system)

It support High level work station and their


related CAD/CAM system.
It is Extension of GKS-3D.
It is used to display graphics and dynamic
ability to modify segment content and
relation-ship.

124

VDM (Virtual Device Metafile)


or
CGM(Computer graphics Metafile)
It is defined the function used to describe
the Picture.
Such Description is able to transfer form
one graphics device to another graphics
device.

125

VDI(Virtual Device interface)


or
CGI(Computer graphics Interface)
It is a linkage of GKS or PHIGS and
device handler.
It share many characteristics with CGM.
It is work as a interface between Plotter
and GKS or PHIGS.
126

IGES
(Initial graphics Exchange
Specification)
It is capable to exchange the database
among the CAD/CAM system.
It is work at the level of object database
and application data structure.

127

NAPLPS
(North American Presentation-level protocol
syntax)

It was accepted by Canada and ANSI.


It describe the text and graphics in the
form of sequences of bytes .

128

Graphics Function
Graphics software provides user with several function for
creating and playing the images. These routine can be
deals with output ,input attributes, transformations,
viewing and general control.
Such routines are called Graphics Functions.
Different Graphics Function:1. Output primitives and their attributes.
2. Geometric Transformation.
3. Viewing Transformation.
4. Input function.
5. Control Operation Function.
129

Example of Graphics Function


Output Primitives

Their Attributes

Polyline

Line Type, Line Width, Scale Factor,


Color.

Polymarker

Mark Type, Mark Width, Scale Factor,


Color.

Text

Font. Precision, Height, Color.

File Area

Pattern Size, Style, Hatch Style.

GDP(Generalized Drawing primitives)

Circle, Curve, Area, Spline.

130

Output Primitives
A drawing and solid models generates in a CAD package
by using certain basic graphical entities such as line,
circle, polygon, ellipse, etc. These graphical entities are
called Output Primitives.
These out put primitives can be drawn by given set of
command in CAD package.
E.G: For line the input required are co-ordinates of
end point position.
For Circle the input required center and radius
of the circle.
131

Output Primitives
Line 1

Line 2

Line 5

Arc
1

Polygon 1

Circle 1

Arc
2

Line 3

Line 4

To generates these output primitive different


algorithms are available.
132

Algorithm
Line

Circle

1. Algo Using Slope


method.
2. Digital Differential
Analyzer(DDA) Algo.
3. Bresenhams Line
Drawing Algo.

1. Mid point Circle Algo.


2. Bresenhams Circle
Drawing Algo.

133

Line Algo Using Slope method


Assume:- Equation of Line given by Y=mX+b
Steps:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Compute:-dx= X2-X1
Compute:- dY= Y2-Y1
Compute Slope:- dY/dX
Compute b=Y1-mX1
Set(X,Y) equal to lower left hand end point and Xend equal to
largest value of X.
IF dX<0,X=X2, Y=Y2 and Xend=X1
dX>0, X=X1, Y=Y1 and Xend=X2
6.
Test to determine whether the entire line has been drawn.
If X=Xend, Stop.
7.
Plot the point at the Current (X,Y) Coordinates.
8.
Increments X=X+1.
9.
Compute the nearest value of Y,Y=mX+b.
10. Go to step 6.

134

Digital Differential Analyzer(DDA)


ALGO
DDA is a scan conversion algo. based on
calculating either dy or dx for the line
segments, shown in fig:y
y2
m
1

y1
x1

x2

135

Digital Differential Analyzer(DDA) ALGO

Slope of line,
m=y/x, y=mx or x=y/m.
Case 1:1. If slope is less than one.
2. Positive
3. Start point of the line is:a) at the left:Then set the increment in x coordinate to unity.
Let a point (xk, Yk ) on the line the next point will be:xk+1 = xk + 1
Yk+1= Yk +m
b) at the right:xk+1 = xk - 1
Yk+1= Yk -m
136

Case 2:1. If slope is grater than one.


2. Positive
3. Start point of the line is:a) at the left:Then set the increment in y coordinate to unity.
Let a point (xk, Yk ) on the line the next point will
be:xk+1 = xk + 1/m
Yk+1= Yk +1
b) at the right:xk+1 = xk 1/m
Yk+1= Yk -1
137

Case 3:1.If slope is negative.


a)If absolute value of m is less than one
Start point of the line is at the left:xk+1 = xk - 1
Yk+1= Yk m
b) If absolute value of m is grater than one.
Start point of the line is at the left:xk+1 = xk 1/m
Yk+1= Yk +1

Disadvantage:The value of the slope may be a real number hence


the value of the new coordinate also a real number, so
designer need to convert or round off these value to some
integer value because the pixels are arranged on screen in
the integer fashion. These rounding off operation and real
arithmetic calculation are too much time consuming so this
make DDA to slow so now this DDA is obsolete from CAD
system.

138