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3

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


for Non-MEs
Part 1: Statics
Rigid Bodies I:
Equivalent Systems of
Forces

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Contents
Introduction

Moment of a Force About a Given Axis

External and Internal Forces

Sample Problem 3.5

Principle of Transmissibility: Equivalent F


orces
Vector Products of Two Vectors

Moment of a Couple

Moment of a Force About a Point


Varigons Theorem

Addition of Couples
Couples Can Be Represented By Vectors
Resolution of a Force Into a Force at O and a
Couple

Rectangular Components of the Moment of Sample Problem 3.6


a Force
System of Forces: Reduction to a Force and a
Sample Problem 3.1
Couple
Scalar Product of Two Vectors
Further Reduction of a System of Forces
Scalar Product of Two Vectors: Application Sample Problem 3.8
s
Sample Problem 3.10
Mixed Triple Product of Three Vectors

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Introduction
Treatment of a body as a single particle is not always possible. In
general, the size of the body and the specific points of application of the
forces must be considered.
Most bodies in elementary mechanics are assumed to be rigid, i.e., the
actual deformations are small and do not affect the conditions of
equilibrium or motion of the body (deformable body will be considered
in Chapter ??).
Current chapter describes the effect of forces exerted on a rigid body and
how to replace a given system of forces with a simpler equivalent system.
moment of a force about a point
moment of a force about an axis
moment due to a couple
Any system of forces acting on a rigid body can be replaced by an
equivalent system consisting of one force acting at a given point and one
couple.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


External and Internal Forces
Forces acting on rigid bodies are
divided into two groups:
- External forces
- Internal forces

External forces are shown in a


free-body diagram.

If unopposed, each external


force can impart a motion of
translation or rotation, or both.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Principle of Transmissibility: Equivalent Forces
Principle of Transmissibility Conditions of equilibrium or motion
are not affected by transmitting a force
along its line of action.
NOTE: F and F are equivalent forces.
Moving the point of application of
the force F to the rear bumper
does not affect the motion or the
other forces acting on the truck.
Principle of transmissibility may
NOT always apply in determining
internal forces and deformations.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Vector Product of Two Vectors
Concept of the moment of a force about a point is
more easily understood through applications of
the vector product or cross product.
Vector product of two vectors P and Q is defined
as the vector V which satisfies the following
conditions:
1. Line of action of V is perpendicular to plane
containing P and Q.
2. Magnitude of V is V PQ sin
3. Direction of V is obtained from the right-hand
rule.
Vector products:
- are not commutative, Q P P Q
- are distributive,
P Q1 Q2 P Q1 P Q2
- are not associative, P Q S P Q S

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Vector Products: Rectangular Components
Vector products of Cartesian unit vectors,



i i 0
j i k k i j


i j k
j j 0
k j i

i k j j k i
k k 0
Vector products in terms of rectangular
coordinates

V Px i Py j Pz k Qx i Q y j Qz k

Py Qz Pz Q y i Pz Q x Px Qz j

Px Q y Py Qx k

i
j
k
Px Py Pz
Qx Q y Qz

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Moment of a Force About a Point
A force vector is defined by its magnitude and
direction. Its effect on the rigid body also depends
on it point of application.
The moment of F about O is defined as
MO r F
The moment vector MO is perpendicular to the
plane containing O and the force F.
Magnitude of MO measures the tendency of the force
to cause rotation of the body about an axis along
M O rF sin Fd
MO.
The sense of the moment may be determined by the
rule.
right-hand
Any force F
that has the same magnitude and
direction as F, is equivalent if it also has the same line
of action and therefore, produces the same moment.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Moment of a Force About a Point
Two-dimensional structures have length and breadth but
negligible depth and are subjected to forces contained in
the plane of the structure.
The plane of the structure contains the point O and the
force F. MO, the moment of the force about O is
perpendicular to the plane.
If the force tends to rotate the structure clockwise, the
sense of the moment vector is out of the plane of the
structure and the magnitude of the moment is positive.
If the force tends to rotate the structure counterclockwise,
the sense of the moment vector is into the plane of the
structure and the magnitude of the moment is negative.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Varignons Theorem
The moment about a give point O of the
resultant of several concurrent forces is equal
to the sum of the moments of the various
moments about the same point O.


r F1 F2 r F1 r F2
Varigons Theorem makes it possible to
replace the direct determination of the
moment of a force F by the moments of two
or more component forces of F.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force
The moment of F about O,



M O r F , r xi yj zk

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

M O M xi M y j M z k

i
x
Fx

j
y
Fy

k
z
Fz

yFz zF y i zFx xFz j xFy yFx k

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force
The moment of F about B,

M B rA / B F


rA / B rA rB

x A xB i y A y B j z A z B k

F Fx i Fy j Fz k

M B x A xB
Fx

j
y A yB
Fy

k
z A zB
Fz

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Rectangular Components of the Moment of a Force
For two-dimensional structures,

M O xFy yFz k

MO M Z
xFy yFz

M O x A x B Fy y A y B Fz k
MO M Z

x A x B Fy y A y B Fz

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.1
A 100-lb vertical force is applied to the end of a
lever which is attached to a shaft at O.
Determine:
a) moment about O,
b) horizontal force at A which creates the same
moment,
c) smallest force at A which produces the same
moment,
d) location for a 240-lb vertical force to produce
the same moment,
e) whether any of the forces from b, c, and d is
equivalent to the original force.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.1
a) Moment about O is equal to the product of the
force and the perpendicular distance between the
line of action of the force and O. Since the force
tends to rotate the lever clockwise, the moment
vector is into the plane of the paper.
M O Fd

d 24 in. cos 60 12 in.


M O 100 lb 12 in.

M O 1200 lb in

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.1
c) Horizontal force at A that produces the same
moment,
d 24 in. sin 60 20.8 in.
M O Fd

1200 lb in. F 20.8 in.


1200 lb in.
F
20.8 in.

F 57.7 lb

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.1
c) The smallest force A to produce the same moment
occurs when the perpendicular distance is a
maximum or when F is perpendicular to OA.
M O Fd

1200 lb in. F 24 in.


1200 lb in.
F
24 in.

F 50 lb

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.1
d) To determine the point of application of a 240 lb
force to produce the same moment,
M O Fd

1200 lb in. 240 lb d


1200 lb in.
d
5 in.
240 lb
OB cos60 5 in.

OB 10 in.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.1
e) Although each of the forces in parts b), c), and d)
produces the same moment as the 100 lb force, none
are of the same magnitude and sense, or on the same
line of action. None of the forces is equivalent to the
100 lb force.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.4
SOLUTION:
The moment MA of the force F exerted
by the wire is obtained by evaluating
the vector product,

M A rC A F

The rectangular plate is supported by


the brackets at A and B and by a wire
CD. Knowing that the tension in the
wire is 200 N, determine the moment
about A of the force exerted by the
wire at C.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.4
SOLUTION:

M A rC A F

rC


rC rA 0.3 m i 0.08 m j

rC D
F F 200 N
rC D

0.3 m i 0.24 m j 0.32 m k


200 N
0.5 m

120 N i 96 N j 128 N k

i
j
k

M A 0 .3
0 0.08
120 96 128

M A 7.68 N m i 28.8 N m j 28.8 N m k

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Scalar Product of Two Vectors
The scalar product or dot product between
two vectors P and Q is defined as

P Q PQ cos scalar result
Scalar products:
- are commutative,


PQ Q P


- are distributive,
P Q1 Q2 P Q1 P Q2

- are not associative, P Q S undefined

Scalar products with Cartesian unit components,

P Q Px i Py j Pz k Qx i Q y j Qz k




i i 1 j j 1 k k 1 i j 0

P Q Px Qx Py Q y Pz Qz

P P Px2 Py2 Pz2 P 2



j k 0 k i 0

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Scalar Product of Two Vectors: Applications
Angle between two vectors:

P Q PQ cos Px Qx Py Q y Pz Qz
cos

Px Qx Py Q y Pz Qz
PQ

Projection of a vector on a given axis:


POL P cos projection of P along OL

P Q PQ cos

PQ
P cos POL
Q
For an axis defined by a unit vector:

POL P
Px cos x Py cos y Pz cos z

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Mixed Triple Product of Three Vectors
Mixed triple product of three vectors,

S P Q scalar result
The six mixed triple products formed from S, P, and
Q have equal magnitudes but not the same sign,

S P Q P Q S Q S P



S Q P P S Q Q P S
Evaluating the mixed triple product,

S P Q S x Py Qz Pz Q y S y Pz Qx Px Qz
S z Pxy Qz Py Qx

Sx
Px
Qx

Sy
Py
Qy

Sz
Pz
Qz

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Moment of a Force About a Given Axis
Moment MO of a force F applied at the point A
about a point O,

MO r F
Scalar moment MOL about an axis OL is the
projection of the moment vector MO onto the
axis,


M OL M O r F
Moments of F about the coordinate axes,
M x yFz zFy
M y zFx xFz
M z xFy yFx

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Moment of a Force About a Given Axis
Moment of a force about an arbitrary axis,

M BL M B

rA B F


rA B rA rB
The result is independent of the point B
along the given axis.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.5
A cube is acted on by a force P as
shown. Determine the moment of P
a) about A
b) about the edge AB and
c) about the diagonal AG of the cube.
d) Determine the perpendicular distance
between AG and FC.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Sample Problem 3.5
Moment of P about A,

M A rF A P

rF A ai a j a i j


P P 2 i 2 j P 2 i j



M A a i j P 2 i j


M A aP 2 i j k
Moment of P about AB,

M AB i M A


i aP 2 i j k
M AB aP 2

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Sample Problem 3.5
Moment of P about the diagonal AG,

M AG M A

rA G ai aj ak
1

i j k
rA G
a 3
3

aP

MA
i j k
2
1 aP

M AG
i j k
i j k
3
2
aP
1 1 1

6
M AG

aP
6

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Sample Problem 3.5
Perpendicular distance between AG and FC,
P 1
P

0 1 1
P
j k
i j k
2
3
6
0
Therefore, P is perpendicular to AG.
M AG

aP
Pd
6
d

a
6

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Moment of a Couple
Two forces F and -F having the same magnitude,
parallel lines of action, and opposite sense are
said to form a couple.
Moment of the couple,

M rA F rB F


rA rB F

r F
M rF sin Fd
The moment vector of the couple is
independent of the choice of the origin of the
coordinate axes, i.e., it is a free vector that
can be applied at any point with the same
effect.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Moment of a Couple
Two couples will have equal moments if
F1d1 F2 d 2
the two couples lie in parallel planes, and
the two couples have the same sense or
the tendency to cause rotation in the same
direction.

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Addition of Couples
Consider two intersecting planes P1 and
P2 with each containing a couple


M 1 r F1 in plane P1


M 2 r F2 in plane P2
Resultants of the vectors also form a
couple

M r R r F1 F2
By Varigons theorem

M r F1 r F2

M1 M 2
Sum of two couples is also a couple that is
equal to the vector sum of the two couples

Overview of Mechanical Engineering


Couples Can Be Represented by Vectors

A couple can be represented by a vector with magnitude


and direction equal to the moment of the couple.
Couple vectors obey the law of addition of vectors.
Couple vectors are free vectors, i.e., the point of application
is not significant.
Couple vectors may be resolved into component vectors.