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Implementing Six Sigma Quality

at Better Body Manufacturing


D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

D M A I

Overview

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

ABC Incorporated (ABC) is not achieving Six Sigma quality levels for all critical
Body-Side Sub-Assembly dimensions as requested by their customers.
200000

50000

19786

ASM_9Y

3874

ASM_10Y

776
4

ASM_6Y

85824

ASM_3Y

ASM_10Y

ASM_8Y

ASM_9Y

172475

ASM_3Y

100000

ASM_7Y

ASM_6Y

DPM

150000

ASM_8Y

DPM

ASM_7Y

Dimension

Ensure that all critical body-side subassembly dimensions are within Six Sigma
quality levels of 3.4 DPM. Cp 2.0 and Cpk 1.67.
Determined the correlation between body side and assembly dimensions.
Evaluated the significance of Tonnage > 935 for ASM_7Y & ASM_8Y.
Conducted a DOE for Clamp position for ASM_9Y & ASM_10Y.
Change tonnage to > 935 to correct ASM_7Y and ASM_8Y
Set clamp position to location 2 for ASM_9Y and ASM_10Y
Re-machine A-pillar die to correct A_3Y and ASM_3Y
2

Problem Statement & The Goal

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

ABC Incorporateds customer wants ABC to apply Six Sigma problem solving
methodology to insure that the body side subassembly is achieving Six Sigma quality
levels of less than 3.4 defects per million for all critical body side subassembly
dimensions.
ABC needs an improvement strategy that minimizes the rework costs while achieving the
desired quality objective. ABCs goal is to produce module subassemblies that meet the
customer requirements and not necessarily to insure that every individual stamped
component within the assembly meets it original print specifications sub-system
optimizations vs. local optimization.
A-Pillar
Reinforcement

B-Pillar
Reinforcement

Body Side Outer

D M A I

Measure Phase

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Key Variables:
Assembly process variables:
Weld Pattern (density), Clamp Location, and Clamp Weld Pressure
Stamping process variables (body side):
Press Tonnage, Die Cushion Pressure, Material Thickness

Body Assembly Dimensions ASM_1Y through ASM_10Y


Assembly Dimensions with Highest Defects
200000

172475

DPM

150000

100000

85824

50000
19786
3874

776

0
ASM_7Y

ASM_8Y

ASM_3Y

ASM_9Y

ASM_10Y

ASM_6Y

Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Resolution alternatives (based upon past experience):


1. Make adjustments to assembly process settings
2. Reduce variation of components through better control of stamping
process input variables
3. Rework stamping dies to shift component mean deviation that is off
target and causing assembly defects
Target Performance Level:
All ten critical assembly dimensions at Six Sigma quality level of 3.4 DPM.
Cp 2.0 and Cpk 1.67
Fish Bone and P-Diagrams:
Understanding potential causes of defects. From this we pick the assembly and
component dimensions that require further analysis

D M A I

Analyze Phase

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Environment
Quality

Component
Variability

Inspection
Process
Clamp Weld
Pressure

Methods

Clamp
Location

For our analysis we will do a DOE to check


for levels that contribute to better quality
product.

Material Thickness
Yield Strength

Humidity

Gage R&R

Weld Pattern
(density)

Inputs

Temperature

Yield
Strength

Material
Thickness

Elastic
Limit
Materials

Operator

Training
Body
Assembly

Die Cushion
Pressure

Machine

Press
Tonnage

Control Variables
Clamp Location Press Tonnage
Weld Density
Die Pressure
Clamp Pressure

Body Side Sub-Assembly


Stamping Process

Outputs
Body Side Sub-Assemblies at
Six Sigma quality levels

Noise Variables
Environment
Inherent Variation

Error
States
Dimensional
defects
6

Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Analysis of ASM_7Y and ASM_8Y

Conclusion:BS_7YandASM_7Yarefollowingasimilartrend.
Acorrelationcharttostudythisfurthershowshighcorrelation.
(Pearson correlation, R of 0.701).
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D M A I

Analyze Phase
Capability of B_7Y

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Capability of BS_7Y

0DPM

698416DPM

Conclusion:B_7Yhas0ppmcomparedto~700K
DPMinBS_7Y.
Furthermore,BS_7Yshowsstrongcorrelationon
dimensionASM_7Y.(Pearson correlation, R of
0.786).
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Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

XY Plot of Tonnage vs. BS_7Y

Conclusion:Tonnagevaluesabove935greatlyimprovesBS_7Yandbringsit
closertothemean.LetsseewhatimpactthishasonASMdimensions7Y,8Y,9Y,
and10YbycreatingasubsetofthedatalookingonlyatTonnage>935.
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D M A I

Analyze Phase

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

ImpactthishasonASMdimensions7Y,8Y,9Y&10YonTonnage
Capability Analysis of ASM_8Y at Tonnage > 935

Capability Analysis of ASM_7Y at Tonnage > 935


LSL

Process Data
USL
Target

1.00
*

LSL
Mean

-1.00
0.09

Sample N
StDev (Within)

12
0.163174

StDev (Overall)

0.147855

USL
Within
Overall

Process Data
1.00000

USL
Target
LSL

*
-1.00000

Mean
Sample N

-0.12833
12

StDev (Within)

0.101825

StDev (Overall)

0.089161

CPU

1.86

Cp
CPU

3.27
3.69

CPL
Cpk

2.23
1.86

CPL
Cpk

2.85
2.85

Cpm

Pp
PPU
PPL
Ppk

2.25
2.05
2.46
2.05

Within
Overall

-1.0

-0.5

Observed Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00
PPM Total
0.00

0.0

0.5

Exp. "Within" Performance


PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.01
PPM Total
0.01

1.0

Cpm

Exp. "Overall" Performance


PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00
PPM Total
0.00

*
Overall Capability

Pp
PPU

3.74
4.22

PPL
Ppk

3.26
3.26

-1.0

LSL

*
Overall Capability

Pp
PPU
PPL
Ppk

1.88
0.90
2.86
0.90

0.0

0.5

1.0

Exp. "Within" Performance


PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00

Exp. "Overall" Performance


PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00

PPM Total

PPM Total

PPM Total

0.00

0.00

0.00

Capability Analysis of ASM_10Y at Tonnage > 935

USL
Within
Overall

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
1.62
CPU
0.78
CPL
2.46
Cpk
0.78
Cpm

-0.5

Observed Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00

Capability Analysis of ASM_9Y at Tonnage > 935


Process Data
USL
1.00000
Target
*
LSL
-1.00000
Mean
0.52083
Sample N
12
StDev (Within)
0.206010
StDev (Overall)
0.177098

USL

Potential (Within) Capability

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
2.04

Overall Capability

LSL

Process Data
USL
1.00
Target
*
LSL
-1.00
Mean
0.39
Sample N
12
StDev (Within)
0.215541
StDev (Overall)
0.187663

LSL

USL
Within
Overall

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
1.55
CPU
0.94
CPL
2.15
Cpk
0.94

-1.0

-0.5

Observed Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00
PPM Total
0.00

0.0

0.5

Exp. "Within" Performance


PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
10010.77
PPM Total
10010.77

1.0
Exp. "Overall" Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
3408.51
PPM Total
3408.51

Cpm

*
Overall Capability

Pp
PPU
PPL
Ppk

1.78
1.08
2.47
1.08

-1.0

-0.5

Observed Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
0.00
PPM Total
0.00

0.0

0.5

Exp. "Within" Performance


PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
2326.72
PPM Total
2326.72

1.0
Exp. "Overall" Performance
PPM < LSL
0.00
PPM > USL
576.00
PPM Total
576.00

Conclusion: Setting Tonnage to greater than 935 resulted in ASM_7Y and ASM_8Y
meeting the goal of <3.4 DPM. ASM_9Y and ASM_10Y require further analysis.
10

Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

DOE for Response Variable ASM_9Y


DOE factorial analysis shows Clamp Position is the only significant factor in
determining ASM_9Y dimension
Input Variable
Proposed ASM_9Y Setting Proposed ASM_10Y Setting
DOE Response Optimization for ASM_9Y
Clamp Location
Location 2
Location 2
Weld Density (welds per X inches)
1.33
1.33
Set Clamp Position to Location 2Clamp
(level
1)
Pressure
2100 psi
2100 psi
Optimizer recommends setting Weld Density to 1.33 weld per inch (level 1),

but this appears to be a robust parameter, which could be changed for the benefit
of process without reducing quality if processing time or cost shows a benefit.
Optimizer recommends setting Clamp Pressure to 2100 psi (level 1), but this
appears to be a robust parameter, which could be changed for the benefit of process
without reducing quality if processing time or cost shows a benefit.
Run additional tests at recommended settings to confirm results
Weld Density and Clamp Pressure are robust parameters and can be set to optimize
the process capability to maximum level and lowest cost.
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Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

DOE for Response Variable ASM_10Y


DOE factorial analysis shows Clamp Position is also the only significant
factor in determining ASM_10Y dimension
DOE Response Optimization for ASM_10Y
Setting clamp to location 2 also improves ASM_10Y
Recommend same settings used to improve ASM_9Y to improve process
capability which also allows for no changes to machine setup and helps reduce
possible process concerns
Run additional tests at recommended settings to confirm results
Weld Density and Clamp Pressure are robust parameters and can be set to optimize
the process capability to maximum level and lowest cost.

12

Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

DOE for Response Variable ASM_3Y


DOE factorial analysis shows that no factors are significant
Response Optimization shows no solution for response
optimizer
Observe Process Capability of A_3Y and BS_3Y
ASM_3Y and A_3Y have a similar mean shift in the -Y
direction
Correlation of Output Variables
No dimensional correlations appear to exist between
Stepwise
Regression
Analysis of BS_3Y
ASM_3Y
and
A_3Y
Tonnage
and Die Pressure appear to be significant in
or BS_3Y
determining
dimension BS_3Y
Tonnage values < 920 may improve BS_3Y
Die Pressure appears to have no clear correlation to

13

D M A I

Analyze Phase

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Process Capability of BS_ 3Y and ASM_3Y at Tonnage < 920


Created subset of body data looking only at dimensions with
Tonnage < 935
Tonnage < 920 appears to improve the mean of BS_3Y slightly,
but has no
Capability Analysis of ASM_3Y
impact on improving the mean of ASM_3Y.
CapabilityofA_3YandASM_3Ywith+0.80
mmmeanoffset
Die remachined to move mean +0.80

LSL

Process Data

Manipulate data for A_3Y and


ASM_3Y by +0.80 mm to simulate
re-machining

1
*

Within

LSL

-1

Overall

Mean
Sample N

0
36

StDev (Within) 0.0851436


StDev (Overall) 0.0971725

Potential (Within) Capability


Cp
3.91
CPU
CPL

3.91
3.91

Cpk

3.91

Cpm

*
Overall Capability

Process capability shows 0


defects for A_3Y and ASM_3Y with
this mean offset

USL

USL
Target

-1.0

-0.5

0.0

Observed Performance

0.5

Exp. "Within" Performance

1.0
Exp. "Overall" Performance

Pp
PPU

3.43
3.43

PPM < LSL


PPM > USL

0.00
0.00

PPM < LSL


PPM > USL

0.00
0.00

PPM < LSL


PPM > USL

0.00
0.00

PPL
Ppk

3.43
3.43

PPM Total

0.00

PPM Total

0.00

PPM Total

0.00

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Analyze Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Conclusions
FromtheanalysisofASM_7YandASM_8Ywecanconcludethat:
Settingtonnage>935resultsinASM_7YandASM_8Ymeetingthegoal

AnalyzingASM_9YandASM_10Yhelpsdeterminethat:
Settingclamppositiontolocation2,welddensityto1weldevery1.33

andclamppressureto2000psihelpswithdimensionsASM_9Yand
ASM_10Y
AnalyzingASM_3Yhelpsusconcludethat:
RemachineAPillardietomoveA_3Ytonominalwhichcouldcause

BS_3YtoshifttowardsnominaleffectivelyshiftingASM_3Ytonominal

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D M A I

Analyze Phase

Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Withtherecommendedchangestheprocessperformancewillimprovesignificantly
Dimension Mean

StDev
Overall

DPM_Obsv DPM_Within DPM_Exp

Pp

Ppk

Cp

Cpk

ASM_1Y

-0.035

0.165

2.01

1.94

2.47

2.39

ASM_2Y

0.259

0.152

2.20

1.63

2.31

1.71

ASM_3Y

0.000

0.097

ASM_4Y

0.009

0.115

2.90

2.87

3.53

3.50

ASM_5Y

-0.330

0.145

2.30

1.54

3.72

2.50

ASM_6Y

-0.284

0.160

2.08

1.49

2.24

1.60

ASM_7Y

0.090

0.148

2.25

2.05

2.04

1.86

ASM_8Y

-0.128

0.089

3.74

3.26

3.27

2.85

ASM_9Y

0.521

0.180

ASM_10Y

0.395

0.191

16

Improve Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Recommendations for improving the process:


Set Tonnage to above 935 to improve ASM_7Y & ASM_8Y
Set Clamp to Location 2 to improve ASM_9Y & ASM_10Y
Re-machine the A-Pillar die to move the mean of A_3Y to nominal which in turn

will move ASM_3Y to nominal

Implement the above recommendations and run additional samples to verify results.

17

Control Phase

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

Recommended controls :
Implement a gauge on the body side component press to monitor tonnage
Implement an alarm and shut-off feature on the body side press if tonnage

falls below 935 tons


Implement poke-yoke clamping fixture that ensures clamp is always in

Position 2
Establish an affordable control plan for ongoing monitoring of the 10

critical assembly dimensions.

18

Summary

D M A I
Define

Measure Analyze

Improve Control

ABC Incorporated is not achieving Six Sigma quality levels for all critical BodySide Sub-Assembly dimensions as requested by their customers. BBM needs to
apply Six Sigma problem solving methodology to establish an improvement strategy
that minimizes rework costs, yet achieves the desired quality objective.
Bring the key process output variables within Six Sigma quality level of 3.4 DPM.
Cp 2.0 and Cpk 1.67
Set Tonnage to above 935 to improve ASM_7Y & ASM_8Y
Set Clamp to Location 2 to improve ASM_9Y & ASM_10Y
Re-machine the A-Pillar die to move the mean of A_3Y to nominal

Implement a gauge on the body side component press to monitor tonnage


Implement an alarm & shut-off feature on body side press if tonnage falls below 935
Implement poke-yoke clamping fixture that ensures clamp is always in Position 2
Establish control plan for ongoing monitoring of the 10 critical assembly dimensions.

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