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What is similar about these 3

atoms?
(Hint: What was the octet rule?)

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Intro to Chemical Bonds


-

Ultimately, every atom wants to be


like the noble gases

(Which Means: Every atom wants to


have a full valence shell or 8 electrons
in the outer ring)

The periodic table shows TRENDS


(patterns) about how elements are
going to behave to get a full valence
ring

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Periodic Table: electron


behavior

The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons

West (South)

METALS
Alkali
Alkaline
Transition
These elements
tend to give up
e - and form
CATIONS

1
IA
1

Mid-plains

METALLOID

These elements
will give up e- or
accept e-

East (North)

NON-METALS
Noble gas
Halogens
Calcogens
These elements
tend to accept
e - and form
ANIONS

2
IIA

13
IIIA

14
IVA

18
VIIIA
15
VA

16
VIA

17
VIIA

3
IIIB

4
IVB

5
VB

6
VIB

7
VIIB

9
VIIIB

10

11
IB

12
IIB

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2. Trends in Electronegativity

Measure of the ability of an atom


to attract electrons. Nonmetal
atoms want to attract electrons to
get a full valence shell of e-.

How many
more edoes
fluorine
need to
have a full
valence
shell?

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How many
more edoes Na
need to
have a full
valence
shell?

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So who, Na or F, do you
think is going to be more
electronegative?

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2. Trends in Atomic Radius

The size of at atomic radii is determined by the valence e-.

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Largest atoms are those in bottom left corner, since


these atoms have 1. the largest number of energy
levels and 2. least number of electrons than those in
their period.

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3. Trends in Ionization
The energy required
to remove the valence electron from an atom.
Potential

Largest toward top right since these atoms hold on to their valence ethe tightest.

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LOW Ionization energy = VERY Reactive!!

When a lot of energy is required for an atom to


lose electrons, it is going to be less likely to
react than an atom that easily sheds electrons.

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Periodic Table:
Table Map of the Building block
of matter
Type:
Type Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal
Group/Family:
Group/Family Elements in the same
column have similar chemical property
because of similar valence electrons
Period: Elements in the same row have
valence electrons in the same shell.

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Hydrogen
Hydrogen sits atop Family
I, but it is not a member
of that family.
Its a gas at room
temperature.
It has one proton and one
electron in its one and
only energy level.
Hydrogen only needs 2
electrons to fill up its
valence shell.

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Group 1 (1A) Alkali Metals


The alkali family is found in never found as free
the first column of the
elements in nature. They
periodic table.
Atoms of the alkali metals
have a single electron in
their 1 valence electron.

are always bonded with


another element.

https://www.youtube.com/w
atch?v=xQsXrgIc88o

They are shiny,


have the consistency of clay,
and are easily cut with a
https://www.youtube.com/
knife.

watch?v=m55kgyApYrY

extremely reactive
React Violently in Water
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Group 2 (2A) Alkaline Earth


Metals

They are never found


uncombined in nature.
They have two valence
electrons.

Distributed in rock structure


Ductile and Malleable
React easily with the
halogens and water
Softer and stronger
than most other metals
(except the alkali
metals)
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Group 3-12 (B) Transition


elements in the B families. Metals
metals you are probably
most familiar: copper, tin,
zinc, iron, nickel, gold, and
silver.

They are good conductors of


heat and electricity.
Used to make jewelry and
computers/electronics.
combine chemically with
oxygen to form compounds
called oxides

usually brightly colored and are


often used to color paints.

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Transition elements have 1 or 2


valence electrons

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Group 13 (3A) Boron


Atoms in this family have 3 Family
valence electrons.
includes a metalloid (boron), and
the rest are metals.
includes the most abundant
metal in the earths crust
(aluminum).
Boron is most commonly found as
borax and boric acid, which are
used in cleaning compounds.
Aluminum is used as a coating
agent, to prevent oxidation.

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Group 14 (4A) Carbon


Family
have 4 valence electrons.
includes a non-metal
(carbon), metalloids, and
metals.
carbon is called the basis
of life.
tend to share electrons
when they bond.
All of the elements of this
family can form four
bonds, the most of any
family.

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Group 15 (5A) Nitrogen


Family
named after the element that
makes up 78% of our atmosphere.

Includes non-metals, metalloids,


and metals.
have 5 valence electrons.
tend to share electrons when they
bond.
Other elements in this family are
phosphorus, arsenic, antimony,
and bismuth.

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Group 16 (6A) Oxygen


Family
have 6 valence electrons.
share electrons when forming
compounds.
Oxygen is the most abundant
element in the earths crust.
Extremely active and combines
with almost all elements.
also called the chalcogens
can be found in nature in both
free and combined states.

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Group 17 (7A) Halogen


Family

have 7 valence electrons

they are the most active nonmetals.


They are never found free in nature.
Halogen atoms only need to gain 1
electron to fill their outermost
energy level.

They

react with
alkali metals to form
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Group 18 (8A) Noble Gases


colorless gases that are extremely un-reactive.
One important property is their inactivity because
their outermost energy level is full.
do not readily combine with other elements
called inert.
All the noble gases are found in small amounts in
the earth's atmosphere.

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Rare Earth Elements


The thirty rare earth
elements are
composed of the
lanthanide and
actinide series.
One element of the
lanthanide series
and most of the
elements in the
actinide series are
called trans-uranium,
which means
synthetic or manmade.

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