Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 31

Challenge: Use this diagram to review events of meiosis

chromosomes
duplicated

metaphase I

anaphase I

(occurs normally)
first division

metaphase II

anaphase II

The Paradox of Sex


Meiosis- when it goes wrong
Why sex?
2

Learning goal: students will be able to explain how


meiosis generates genetic diversity in offspring,
and why this is an evolutionary advantage over
mitosis (asexual reproduction)

Focus:
Mistakes

in Meiosis
the Paradox of Sex
3

Mistakes during Meiosis affect entire


chromosomes
Gene dosage: the number of (working) genes for a given protein
The minimum
normal dosage of
most genes is 2
(because we are
diploid organisms)

amount of
protein
present

2
3
# copies of gene

For many genes, the number of copies present determines the amount of protein
that will be made
4

Mistakes during Meiosis affect entire


chromosomes
Gene dosage: the number of (working) genes for a given protein
The minimum normal
dosage of genes on
sex chromosomes is
ONE.

amount of
protein
present

2
3
# copies of gene

(males have only one


X and one Y; females
turn off one X)

For many genes, the number of copies present determines the amount of protein
that will be made
5

Mistakes during Meiosis affect entire


chromosomes
Gene dosage: the number of (working) genes for a given protein
normal: two working alleles
amount of
protein
present

mutant: only one working allele

2
# copies of gene

If an allele on one chromosome is nonfunctional due to a mutation,


you may see a phenotype due to only having half the gene dosage
6

Mistakes during Meiosis affect entire


chromosomes
Gene dosage: the number of (working) genes for a given protein
normal

mutant: three working alleles

amount of
protein
present

2
3
# copies of gene

If an allele happens to be duplicated somehow, you may see a


phenotype due to increasing the gene dosage
(In this case, too much is just as bad as too little)

Mistakes during Meiosis affect entire


chromosomes
Gene dosage: the number of (working) genes for a given protein

amount of
protein
present

missing
chromosome

extra
chromosome

2
3
# copies of all genes

Having only one copy of a chromosome, or an extra chromosome, alters the


gene dosage of ALL the genes on that chromosome.
THIS IS USUALLY FATAL.

Nondisjunction leads to extra or


missing chromosomes in gametes

nondisjunction can occur during anaphase I or anaphase II

Nondisjunction leads to zygotes with


abnormal chromosome numbers
normal gamete

fertilization

resulting
zygotes:
2n + 1 (trisomy)

2n -1 (monosomy)

10

In a given cell, meiosis I occurs normally,


but nondisjunction occurs in one cell during
meiosis II. How many gametes will have
aneuploidy?
1. only one
2. two
3. three
4. all four
5. it depends on which chromosome is
involved
11

chromosomes
duplicated

metaphase I

anaphase I

(occurs normally)
first division

metaphase II

anaphase II
2 normal
gametes

2 gametes with
aneuploidy
nondisjunction in one cell

12

chromosomes
duplicated

metaphase I

anaphase I

(occurs normally)
first division
Challenge: Use this diagram to see predict effects of other kinds of nondisjunction on
gametes. (Ex: nondisjunction of BOTH chromosomes during metaphase I)

metaphase II

anaphase II

13

Fate of Zygote? Usually...


Some

monosomies and trisomies are


survivable if:

its a sex chromosome


its a small chromosome
only one chromosome is involved

14

Why might we be able to survive


monosomies or trisomies involving
sex chromosomes?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Because sex chromosomes do not contain essential


genes
Because only one X is needed for survival
Because extra X or Y chromosomes can be turned off
Because genes on the X and Y are not sensitive to
gene dosage
Because X and Y dont have any genes on them

15

Asexual reproduction is more


efficient
Asexual

Less energy investment

No gametes needed

No mate needed

All offspring can undergo


pregnancy

Sexual

More energy investment


Produce gametes
(most of which are wasted)
Find mate
(what a pain)
Half your offspring cannot undergo
pregnancy

Yet sexual reproduction is the predominant method of


reproduction among multicellular organisms.
(why go through all this effort?)

16

Asexual reproduction is more


efficient, but sex predominates
Asexual

Sexual

The Paradox: Mathematically, sexual populations should


outnumber sexual populations

But they dont.

17

Sexual reproduction gives a


population a survival advantage
Asexual

Sexual

Meiosis generates genetic diversity.


18

Meiosis generates genetic diversity


over generations

paternal
grandparents

gametes

father

crossover mixes genes from


different chromosomes

gametes

maternal
grandparents

gametes

offspring

mother
Every offspring contains mix
of DNA from four different
organisms
19

Meiosis generates genetic diversity


over generations
gametes
parent

offspring

Even with self-fertilization,


offspring are genetically unique
20

Self fertilization differs from


parthenogenesis
self-fertilization through meiosis
parent

gametes

offspring
fertilization

parthenogenesis through
mitosis

offspring
parent

21

(1) Sexual reproduction allows


Purifying Selection
Asexual

A deleterious (bad)
mutation is passed on to
ALL offspring, always.

Sexual

A deleterious mutation is only


passed on to 50% offspring
22

(2) A genetically diverse population is


an advantage when there are
environmental challenges

Rapid changes in conditions

Introduction of a pathogen
How do we test this hypothesis?
Lets ask creatures that can switch between the two
modes of reproduction.
23

C. elegans, if theres a pathogen munching


on you, do you prefer asexual or sexual
reproduction?
What is outcrossing?

figure 13.15

A.

parthenogenesis

B.

self-fertilization

C.

mating with other individuals

D.

mating outside species

24

C. elegans, if theres a pathogen munching


on you, do you prefer asexual or sexual
reproduction?

answer: sex!

25

C. elegans, did sexual reproduction aid your


population in surviving this pathogen?
Hypothesis:
A strain of C. elegans that cannot reproduce sexually will not evolve
resistance to a pathogen as rapidly as sexually reproducing strains

Results:
The sexually reproducing strain evolves resistance
The asexually reproducing strain dies out.
answer: yep!

26

Does this occur in


nature?
Lets ask Daphnia.
Daphnia reproduce asexually in the spring and summer
They switch over to sexual reproduction in the fall
Fertilized eggs overwinter and hatch in the spring

27

Does this occur in


nature?
Lets ask Daphnia.
Hypothesis:
Worsening environmental conditions will trigger witch to sexual
reproduction in creatures that can reproduce both sexually and
asexually.
Some cues Daphnia might use to decide when the going is going to get
rougher:

Onset of winter (shorter day length, temperature)

Competition for resources (food available, population density)

BOTH
28

Does this occur in


nature?
Lets ask Daphnia.

Answer: when the going gets tough....the tough start reproducing sexually.
29

You should be able to:

explain how a nondisjunction error during meiosis generates


aneuploidy in gametes
trisomies or monosomies in zygotes
alterations in gene dosage
consequences in viability of zygotes

explain what monosomy X or trisomy 21 (or other examples)


means
how many chromosomes are present in the zygote
how did the error happen
how would this be represented in terms of n (ex: 2n+1)

Understand (generally) why gene dosage alterations can cause


phenotypes and why meiosis errors would be worse than simply
deleting or duplicating just one gene.
30

You should be able to

Explain how the evidence supports the evolutionary advantages of


sexual reproduction over asexual
why some creatures still use asexual reproduction, or switch between
modes
(what is the advantage to asexual?)
What is the paradox?
What does meiosis do for a population
How is genetic diversity an advantage?

Explain the three experiments in this lecture

Two C. elegans experiments


Daphnia experiment
What were the hypotheses?
What were the results?
How do results support the evolutionary advantage of sexual
reproduction in a population?
What were the conditions that triggered more sexual reproduction in
these experiments?

31

Похожие интересы