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Kingdoms of life

Kingdoms of life
Kingdoms of life

Eukaryotes have cell membranes and nuclei

All species of large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals, plants and fungi, although most species of eukaryotic protists are microorganisms.

Prokaryotes lack nucleus

bacteria

 Eukaryotes have cell membranes and nuclei   All <a href=species of large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals , plants and fungi , although most species of eukaryotic protists are microorganisms . Prokaryotes lack nucleus  bacteria " id="pdf-obj-2-28" src="pdf-obj-2-28.jpg">
 Eukaryotes have cell membranes and nuclei   All <a href=species of large complex organisms are eukaryotes, including animals , plants and fungi , although most species of eukaryotic protists are microorganisms . Prokaryotes lack nucleus  bacteria " id="pdf-obj-2-30" src="pdf-obj-2-30.jpg">

40% Bacteria and actinomycetes:

bacteria actinomycetes

40% Bacteria and actinomycetes: bacteria  actinomycetes

Bacteria

Bacteria  Tiny (1 μm width), one-celled  Single cell division  In lab: 1 can

Tiny (1 μm width), one-celled

Single cell division

In lab: 1 can produce 5 billion in 12 hours

(In real world limited by predators, water & food availability)

Abundant in rhizosphere

zone surrounding root

dead root cells and exudate stimulate

microbial growth

Bacteria  Tiny (1 μm width), one-celled  Single cell division  In lab: 1 can
Bacteria  Tiny (1 μm width), one-celled  Single cell division  In lab: 1 can

rhizosphere

1/10 inch Exudates: carbohydrates and proteins secreted by root attracts bacteria, fungi, nematodes, protozoa Bacteria and fungi are like little fertilizer bags Nematodes and protozoa eat and excrete the fertilizer

bacteria

bacteria

4 functional groups of bacteria:

1. Decomposers

Organic chemicals in big complex chains and rings Bacteria break bonds using enzymes they produce Create simpler, smaller chains

Immobilize nutrients in their cells; prevents loss of nutrients from rooting zone

2. Mutualists

form partnerships with plants (e.g. Rhizobium and legumes)

3. Pathogens

cause plant galls

4 functional groups of bacteria: 1. Decomposers  Organic chemicals in big complex chains and rings

4. Chemoautotrophs get energy from compounds other than compounds

Root nodules: bacteria infect root hairs

Root nodules: bacteria infect root hairs

Actinomycetes: group of

bacteria that grow as hyphae like fungi

Actinomycetes: group of bacteria that grow as hyphae like fungi  Make “earthy” smell  by

Make “earthy” smell

by producing geosmin

adaptable to drought Can act in high pH usually aerobic heterotrophs

break down “recalcitrant” compounds

Hard-to-decompose (chitin, cellulose)

Produce antibiotics, like Streptomycin

40% other Microflora

Protozoa

Algae

Fungi

40% other Microflora Protozoa Algae Fungi

protozoa

protozoa
protozoa
protozoa
protozoa

protozoa

Unicellular; larger than bacteria Amoeba, ciliates, flagellates Heterotrophic

Eat bacteria

Bacteria have more nitrogen than protozoa need, so protozoa release the excess

mineralize

Form symbiotic relationships

e.g., flagellates in termite guts; digest fibers

Require water

Go dormant within cyst in dry conditions

algae

Filamentous, colonial, unicellular Photosynthetic

Most in blue-green group, but also yellow-green, diatoms, green algae Need diffuse light in surface horizons; important in early stages of succession Form carbonic acid (weathering)

Add OM to soil; bind particles Aeration Some fix nitrogen

Mini-movie

Fungi

Grow as long threads (hyphae)

Push through soil particles, roots, rocks

Often group into masses called mycelium (look like roots)

Fungi  Grow as long threads ( hyphae )  Push through soil particles, roots, rocks

Higher fungi have basidium :

club-shaped structure , bearing fruiting body

Fungi  Grow as long threads ( hyphae )  Push through soil particles, roots, rocks

Fungi

Break down OM, esp important where bacteria are less active; low pH attack any organic residue

feed by absorbing nutrients from organic material ; no stomachs;d igest food before it can pass through the cell wall into the hyphae.

Hyphae secrete acids and enzymes that break the surrounding organic material down into simple molecules they can easily absorb.

Most are aerobic heterotrophs

chemosynthetic: adsorb dissolved nutrients for energy

Fungi and calcite

Fungi and calcite

Like bacteria: immobilize nutrients in soil

Produce organic acids; increases humic-acid-rich OM that is resistant

to degradation

Lasts in soil for 100s of years

Mini-movie

Mycorrhizae: symbiotic absorbing organisms infecting plant roots, formed by some fungi

Mutualists

Get carbon from plant Give to plant:

Solubilize P; bring soil nutrients to plant

normal feature of root systems, esp. trees

increase nutrient availability in return for energy supply

plants native to an area have well-developed relationship with mycorrhizal fungi

Ectomycorrhizae

Grow on surface layers of roots

trees

Ectomycorrhizae  Grow on surface layers of roots  trees On pine root

On pine root

Ectomycorrhizae  Grow on surface layers of roots  trees On pine root

Mini-movie

endomycorrhizae

Grow within root cells

Grasses, crops, vegetables, shrubs

Mini-movie

12% Earthworms

(Macrofauna: > 1 cm long)

12% Earthworms ( Macro fauna: > 1 cm long) ANNELIDS several types: epigeic (litter) anecic (burrow)

ANNELIDS

several types:

epigeic (litter)

anecic (burrow) endogeic (in soil)

12% Earthworms ( Macro fauna: > 1 cm long) ANNELIDS several types: epigeic (litter) anecic (burrow)

Mini-movie

Other Macrofauna (5%) and

Mesofauna(3%)

Other Macrofauna (5%) and Mesofauna(3%) CHORDATES (vertebrates) mammals, amphibians, reptiles PLATYHELMINTHES (flatworms) ASCHELMINTHES (roundworms, nematodes) MOLLUSKS

CHORDATES (vertebrates)

mammals, amphibians, reptiles PLATYHELMINTHES (flatworms) ASCHELMINTHES (roundworms, nematodes) MOLLUSKS (snails, slugs)

ARTHROPODS : (insects, crustaceans, arachnids, myriapoda)

vertebrates

Squirrels, mice, groundhogs, rabbits, chipmunks, voles, moles, prairie dogs, gophers, snakes, lizards, etc.

Contribute dung and carcasses

Taxicabs for microbes

nematodes

nematodes

Nonsegmented, blind roundworms > 20,000 species Eat bacteria or fungi or plants (stylet)

 Nonsegmented, blind roundworms  > 20,000 species  Eat bacteria or fungi or plants (stylet)

And protozoa, other nematodes, algae

Specialized mouthparts

Can sense temperature and chemical changes

 nematode

nematode

mini-movie

arthropods

¾ of all living organisms Exoskeleton, jointed legs, segmented body

arthropods  ¾ of all living organisms  Exoskeleton, jointed legs, segmented body  Insects 

Insects

Crustaceans Arachnids Myriapoda

Shredders

Microbial taxis

 Shredders  Microbial taxis

springtails

Mini-movie

mites

Mini-movie

Feeding Habits

Carnivores : parasites and predators

Phytophages: eat above ground green plant parts, roots, woody parts

Saprophages: eat dead and decaying

OM

Microphytic feeders: eat spores, hyphae, lichens, algae, bacteria

Distribution with depth

most active biotic horizons correspond with amount of OM:

Litter (O): has most OM but extremes of climate, therefore only specialists live there

Most animals in litter

Roots:

Rhizosphere: zone surrounding root

dead root cells and exudate stimulates microbial growth

Most microbiotic population in A and rhizosphere

Decomposing organic matter:

ACTIVE fraction:

Organic compounds that can be used as food by microorganisms

LABILE:

OM that’s easily decomposed