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INTRODUCTION

TO
LATHE MACHINING

MACHINE SHOP
Is shop where materials are cut to the
required shape and size according to the
necessity for the use of civilization or ready
to sell in the market. It is a floor of
assembly of several machine tools like
Lathe, Planning, Shaping, Milling, Drilling
and Power saw, etc.

LATHE MACHINE
Is amachinetool which rotates the work-piece
on its axis to perform various operations such
as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or
deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are
applied to the work-piece to create an object
which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.
A machine for shaping wood or metal by means
of a rotating drive which turns the piece being
worked on against changeable cutting tools.

Common Types of Lathe


Machine
Engine Lathe
Controls on the side of the head stock
allow selection of any one of many
speeds, which are arrange in logical
geometric progression. A combination of
electric chuck and brake is provided for
starting, stopping or jogging the work.

Engine lathe obtained their power from


the engine rather than overhead belts.

Speed Lathe
A light, pulley-driven lathe, usually without
a carriage or back gears, used for work in
which the tool is controlled by hand.
Usually it is driven by a variable speed
motor. It is use in turning wood, centering
metal cylinders and metal spinning.

Bench Lathe

Is a small lathe that is mounted on a work


bench. (Mini-Lathe)

Turret Lathe

A longitudinally feed able, hexagon turret


replaces the tailstock. The turret, on
which six tools can be mounted, can be
rotated about a vertical axis to bring each
tool into operating position, and the
entire unit can be moved longitudinally

Through these basic features of a turret lathe,


a number of tools can be set on the machine
and then quickly be brought successively into
working position so that a complete part can
be machined without the necessity for further
adjusting,
changing
tools,
or
making
measurements.

Lathe Machine Parts &


Accessories

Lathe Chuck

Is a specialized type ofclampused to hold an


object, usually an object withradial symmetry,
especially acylindricalobject. It is most
commonly used to hold a rotating tool (such as
thedrill bitin apower tool) or a rotating
workpiece (such as thebaror blank in the
headstockspindleof alathe).
Many chucks have jaws, which are dogs that are
arranged in a radially symmetrical pattern (like
the points of a star) to hold the tool or workpiece.

Independent & Universal Chuck

Faceplate
Is a handy accessory for turning oddshaped work that cannot easily be held
in a chuck.

When using a faceplate, always ensure that the work is


securely clamped down and balanced by some offsetting
piece of metal, if necessary. Work at low RPMs.

Steady Rest
Long workpieces often need to be supported in the middle,
as cutting tools can push (bend) the work piece away from
where the centers can support them, because cutting metal
produces tremendous forces that tend to vibrate or even
bend the workpiece. This extra support can be provided by
a steady rest it stands stationary from a rigid mounting on
the bed is clamped to a fixed point on the ways, usually near
the end, and has adjustable 'fingers' that are adjusted so
that they lightly contact the outside of a long and/or limber
workpiece to keep it from wobbling or thrashing., and it
supports the workpiece at the rest's center, typically with
three contact points 120 apart.

Steady Rest

Follower Rest
Is similar to asteady rest, but is
attached to and travels with the
carriage to provide a moving support
for the work behind the cutting tool.
This is very handy when trying to turn
limber work which would otherwise
bow out away from the tool. If you
have ever wondered about the two
screw holes on the left edge of the
carriage, now you know what they are
for - they are the mounting holes for
the follower rest.

Follower Rest

Live Center or Revolving Center


Centers are often used in the tailstock
to support the end of a relatively long
and limber workpiece. Is constructed so
that the 60 center runs in its own bearings
and is used at the non-driven ortailstock
end of a machine

Live Center mounted in

Dead center

Adead center(one that does not turn freely,


i.e.,dead) may be used to support the workpiece at
either the fixed or rotating end of the machine. When
used in the fixed position, a dead center produces
friction between the workpiece and center, due to the
rotation of the workpiece. Lubrication is therefore
required between the center and workpiece to prevent
friction welding from occurring. Additionally the tip of
the center may have an insert of cementedcarbide
which will reduce the friction slightly and allow for
faster speeds. Dead centers are typically fully hardened
to prevent damage to the important mating surfaces of
thetaperand to preserve the 60 angle of the nose.

Tailstock
Thetailstockis a tool (drill), and centre mount, opposite
the headstock. The spindle(T5)does not rotate but does
travel longitudinally under the action of a lead screw and
handwheel(T1). The spindle includes ataperto hold drill
bits, centers and other tooling. The tailstock can be
positioned along the bed and clamped(T6)in position as
dictated by the work piece. There is also provision to
offset the tailstock(T4)from the spindles axis, this is
useful for turning small tapers, and when re-aligning the
tailstock to the axis of the bed.
The image shows a reduction gear box(T2)between the
hand wheel and spindle, where large drills may
necessitate the extra leverage. The tool bit is normally

Carriage

It holds the tool bit and moves it longitudinally (turning) or


perpendicularly (facing) under the control of the operator. The
operator moves the carriage manually via thehand-wheel(5a)or
automatically by engaging the feed shaft with the carriage feed
mechanism(5c). The hand-wheels(2a, 3b, 5a)on the carriage
and its related slides are usually calibrated, both for ease of use
and to assist in making reproducible cuts. Calibration marks will
measure either the distance from center (radius), or the work
piece's diameter. The carriage typically comprises a top casting,
known as thesaddle (4), and a side casting, known as theapron
(5).

Cross-slide(3)rides on the carriage and has a feedscrew that travels at


right angles to the main spindle axis. This permitsfacingoperations to be
performed, and the depth of cut to be adjusted. This feedscrew can be
engaged, through a gear train, to the feed shaft (mentioned previously)
to provide automated 'power feed' movement to the cross-slide.
compound rest(ortop slide)(2)is usually where the tool post is
mounted. It provides a smaller amount of movement (less than the crossslide) along its axis via another feedscrew. The compound rest axis can
be adjusted independently of the carriage or cross-slide. It is used for
turning tapers, to control depth of cut when screwcutting or precision
facing, or to obtain finer feeds (under manual control) than the feed shaft
permits. Usually, the compound rest has a protractor marked in its
base(2b), enabling the operator to adjust its axis to precise angles.

Tool post

The tool bit is mounted in thetoolpost(1)which


may be traditional four-sided square style.
Interchangeable tool holders allow all tools to be
preset to acenter-height that does not change,
even if the holder is removed from the machine.

Headstock
Houses the main spindle(H4), speed
change mechanism(H2,H3), and change
gears(H10). The headstock is required to
be made as robust as possible due to the
cutting forces involved, which can distort a
lightly built housing, and induceharmonic
vibrations that will transfer through to the
work-piece, reducing the quality of the

Feed & lead


Screws

The feed-screw (H8) is a long driveshaft that allows a series


of gears to drive the carriage mechanisms. These gears are
located in the apron of the carriage. Both the feed-screw
and lead-screw (H7) are driven by either the change gears
(on the quadrant) or an intermediate gearbox known as a
quick change gearbox (H6) or Norton gearbox. These
intermediate gears allow the correct ratio and direction to
be set for cutting threads or worm gears. Tumbler gears
(operated by H5) are provided between the spindle and
gear train along with a quadrant plate that enables a gear
train of the correct ratio and direction to be introduced.

Lathe Bed
Is a robust base that connects to the
headstock and permits the carriage and
tailstock to be moved parallel with the axis
of the spindle. This is facilitated by
hardened
and
groundbed-wayswhich
restrain the carriage and tailstock in a set
track.

Ways of Holding a Tool Bit


Direct in Tool post

By Tool Holders

Drill Chuck
Use for the operation of making a hole
where none existed previously. In this
operation, the job is rotated at the turning
speed on lathe axis and the drilling tool
fitted on tail stock spindle is fed into the
work axially by hand.

Collet Chuck
This type of chuck is used for production
work for holding the bar type of jobs, much
easier for changing the tool by means of
spanner.

Center Drills

Are stiff, stubby little drills used to start


holes in the end of workpiece. If you try
to drill a hole in a workpiece without
using a center drill you will find that the
drill will most likely wobble off center
and not drill straight into the workpiece.
Standarddrillingpractice is to first
make afacingcut on the end of the
workpiece, then drill a starter hole using
a center drill and then drill the hole to
the required depth with a standard drill

Center Drills

Tool Blank

Learn to grind your own tool bits from


Tool Blanks
Youcouldbuy ready-made carbide tool bits, but
learning to grind your own HSS tool bitsis a valuable
skill and part of the fun of learning to use the lathe.
You will soon learn to grind special tools for parting,
boring and other operations.

Tool Bit Geometry

Different Shapes of Tool bit &


its Application

Application

BASIC LATHE OPERATIONS


Turning Operation

The machining operation that produces


cylindrical parts. In its basic form, it can be
defined as the machining of an external
surface.
with the workpiece rotating,
with a single-point cutting tool, and
with the cutting tool feeding parallel to the
axis of the workpiece and at a distance that
will remove the outer surface of the work.

Turning Operation

Adjustable cutting factors in


turning
The three primary factors in any basic
turning operation are speed, feed, and
depth of cut. Other factors such as kind of
material and type of tool have a large
influence, of course, but these three are the
ones the operator can change by adjusting
the controls, right at the machine.

SPEED in Turning
Always refers to the spindle and the workpiece.
When it is stated in revolutions per minute(rpm) it
tells their rotating speed. But the important figure for
a particular turning operation is the surface speed,
or the speed at which the workpeece material is
moving past the cutting tool. It is simply the product
of the rotating speed times the circumference (in
feet) of the workpiece before the cut is started. It is
expressed in surface feet per minute (sfpm), and it
refers only to the workpiece. Every different
diameter on a workpiece will have a different cutting
speed, even though the rotating speed remains the
same.

FEED in Turning
Always refers to the cutting tool, and it is
the rate at which the tool advances along
its cutting path. On most power-fed lathes,
the feed rate is directly related to the
spindle speed and is expressed in inches (of
tool advance) per revolution ( of the
spindle), or ipr. The figure, by the way, is
usually much less than an inch and is
shown as decimal amount.

Depth of Cut
Is practically self explanatory. It is the
thickness of the layer being removed from
the workpiece or the distance from the
uncut surface of the work to the cut
surface, expressed in inches. It is important
to note, though, that the diameter of the
workpiece is reduced by two times the
depth of cut because this layer is being
removed from both sides of the work.

Facing Operation
Is the producing of a flat surface as the result of a
tool's being fed across the end of the rotating
workpiece. Unless the work is held on a mandrel,
if both ends of the work are to be faced, it must
be turned end for end after the first end is
completed and the facing operation repeated.
The cutting speed should be determined from the
largest diameter of the surface to be faced.
Facing may be done either from the outside
inward or from the center outward. In either case,
the point of the tool must be set exactly at the
height of the center of rotation.

Facing Operation

Parting Operation
Is the operation by which one section of a
workpiece is severed from the remainder by
means of a cutoff tool. Because cutting
tools are quite thin and must have
considerable overhang, this process is less
accurate and more difficult. The tool should
be set exactly at the height of the axis of
rotation, be kept sharp, have proper
clearance angles, and be fed into the
workpiece at a proper and uniform feed
rate.

Parting

Threading Operation
This requirement is met through the use of
the lead screw and the split unit, which
provide positive motion of the carriage
relative to the rotation of the spindle.

Boring Operation
Always involves the enlarging of an existing hole, which
may have been made by a drill or may be the result of a
core in a casting. An equally important, and concurrent,
purpose of boring may be to make the hole concentric
with the axis of rotation of the workpiece and thus
correct any eccentricity that may have resulted from the
drill's having drifted off the center line. Concentricity is
an important attribute of bored holes. When boring is
done in a lathe, the work usually is held in a chuck or on
a face plate. Holes may be bored straight, tapered, or to
irregular contours. Boring is essentially internal turning
while feeding the tool parallel to the rotation axis of the
workpiece.

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