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OILY SLUDGE DISPOSAL

IN THE CONTEXT OF THE


MARINE POLLUTION AGREEMENT

INTRODUCTION

MARPOL (Marine Pollution Agreement)

International convention signed by 137 countries


around the world, including the UAE in October
2006
Introduced to reduce, and reduce the risk of,
pollution at sea from shipping

To prevent the disposal of wastes at sea

Requires Port Authorities to control waste disposal by


ensuring all vessels have Certificates of Safe Disposal for all
waste streams, namely solids, sewage and oily waste
before leaving port
In particular the disposal of oily slops and sludges
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SOURCE

The sources of oily effluents


generated by shipping are mainly
from:

Impurities removed from bunker fuel oil


Tank cleanings (bunker and cargo)
Oily effluent water
Lubricants and greases
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CHARACTERISATION
These streams can be characterised into two
groups as follows:
Slops:
Sludge:
Pumpable
Un-pumpable
Solids < 1,5% m/m Solids > 35% m/m
Water 30% - 60% v/v
Water 10% - 20%
Specific Gravity <1 Specific Gravity >1

The importance of this distinction is in


the handling, processing and disposal
costs.
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RECOVERY

The method of recovery of these waste streams varies


significantly:

SLOPS:

Pumped overboard
Either into a barge or a
road tanker on the
wharf side
The quantity of oil
generated is typically
0,5% of vessels fuel
used
The typical recoverable
oil in slops is >95%
The cost per tonne of oil
recovered is relatively
low

SLUDGE:

Shoveled by hand into


small plastic bags
Placed in skips
Removed overboard by
crane
The quantity is much less
than slops and dependent
on the period between
tank cleanings
The typical recoverable oil
in sludge is <66%
The cost per tonne of oil
recovered is relatively
high

DISPOSAL

The principles of disposal should always be


to:

MAXIMISE the UTILISATION of the energy


source through recovery and recycling
MINIMISE the quantity of waste requiring
DISPOSAL with regard to:
Environmental considerations/circumstances
Best Available Practical Technology ( BAPT)
Facilities and infrastructure
Cost

UTILISATION

SLOPS:
Has a high usable oil content, and recovery and
dewatering can be practically and economically carried
out. The recovered oil can be either:

Returned to BUNKER FUEL OIL by blending

Currently no practical technology available to render slops into


bunker fuel oil specification
However as most refineries produce bunker fuel that is well within
the quality specification, judicious blending is possible, although
this is not necessarily to the liking of ship owners and engineers

INDUSTRIAL FUEL OIL

Requires a different and often lower quality specification


Can be practically achieved with current technology
Requires a local industrial base using heating fuel
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UTILISATION

SLUDGE:
The sludge can be utilised as is, in:
Cement manufacture (Fe & Al content beneficial)
Clay brick manufacture (replaces coal)
And not much else!
However some useful oil can generally be recovered
from the sludge. This has the advantage of reducing
the volume of waste and renders the sludge more
acceptable for disposal
But at considerable cost

DISPOSAL

SLOPS:

SOLIDS (sludge):
The removal of the inorganic solids from slops
produces a sludge as there is usually some associated
oil remaining.
This sludge can be less than 60% oil by mass
And would typically account for less than 5% by mass
of the oil in the slops received.
WATER:
The water can be

Easily removed to below 1% remaining in the oil


Pre-treated to remove the bulk of the oil (<200 ppm)
Disposed to a biological water treatment facility
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DISPOSAL

SLUDGE:

The removal of the free oil in sludge results


in a sludge requiring disposal with around
50% oil content by mass and accounts for
around 40% by mass of the sludge received.
Further processing can reduce the oil
content even further but at a cost
There are various available technologies:
Centrifugation, solvent wash, steam stripping
Incineration, pyrolisation or thermal desorption

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DISPOSAL

The choice of approved disposal


options needs to consider:

The ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT of each


alternative in respect of the:
Available practical technology
Type and quantity of pollution produced
The local circumstances
The acceptable cost-benefit ratio
Sustainability
Monitoring and control required

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PROCESS

SLOPS
PROCESSING

WATER
TREATMENT

WATER
DISPOSAL
OIL PRODUCT

SLUDGE

SLUDGE
PROCESSING

SLOPS

SLUDGE
TREATMENT

SOLIDS
DISPOSAL

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SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

Policy (port authority) detailing requirements, standards,


procedures, system, authorisations, measurement, monitoring
etc
Vessel disposal control system
Infrastructure:

Processing facilities

Slops
Sludge
Effluent oily water

Disposal Facilities

Barges and/or road tankers


Wharf side tankage for slops/ballast water
Sludge handling (skips and trucks)

Landfill for sludge/solids/plastic


Bio-treatment for effluent water

Compliance monitoring
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LOW SPEED
HORIZONTAL
SPINDLE
CENTRIFUGE

HIGH SPEED
VERTICAL
SPINDLE
CENTRIFUGE
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FORCED FEED
EVAPORATOR
FOR WATER
REMOVAL

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