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Metal Alloy


(materials science and engineering 8th edition)

Ferrous & nonferrous

The ferrous metals are based on iron, one of the
oldest metals known to humans. The ferrous
metals of engineering importance are alloys of
iron and carbon. These alloys divide into two
major groups: steel and cast iron.
The nonferrous metals include metal elements
and alloys not based on iron. The most important
engineering metals in the nonferrous group are
aluminium, copper, magnesium, nickel,
titanium, and zinc, and their alloys.


Low alloy steel

Low-Carbon Steels
These generally contain less than about 0.25
wt% C and are unresponsive to
heatreatments intended to form martensite;
strengthening is accomplished by cold work.
Typical applications include automobile body
components, structural shapes (I-beams,
channel and angle iron), and sheets that are
used in pipelines, buildings, bridges, and tin

Medium-Carbon Steels
The medium-carbon steels have carbon
concentrations between about 0.25 and 0.60 wt
%. These alloys may be heat-treated by
austenitizing, quenching, and then tempering to
improve their mechanical properties.
Applications include railway wheels and tracks,
gears, crankshafts, and other machine parts
and high-strength structural components calling
for a combination of high strength, wear
resistance, and toughness.

High-Carbon Steels
The high-carbon steels, normally having
carbon contents between 0.60 and 1.4 wt
%, are the hardest, strongest, and yet least
ductile of the carbon steels.
These steels are utilized as cutting tools
and dies for forming and shaping
materials, as well as in knives,
razors,hacksaw blades, springs, and highstrength wire.

High alloy steel

Stainless Steels
The stainless steels are highly resistant to
corrosion (rusting) in a variety of
environments, especially the ambient
Their predominant alloying element is
chromium; a concentration of at least 11 wt
% Cr is required.
Corrosion resistance may also be enhanced
by nickel and molybdenum additions.

Cast Iron
Generically, cast irons are a class
of ferrous alloys with carbon
contents above 2.14 wt%; in
practice, however, most cast irons
contain between 3.0 and 4.5 wt% C
and, in addition, other alloying

Types of Cast Iron

Gray iron
graphite flakes
weak & brittle under tension
stronger under compression
wear resistant
Cylinder blocks, liners, Brake
drums, clutch plates
Ductile iron
add Mg or Ce
graphite in nodules not flakes
matrix often pearlite - better
-disc brake callipers, Crankshafts

Adapted from Fig. 11.3(a) & (b), Callister 7e.


Types of Cast Iron

White iron
<1wt% Si so harder but brittle
more cementite


Malleable iron
heat treat at 800-900C
graphite in rosettes
more ductile
-Power trains, connecting rods,
suspensions, Railway

Adapted from Fig. 11.3(c) & (d), Callister 7e.


Production of Cast Iron

Adapted from Fig.11.5,

Callister 7e.


Nonferrous metal
Aluminium are light metals, and
they are often specified in
engineering applications for this

Nonferrous metal
Pure copper has a distinctive reddish-pink color,
but its most distinguishing engineering property
is its low electrical resistivityone of the lowest

Nonferrous metal
Titanium coefficient of thermal expansion is
relatively low among metals. It is stiffer and
stronger than aluminum, and it retains good
strength at elevated temperatures


What is corrosion?
Corrosion is defined as the destruction due to
chemical or electrochemical interaction with a
surrounding medium.
Corrosion can occur in a gaseous environment
(dry corrosion) or a wet environment (wet
Importance of corrosion:
1. Economic direct or indirect losses
2. Improved safety failure of critical component
3. Conservation of resource wastage of metal
or energy.

Two main categories of

Dry corrosion
Dry corrosion or oxidation occurs when
oxygen in the air reacts with metal without
the presence of a liquid.
Wet/Electrochemical corrosion
It will occur if an electrochemical cell is
produced. An electrochemical cell consists of
an Anode, a Cathode, a Connection, and an

Basic principle in electrochemical corrosion


Electrochemical Series
In a galvanic cell, the more
noble material in this series
will become the cathode (no
metal dissolution), while the
less noble material will
corrode as the anode.
A greater separation of the
materials in the galvanic
series indicates a bigger
potential difference between
the materials; generally
indicating a greater degree
of galvanic incompatibility
when coupled.

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