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Haul Road

Haul Road
Stopping Distances
Vertical Alignment
Horintal Alignment
Cross section
Runaway-vehicle safety provision

Vertical and Horizontal curves designed considering sight distances and stopping
Sight distance is the extent of the peripheral area visible to the vehicle operator
Sight distance must be sufficient to enable vehicle traveling at a given speed to
stop before reaching a hazard
On vertical curves, road surface limits sight distance
Unsafe condition remedied by lengthening curve
On horizontal curves, sight distance limited by adjacent berm like, rock cuts,
trees, etc;
Unsafe condition remedied by laying back bank or removing obstacles

Stopping distances depend on truck breaking

capabilities, road slope, and vehicle velocity
Stopping distance curves can be derived based
based in SAE service break maximum stopping
For example : stopping distance characteristic of
vehicle 200.000 to 400.000 pound GVW

Grade Road
Maximum Sustained Grades for :
Reduction in significantly increase vehicle uphill speed
Reduction in grade decrease cycle time, fuel consumption,
stress on mechanical components and operating cost
Reduction in grade increase safe descent speed, increasing
cycle time
The benefit of low grades offset by construction cost associated
with low grades

Some states limit maximum grades to 15 to 20 % and sustained

grades of 10%
Most authorities suggest 10% as the maximum safe sustained
grade limitation
Property boundaries, geology, topography, climate must be
considered on any case by case basis
Lower operating cost must be balanced against higher capital
cost of lower grades
Truck simulators and mine planning studies over life of mine
should used to make determination of the appropriate grades

Horizontal Alignment
Deals primarily with design of curves and considers previously
discussed radius, width, and sight distance in addition to
Superelevation grade recommendation vary but should be
limited to 10% orless because of traction limitations
Depending magnitude of the side friction forces at low speed.
Different values are suggested for small radius curves
Again where ice, snow, and mud are a problem, there is a
practical limit on the degree of superelevation

If superelevation is not used, speed limits should be set on

Centrifugal forces of the vehicle are countered by friction
between tire and road plus weight as a result of superelevation
Theoretically, with superelevation, side friction factors would be
zero and centrifugal force is balanced by the vehicle weight
To reduce tire wear, superelevation or speed limits on curves
are required

On straight or tangent segments, width depends on

Vehicle width
Number of lanes
Recommended vehicle clearance, which ranges from
44 to 50% of vehicle width


Road Structure