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TRANSMISSION

OBJECTIVES
To

understand the operational


principles
and
basic
mechanisms of transmission
system

Function of GEARBOX
Assist torque variation.
Smooth power transmission.
Neutral position helps to disengage
engine and road wheels in engaged
clutch position.
Reverse Motion.
Over Drive.
To overcome Rolling, Grade and Air
resistance.

Types of Transmission
Manual
1) Sliding-mesh
2) Constant-mesh
3) Synchro-mesh
) Semi-automatic
1) Electric controlled with fluid drive
2) Electric controlled with overdrive
3) Fluid-torque drive
) Automatic
1) Hydramatic
2) Torque-converter.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (1)

Manual transmission system

Manual
gear box

Manual
gear knob

Manual
gear box

5-speed manual gearbox

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (2)

Green shaft (input shaft) & gear turn at the


same rpm as the engine
Red shaft (layshaft) & gears are directly
connected to the input so it spins when input
shaft spins
Yellow shaft (output shaft) is splined shaft
connected directly to drive shaft through
differential to drive wheels (If wheels are
spinning output shaft spins)
If engine is off with car coasting output shaft
turns inside blue gears (blue gears & layshaft
are motionless)
Collar connects one of two blue gears to
output shaft via dog teeth

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (3)


Moving knob forward & backward moves
collar to engage the gears
Reverse gear is handled by a small idler gear
(purple)
Importance of transmission:
Engine redline (max. rpm above which
engine explodes)
Engines
have
narrow
rpm
ranges
(horsepower & torque are at their maximum)
Synchronizers allow collar & gear to make
frictional contact before dog teeth make
contact (collar & gear synchronize their
speeds before teeth need to engage

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (4)

g
n
i
r
Sp
Pressure plate

Sp
rin
g

Clutch plate

A car engine spins all the


time & car wheels don't (to
stop without killing the
engine wheels, engine needs
to be disconnected from the
engine)
Flywheel connected to engine
Clutch plate connected to the
transmission

Automobile transmission in
Unigraphics

Automobile transmission in
Unigraphics

Automobile transmission in
Unigraphics

Speed variations
Gear Reduction
Sun gear is held
stationary
while
ring gear is driven,
which
causes
planetary
gears
and
carrier
to
rotate around sun
gear
in
same
direction as ring
gear turns, but not
fast.

Direct Drive
To obtain direct
drive, entire
planetary gear set
must rotate as unit
by having both sun
and ring gear both
locked togather
and being driven
from same torque
input through
planetary gear

Reverse
To change input
power flow to
reverse rotation at
output shaft, pinion
carrier is held
stationary while
sun gear is driven.

Over-drive
Holding Sun gear
and driving pinion
gear, which causes
pinion gears to
move around
stationary sun gear
and driving ring
gear at faster
speed than input
shaft.

Neutral
None of the gear is
coupled with
Planetary gear set.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (8)


Manual transmission checklist:
Check for oil leaks (RM5000 new Kancil
gearbox)
Manual transmission test drive
With transmission lever in neutral,
parking brake applied & engine idling,
listen to any loud noises when clutch
pedal pressed or released
Try to drive the car at all speeds one by
one - every speed should shift smooth &
easily without any noises or jerks

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (9)


Manual transmission test drive
While driving at 2nd or 3rd gear, try to
press down sharply on the accelerator
pedal for an instance (clutch should not
slip, any slipping i.e., engine rpm
increases but speed remains the same
clutch most likely has to be replaced)
Try to drive with acceleration &
deceleration (there should be no whining
or humming noise under any condition
with all gears should shift easily &
noiselessly)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (10)


Automatic transmissions:
no clutch pedal
no gear shift
Automatic transmission (gearbox plus torque
converter) like manual gearbox & its clutch

Torque
converter

Auto
gearbox

Auto transmission system

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (11)

In automatic transmission, same set of gears


produces all of the different gear ratios
(planetary gear set)
Planetary gear set
A set of bands to lock parts of gear set
Three wet-plate clutches to lock other parts of
gear set
Hydraulic system controlling clutches &
bands
Large gear pump to move transmission fluid
around
Planetary gear set has 3 main parts:
Sun gear
Planet gears & planet gears' carrier
Ring gear

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (12)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (14)


Differentials (where engine power, in most cars, makes its last
stop before spinning the wheels)

Aim engine power at the wheels


Act as final gear reduction in the car (reduce

rotational speed of transmission one final time


before it hits the wheels)
Transmit power to the wheels while allowing them to

rotate at different speeds during turning


Device that splits engine torque two ways, allowing each output
to spin at a different speed
Differential is found on all modern cars & trucks, and also in
many all-wheel-drive (full-time 4WD vehicles)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (15)

Differential

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (16)


Final drive ratio (gear ratio in the differential)
Open differential always applies the same amount of torque to
each wheel
Two factors determining how much torque can be applied to the
wheels:
equipment
traction

Dry

conditions torque applied to


wheels limited by
engine & gearing

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (17)


In

low traction - amount of torque limited


to greatest amount that will not cause a
wheel to slip under those conditions (if
you give the car more gas after the
wheels start to slip, the wheels will just
spin faster problem with open
differentials
Limited
slip differential (LSD)
positraction - allows more torque to be
transferred to the non-slipping wheel

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (18)


Automatic transmission checklist
Place your car at a level surface, start
engine, set transmission lever to "P &
let engine idle
Pull transmission dipstick
Wipe it off with a lint free clean
rag/tissue
Insert it back carefully all the way
down into its place
Pull again & check fluid level

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (19)


Automatic transmission
checklist
Pull again & check fluid level

Engine cold fluid within


"COLD" marks
Engine hot fluid level at
upper end of "HOT" mark
(top it up if it is lower)
Check fluid condition also:
too black & a burnt smell
-transmission may not last

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (20)


Automatic
transmission
checklist
Pull again & check fluid level
There should not be any metal
filings or black flakes

Topping up transmission fluid


Use
only
specified
transmission fluid (check
your manual)

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (21)


Topping up transmission fluid

Add a small amount of


fluid through dipstick
pipe as shown in the
image & do not overfill it
Wait for a few minutes to
let fluid to flow down
Start engine & check
level again

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (22)


Transmission maintenance
Most of transmission troubles start after
overheating
Under heavy load
Continuous stop & go traffic in hot weather
Racing
Accelerating too hard to free the car
At higher temperatures transmission fluid burns
loosing its lubricating qualities & becomes oxidized
leaving deposits all over inside
Exposed to heat rubber seals & gaskets inside
transmission become hardened causing leaks

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (23)


Transmission maintenance
Most of transmission troubles start
after overheating
Metal parts warp & loose their strength

Poor design
After being rebuilt by inexperienced
technician
Harsh driving
Too low or too high transmission
fluid level
Wrong transmission fluid type

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (24)


How to prevent the transmission from
damage
Always check your parking space for
leaks (get it fixed before it caused
something serious)
Once in a while check transmission fluid
level & condition
Use only same type of the transmission
fluid as specified in owner's manual
Never shift to R or P until car comes
to a complete stop

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (24)


How to prevent the transmission from
damage
Never shift from P mode when
engine rpm is higher than normal idle
Always hold a brake down when
shifting from P
Do not tow with drive wheels on the
road
Go to transmission shop when you
experience any problems with your
transmission such as leaks, noises,
problems with shifting, etc.

TRANSMISSION SYSTEM (25)


ATF (owners manual)
Fluid change (40,000 km or so)
Good conditions clean & odorless

Transmission screen/filter

THE END
IQ + EQ + SQ = TQ*