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## VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES

DESIGN OF AC MACHINES AND ELECTRONIC DRIVES

PRESENTED BY:

USMAN IDREES(L1F12BSEE0037)
HARIS LATEEF CHAUDHARY(L1F12BSEE0079)
Presented By:
Engr. Nabeel Khalid
Engr. Arslan Ashraf
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Contents

Need of VFD

Purpose

## Theory of Induction Machine

Components of VFD

Operation of VFD

Circuit Diagram

Features

Conclusions
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## Emergency bypass capability

Safe Acceleration

Purpose

## Use power efficiently to produce the necessary torque at a given speed.

Effectively monitor the application or process.

## Basics of electric power

The typical waveform consists of the frequency portion (time based) of the
wave and the amplitude portion (the magnitude).

## It is typically sine wave

ROTATING OF SHAFT

Shaft is rotated by the mechanism of poles north and south poles present in the motor.

TORQUE IN MOTOR
How a motor shaft rotates

Torque is produced as the induction motor generates flux in its rotating field.

## This flux must remain constant to produce full-load torque.

As shaft torque load increases, the slip increases and more flux lines cut the rotor
windings, which in turn increases rotor current, which increases the rotor magnetic
field and consequently the rotor torque.

## Starting of induction motor

The starting current is very high, between 3 to 8 times the full load current.
Depending on the size of the motor, this can result in voltage sags in the
power system.

The full torque is applied instantly at starting and the mechanical shock can
eventually damage the drive system, particularly with materials handling
equipment, such as conveyors.

In spite of the high starting current, for some applications the starting torque
may be relatively low, only 1.0 to 2.5 times full load torque.

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## Speed change of induction motor

Three ways

Change the number of poles in the motor; this means separate windings.

Change the slip characteristics of the motor; this is done with varying resistors, such as
is done with a wound-rotor motor or by varying the stator voltage.

Change the frequency of the power supplied to the motor. This is the method of choice .

We use the field of power electronics for changing speed of ac induction motor.

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Components of VFD

Thyristors

Diodes

Transistors

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## Block Diagram of VFD

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DC BUS

The DC bus is the true link between the converter and inverter sections of the drive.
Any ripple must be smoothed out before any transistor switches on. If not, this
distortion
will show up in the output to the motor. The DC bus voltage and current
can be viewed through the bus terminals.

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VFD Circuits

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VFD Fundamentals

All VFDs need a power section that converts AC power into DC power (rectifier).

## Rectifier is that special type of converter that converts AC to DC.

The DC bus is the true link between the converter and inverter sections of the drive.
Any ripple must be smoothed out before any transistor switches on. If not, this
distortion will show up in the output to the motor.

The inverter section is made up primarily of modules that are each made up of a
transistor and diode in combination with each other which inverts the DC energy back
to AC(inverter or power-module)

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RECTIFIER

## This is done with the help of switching of diodes.

The rectifier circuit of a pulse width modulated drive normally consists of a three phase
diode bridge rectifier and capacitor filter.

The rectifier converts the three phase AC voltage into DC voltage with a slight ripple.

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SIMPLIFIED DC BUS

The DC link is an important section of the drive as it provides much of the monitoring and
protection for the drive & motor circuit. It contains the base-drive fusing and pre-charge
capacitor network, which assures steady voltage DC voltage levels prior to the inverter bridge
and allows a path for over-voltage dissipation.
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INVERTER OPERATION

The inverter section is made up primarily of modules that are each made up of a
transistor in combination with each other which inverts the DC energy back to AC.

The control section of the VFD accepts external inputs which are used to determine the
inverter output. The inputs are used in conjunction with the installed software package
and a microprocessor. The control board sends signals to the driver circuit which is
used to fire the inverter. PWM mechanism is used.

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PWM is control mechanism reqired to fire on thyristors of inverter by which we get volts/hertz control
WHAT IS PWM?

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## How VFD Work ?

Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)

A VFD can be used to control both the speed and torque of a standard induction AC electric motor.

It varies both the frequency and amps of the AC waveform being delivered to the motor saving money in
electricity.

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Volts/hertz
The PWMs drive ability to maintain the AC levels through all types of load conditions at given speeds is the factor which separates one drive manufacturer
from the other.

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APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
Whenever load speeds are varied, there are many considerations which must be taken into
account. These concerns are both electrical and mechanical in nature.
The electrical problems associated with electronic drives generally concern the insulation.
Because of the type of output generated by the inverter, there is great stress placed upon
the insulation and the temperature rise of the windings may increase. In other cases, the
motor may be run below its minimum self-cooling speed. The main trouble is that for
every 10 degrees C, the insulation life of the windings are reduced by half. If the
temperature rise is allowed to climb too high, the motor will overload and burn-up in a
very short time.

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## REMOVING THE PROBLEM

Rewind or replace the motor - Rewind the motor to a higher insulation class, or replace
it with a new motor. the new motor may be of the energy efficient or inverter duty
type.

Provide external cooling - This is especially important in cases where the self-cooling
ability of the motor is compromised.

Re-set the parameters - inverter resonance is found in cases where the drive parameters
are not properly set. If this is not the case, the drive should be programmed to by-pass
those frequencies where the problems are found.

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Sometimes getting a little more speed out of the motor can increase the flow just
enough to satisfy the demand.

When there is capacity in the motor and the VFD can be programmed to do this, a new,
larger motor does not have to be purchased and installed.

The VFD can run 10 to 20% higher in speed and make up for lost capacity in a flowand-demand type of system.

However, many motors as built are not balanced for these speeds

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## Functions & Features

Automatic restart

Automatic signals

A speed control

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Conclusions

Retrofits

Space

Better design

Competitive edge

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