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Engineering Mechanics

Dynamics
Seventh Edition
J. L. Meriam L. G. Kraige

Spatial Kinematic of Rigid Bodies

Copyright 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.

Translation
Rigidbodytranslatinginthree
dimensionalspace.

rA rB rA/B

r A vA vB

r A aA aB

rA/Bremainsconstant,allpointin
thebodyhavethesamevelocity
andacceleration.

FixedAxisRotation
Rotationofarigidbodyaboutafixed
axisnninspace.

v r r [ Eq.7 / 1]

a r r [ Eq.7 / 2]

r r

Thenormal&tangentialcomponent
ofahavethefamiliarmagnitudes:

a n r b 2

a t r b ; where

FixedAxisRotation

Abodyrotatesaboutafixedpoint

Finiterotation:Casea&bdonotproducethesame
finalposition

d1 r d 2 r (d1 d 2 ) r
(d1 d 2 ) d

Twoinfinitesimalrotationsd1&d2.
Infiniterotation:producesthesameresultantdisplacement.

1 2 1 2

Atanyinstantoftimeabodywithonefixedpointisrotating
instantaneouslyaboutparticularaxispassingthroughthefixedpoint

InstantaneousAxisofRotation
AnydotonthelineOn,would
haveequalandoppositevelocity
components,v1dueto1andv2
dueto2.
Allparticlesofthebody,except
thoseonlineOn,are
momentarilyrotatingincircular
arcsabouttheinstantaneousaxis
ofrotation.
Forrotationofarigidbodyaboutafixedpoint,then,itisseen
thattherotationaxis,ingeneral,notalinefixedinthebody

BodyandSpaceCones
Theinstantaneousaxisofrotation
OAngeneratesarightcircular
coneaboutthecylinderaxiscalled
bodycone.Theinstantaneousaxis
ofrotationalsogeneratesaright
circularconeaboutthevertical
axiscalledthespacecone.
Foramoregeneralcasewherethe
rotationarenotsteady,thespaceand
bodyconesarenotrightcircularcones,
butthebodycanstillrollsonthespace
cone.

AngularAcceleration
Upperpartoffigure(body/rigidcone),
has2componentsofangularvelocity:

total body cone space cone k K


andofbodyconeischangeditsdirection:

body cone body cone space cone body cone [Eq.7 / 3]


Lowerpartoffigure(spacecone),has1
componentofangularvelocity:

space cone K
andofspaceconeisnotchangedits
direction:

spacecone zero

Differencesbetweenfixedaxis
andfixedpointRotation
Fortherotationaboutafixedpoint,itsangular
velocityischangedthedirection,thusithasangular

acceleration

Fortherotationaboutafixedaxis,itsangularvelocity
isnotchangedthedirection,thusithasnoangular
acceleration

zero
angular velocity of the axces

angular velocity of the body

x y z 4i 0 6.28k 4i 6.28k rad/s

x y z x 0 0
x z 6.28k 4i 25.1j rad/s 2

r 0i 0.693j 0.4k 0.693j 0.4k


i j k 4i 0j 6.28k 4i 6.28k
v r (4i 6.28k) (0.693j 0.4k)
[4i (0.693j 0.4k)] [6.28k (0.693j 0.4k)]
[2.772k - 1.6j] [-4.35i 0]
[-4.35i - 1.6j 2.772k] m/s

a r ( r)
r v
[(0i 25.1j 0k) (0i 0.693j 0.4k)]

[10.04i 0j 0k] [6.4k 11.08j - 27.3

Ans:vB=2,62m/s

GeneralMotion
TranslatingReferenceAxes
v A v B v A/B
a A a B a A/B
v A v B rA/B

a A a B rA/B rA/B
Eq.7/4 :
v B v A rB/A

a B a A rB/A rB/A

GeneralMotion
RotatingReferenceAxes
Forthetimederivativesoftherotating
unitvectorsattachedtoxyz(Eq.7/5):

ii

j j k k

VelocityandaccelerationofpointA(Eq.7/6):

v A v B rA/B v rel

a A a B rA/B rA/B 2 v rel a rel

where : v rel xi y j z k

a rel xi y j z k

Velocity&accelerationofpointA
measuredrelativetoxyzbyan
observerattachedtoxyz

Ifxyzarerigidlyattachedtothebody,=andvrelandarel
arebothzero,whichmakesequationidenticaltoEq.7/4

Keyconcept:
vB=absolutevelocityoftheoriginBoftherotatingaxes
aB=absoluteaccelerationoftheoriginBoftherotatingaxes
r=positionvectorofpointAwithrespecttoB
=angularvelocityoftherotatingaxes
d/dt=angularaccelerationoftherotatingaxes
vrel=velocityofAmeasuredrelativetotherotatingaxes
arel=accelerationofAmeasuredrelativetotherotatingaxes

v A v B rA/B v rel
v B/O v A/B v rel
( rO/B ) ( rA/B ) (p rA/B )
(3K 0.35J) [3K (0.3 j 0.12k)] [8j (0.3 j 0.12k)]
(1.05I) [(3K 0.3 j) (3K 0.12k)] [(8j 0.3 j) (8 j 0.12k)]
since : K i J j.cos k. sin ; K j i.cos ; K k i.sin , thus :
(1.05I) [(0.9cos300 )i (0.36 sin 30 0 )i ] [(0) 0.96i]
1.05I - 0.599i 0.96i 1.05i - 0.599i 0.96i
-0.689i

r A r B r A/B v A v B

v B r r v rel

a A a B r (

K (K j)
(K K) (K
0 (K j)

Ans:=10,77rad/s;=40jrad/s2

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