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Titrations Practical CAT

Acids and Bases


acid
Definition: A substance that can donate hydrogen ions
Context: Lemon juice and other acids usually have a sour test, sting when
touched, and react strongly when combined with metals.

base
Definition:A substance that can accept hydrogen ions
Context:Soap and other bases have a bitter taste, feel slippery to the touch,
and do not react when combined with most metals.

indicator
Definition:A material that has the property of changing colour in the presence
of an acid or a base
Context:Litmus paper is an indicator; it turns from blue to red in the presence
of an acid and from red to blue in the presence of a base.

Acids and Bases


neutralization reaction
Definition:The chemical reaction between an acid and a base that
results in both substances losing their distinctive properties
Context:One substance that usually results from a neutralization
reaction is a salt, an example of an ionic compound.
pH
Definition:A scale that measures the concentration of hydrogen
ions in a solution
Context:In general, acids have a pH below 7; bases a pH above 7;
and neutral solutions a pH of 7.

Solution Stoichiometry
Titration:
A technique for
determining the
concentration of
a solution.

C=VAxCA
V
Where:
C=Concentration in moles (M)
VA= Volume of solution with known
concentration
CA= Concentration of known solution
V = Volume of unknown concentration

Titrations
Titration:the process of analyzing composition by
measuring the volume of one solution needed to
completely react with another solution.
This is a special case of a LimitingReagent!
Usually the reaction of an acid with a base.

Titrations
Analyte:the solution of unknown concentration but
known volume.
Titrant: the solution of known concentration.
Analyte + Titrant Products
Add titrant until all of the analyte has reacted, then
detect the excess of titrant.

Titrations
EquivalencePoint:the point at which exactly the right
volume of titrant has been added to complete the
reaction.
Indicator: substance that changes color when an
excess of titrant has been added (phenolphthalein,
bromocresol green).

Finding the amount


To measure the amount of atoms there are, we
use a measurement unit called a Mole.
It is a number that helps give us an idea of how
much of each molecule/atom there is in a
reaction.
Onemoleof something is equal to
6.02214151023of it. So, "Onemoleof hydrogen
atoms" means 6.02214151023Hydrogen atoms.
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Titrations
TitrationCalculations:
1.

Find the number of moles of titrant added to reach the


endpoint.

2.

Determine the moles of analyte that must have been


present (use stoichiometric coefficients).

3.

Determine the concentration of analyte that must have


been present in the flask (use the volume of analyte).

4.

Calculate the concentration of analyte in the original


sample.

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Titrations
Example#1:14.84 mL of an HCl solution of unknown
concentration is titrated with standard NaOH
solution. At the equivalence point, 25.0 mL of the
0.675 M NaOH has been added. Calculate the
concentration of the HCl solution.
NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
Titrant = ?

Analyte = ?

(1.14 M)

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