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Respiratory System

Chapter 23

Functions
Gas exchange

Between air from atmosphere and


blood

Moving air

Ventilation = air transport


Respiration = gas exchange

guards respiratory membranes

Protection

From dry air


Inhaled pathogens

Communication (sounds)
Olfaction (smell)

Respiratory
Anatomy
Nose/Nasal Cavity
Pharynx
Shared structure

Larynx/Glottis
Epiglottis blocks
food entry

Trachea
Bronchi
Bronchioles
Alveoli (not shown)

Organization of the Respiratory


Respiratory Tract System
Conducting portion
Site of ventilation
Moving air

Nose to
bronchioles

Respiratory
portion
Site of respiration
Exchanging CO2
and O2

bronchioles and
alveoli

Open system:
Trace the Flow of Air

Larynx/Glottis/Epiglottis
Glottis
opening
connecting
pharynx to
larynx

Epiglottis
Covers glottis
Prevents food
from entering
air ways

Bronchial Tree/Alveoli
More conducting airways
Trachea divides
R and L bronchi
Bronchi divide and branch to
Bronchioles
Bronchiole = little Bronchi

Bronchioles connect to alveoli

Alveoli
Tiny air sacs
Site of respiration (gas exchange)
Collectively make up respiratory
membrane in (150 million/lung)

Respiratory Defense
System

Nasal filtration

Inhaled air contains debris and


pathogens

Nasal cavity lined


with hairs
Filters out large
particles
Nasal conchae
Boney ridges
that stir air

Respiratory
Defense System
Respiratory filtration
mechanisms
Mucus
Escalator
Respiratory
mucosa lines
conducting
portion
Cells produce
mucus to catch
particles
Cilia (hairs) sweep

Respiratory
Defense System
Respiratory filtration
mechanisms
Alveolar
Defense

Alveolar
Macrophag
es
Aka Dust
cells
Eat dust

Alveoli

Diffusion
distance is
small!
1 capillary bed
wraps each
alveolus
Gasses move
across
respiratory
membrane (2
cells thick) to
enter blood
O2
alveoli
blood

Respiratory
surfaces are
thin and moist
Surfactant
prevents
sticking

Surfactant

Detergent
breaks surface
tension of water
Allows alveoli to
inflate
Produced by
Pneumocyte II

How does Air Move?


Air is moved with pressure gradients
Gradients are created by changing
lung volumes
Diaphragm muscle and rib cage

Inverse relation between P and V


P = 1/V
Pressure (P)
Volume (V)

Figure 23-14b Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation

Lung Mechanics; at Rest


Pressure outside
and inside are
equal, so no air
movement occurs

Pleural
cavity
Cardiac
notch
Diaphragm
Poutside Pinside

Pleura- membrane that encases pleural


cavity
Membrane that wraps lungs (visceral pleura)
Membrane that wraps body wall (parietal
pleura)

Figure 23-14c Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation

Lung Mechanics
More V, Less P; Air Flows In

Inhalation. Elevation of the rib


cage and contraction of the
diaphragm increase the size of
the thoracic cavity. Pressure
within the thoracic cavity
decreases, and air flows into
the lungs.

Figure 23-14c Mechanisms of Pulmonary Ventilation

Lung Mechanics
Less V, More P; Air Flows Out
Exhalation. When the rib cage
returns to its original position
and the diaphragm relaxes, the
volume of the thoracic cavity
decreases. Pressure rises, and
air moves out of the lungs.

Pneumothorax
Collapsed Lung
Hole in parietal
pleura allows pleural
cavity to fill with air
No longer potential
space, but an actual
space
Air flows in
Lung recoils
(collapses)
Alveoli cant open
Pressure in pleural
cavity is too great

Neural Control of Breathing


Ventilation = Breaths/min * alveolar lung
volume
Voluntary control
Conscious effort to increase breathing rate or chest
volume
Motor neurons activate diaphragm and chest muscles

Involuntary control
Regulated by ANS and respiratory control center in
medulla oblongata
Chemoreceptors in arteries monitor CO 2 , O2 and H+
concentrations
High CO2 and H+ trigger reflex to increase breathing
Why CO2 and H+ ?

CO2 and Blood


CO2 transport in
blood
23% of CO2 is
bound to Hb
7% is dissolved
in blood plasma
70% is converted
to carbonic acid

Carbonic acid
reaction occurs
in RBC

CO2 and Blood


Inside RBC
Carbonic anhydrase enzymes
catalyze the reaction
Carbon dioxide plus water yields carbonic acid

CO2 + H2O H2CO3


Carbonic acid is unstable and quickly breaks down to

H2CO3 HCO3- + H+
Bicarbonate can diffuse into blood and H + binds Hb

Note:

Reaction is fully reversible

CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3- +


H+

Equation precedes to
equilibrium

CO2 and Blood


CO2 + H2O H2CO3 HCO3+ H+

If CO2 increases in
blood what happens to
pH?
If H+ concentration
increases what
happens to CO2 ?

Figure 27-9 The Basic Relationship between P CO2 and Plasma pH


pH

PCO2
4045
mm Hg

If PCO2 rises

H2O CO2

H2CO3

H HCO3

When carbon dioxide levels rise, more carbonic acid forms,


additional hydrogen ions and bicarbonate ions are released,
and the pH goes down.

PC

If PCO2 falls

H HCO3

Hypercapnia
Acidosis
Hypocapnia
Alkalosis

H2CO3

H2O CO2

When the PCO2 falls, the reaction runs in reverse, and


carbonic acid dissociates into carbon dioxide and water.
This removes H ions from solution and increases the pH.

pH

O2

pH

7.357.45

HOMEOSTASIS

P CO 2

Neural Control of Breathing


Central chemoreceptors in brain detect
changes in H+ (pH)
Respond to changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
Cerebrospinal fluid
Fluid around brain
No red blood cells (RBC)
CO2 must be converted to H + in RBC
H+ can diffuse from blood to CSF and activate
chemoreceptors

Peripheral chemoreceptors in aorta and


carotid artery also respond to CO2 and H+
(pH)

Neural Control of Breathing


CSF
CHEMORECEPTORS

Respiratory Centers and Reflex Controls

Medulla
oblongata
Chemoreceptors and
of carotid
and aortic sinuses

Diaphragm

Spinal
cord
Motor neurons
controlling
diaphragm

Motor neurons
controlling other
respiratory muscles
KEY
Phrenic nerve

Stimulation
Inhibition

Figure 23-27 The Chemoreceptor Response to Changes in P CO2

Increased
arterial PCO2

A rise in arterial
PCO2 stimulates

Stimulation
of arterial
chemoreceptors

Stimulation of
respiratory muscles

Increased PCO2 ,

Stimulation of CSF
chemoreceptors at
medulla oblongata

decreased pH
in CSF

Increased respiratory
rate with increased

HOMEOSTASIS
DISTURBED

chemoreceptors that
accelerate breathing
cycles at the inspiratory
center. This change
increases the respiratory
rate, encourages CO2 loss

elimination of CO2 at
alveoli

Increased
arterial PCO2
(hypocapnia)
(hypercapni
a)

at the lungs, and lowers


arterial PCO2 .

Normal
arterial PCO2 2

A drop in arterial
PCO2 inhibits these

Start
Normal
arterial PCO2

HOMEOSTASIS
DISTURBED

chemoreceptors. In the
absence of stimulation
the rate of respiration
decreases, slowing the

Decreased respiratory
rate with decreased

Decreased
arterial PCO2

elimination of CO2 at
alveoli

(hypocapnia)

rate of CO2 loss at the


lungs, and elevating
arterial PCO2 .

HOMEOSTASIS
RESTORED

HOMEOSTASIS

Decreased
arterial PCO2

Decreased PCO2 ,
increased pH
in CSF
Inhibition of arterial
chemoreceptors

Reduced stimulation
of CSF chemoreceptors

Inhibition of
respiratory muscles

Figure 23-19 An Overview of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration


External Respiration

Alveolus

PO2 = 40
PCO 2 = 45

Systemic
circuit

Pulmonary
circuit

Respiratory
membrane
PO 2 = 100
PCO 2 = 40

O2
CO 2

Pulmonary
capillary

PO 2 = 100
PCO 2 = 40

Internal Respiration
Interstitial fluid
Systemic
circuit

PO2 = 95
PCO2 = 40

PO2 = 40
PCO2 = 45

CO
2

PO2 = 40
PCO2 = 45

Systemic
capillary