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GENERATOR

PROTECTIONS

M.RAVICHANDRA BABU
DEPUTY DIRECTOR
10/16/16

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

PROTECTION
CHARACTERISTICS

SENSITIVITY
SELECTIVITY &
DISCRIMINATION
STABILITY
SPEED
RELIABILITY
ECONOMY
ADEQUATENESS

10/16/16

INPUTS
# DIRECT
# FROM CTS &
PTS

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

Various type of protections provided for a


200/210MW Generator

Stator ground (Earth)fault protection


95% Stator ground (Earth)fault protection
100% Stator ground (Earth)fault protection

Rotor ground (Earth)fault protection


First Rotor ground (Earth)fault protection
Second Rotor ground (Earth)fault protection
Generator interturn fault protection
Generator negative phase sequence protection
Generator loss of excitation protection
Generator minimum impedance (mho backup) protection
Generator differential protection
Generator overall differential protection
Generator reverse power protection
Generator over frequency protection
Generator under frequency protection
Generator thermal overload protection
Generator over voltage protection
Generator out of step (pole slipping) protection
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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

GENERATOR SINGLE LINE


DIAGRAM

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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

GENERATOR
PROTECTIONS
GENERATOR
GENERATOR TRANSFORMER
UATS
EXCITATION TRANSFORMER
SWITCH-YARD & LINE BACK UP

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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

GENERATOR PROTECTIONS

OVERLOAD
SHORT CIRCUIT
EARTH FAULT
INTER TURN FAULT
DIFFERENTIAL
LOSS OF EXCITATION
NEGATIVE
SEQUENCE
BACK UP
IMPEDENCE

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OVER/UNDER
VOLTAGE
OVER/UNDER
FREQUENCY
OVER-FLUXING
LOW FORWARD/
REVERSE POWER
OUT OF STEP
VOLTAGE BALANCE
TR. PROTECTIONS

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

GENERATOR PROTECTIONS
CAUSES
* CLASS A
- FAULTS OF SERIOUS NATURE
REQUIRING TOTAL SHUT DOWN
* CLASS- B
- FAULTS OF LESS SERIOUS NATURE
NOT REQUIRING TURBINE TRIP
* CLASS- C
- FAULTS OF LEAST SERIOUS NATURE
TO PERMIT HOUSE LOAD OPERATION
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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

CLASS-A
PROTECTIONS

10/16/16

REVERSE POWER
OVER VOLTAGE
STATOR E/F 100% &
95%
GENERTOR DIFF.
OVER ALL DIFF.
OVER-FLUXING
EXCITATION SYSTEM
LOCK OUT

RE/F OF GT & UAT


DIFFERENTIAL OF
GT & UAT
O/L TRIP OF UAT
ROTOR E/F-2
PRV/BUCH.
LBB/BBP
EMERGENCY TRIP

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

CLASS-A EFFECTS
-TURBINE TRIP
- 400 KV BREAKER TRIP & LOCK OUT
- FIELD BREAKER TRIP & LOCK OUT
- UNIT SECTION I/C BREAKER TRIP & LOCK
OUT
- FAST CHANGE-OVER START
- LBB START
- CLASS-B LOCK OUT
- CUT-IN LP/HP BY PASS
- ALARM & EVENT RECORDER
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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

CLASS-B
PROTECTIONS

LOSS OF
EXCITATION
U/F - STAGE 2
NPS - STAGE 2
GEN. & GT O/C
OUT OF STEPSTAGE-2
STAND BY E/F-GT
TEMP. TRIP OF GT

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UNDER IMP-2
O/C TEMP. TRIP
OF EXCITATTION
TR.

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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CLASS-B EFFECTS
* 86 T4/LB & 86 T4/RB
- ALL EFFECTS OF CLASS-A EXCEPT TURBINE
TRIP&HP/LP BY PASS
UNIT IS READY FOR NEXT SYNCHRONISATION
DIFFERENT FROM CLASS-B OF TS-II
- IN TS-II, CLASS-B LEADS TO TURBINE TRIP TO
PREVENT OVERSPEEDING OF TURBINE ON LOAD
THROW-OFF
- IN TS-II, 400 KV BREAKER WILL TRIP ON REVERSE
POWER OR LOW FORWARD POWER
- IN TS-II, FIELD BREAKER TRIP ONLY AFTER 400 KV
BREAKER TRIP TO PREVENT ASYNCHRONOUS
OPERATION
- IN TS-II, LBB WILL NOT BE INITIATED IMMEDIATELY
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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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CLASS-C
PROTECTIONS
UNDER IMP. STAGE-1
NPS STAGE-1
OUT OF STEP STAGE-1
GENERATOR O/L STAGE-2
UNDER FREQUENCY STAGE-1

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M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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CLASS-C EFFECTS

10/16/16

86 GB/LC & 86 GB/RC


HV BREAKER TRIP & LOCK OUT
LBB INITIATION
ALARM & EVENT RECORDER
PERMITS HOUSE LOAD OPERATION
DIFFERENT FROM TS-II, IN WHICH HP/LP
BY PASS OF LESS % IS INITIATED

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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GENERATOR PROTECTIONS AT A GLANCE

Protection

Cause

Effect

Stator Earth
Fault

Short circuit in slots


between core
&winding,
Interturn short circuit
Mech. Or thermal
damage to corona
preventive paint

Rotor Earth
Fault

Abnormal mech. or
thermal stresses due
to vibrations,
overcurrent,
overheating

- do -

- do -

Interturn fault

Interturn short circuit

- do -

Double Primary
CT & O/C relay

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Insulation
damage

Relay

Voltage Relay

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

Setting

2.5% of normal of
normal neutral voltage
t.d. 0.3 0.5 sec.

1 5% of voltage
injected.

0.5 to 1.5A 200 ms. To 1


sec.

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Protection

Cause

Effect

Relay

Setting

Negative
Phase
Sequence

Unbalance loading

Excessive
rotor heating

O/C Relay (I2


based)

5 10% of full load


current or as
recommended by
manufacturer.

Gen Loss of
Excn.

1. Unintentional
opening of field
breaker.
2. An o/c or s/c in field
winding.
3. Fault in AVR

Induction
Generator
Asynchronus
Operation
Overheating
of rotor and
stator end
zone

Impedance
Relay / Offset
MHO Relay

Dim = 0.5 x d pu t.d. 2


sec.
Offset = 0.75 x dpu

Gen. Min.
impedance

Phase to phase short


circuit in stator
winding on Gen. Bus
LV side or GTR
HV side of UAT and
uncleared faults on
the evacuation lines.

MHO Relay

70% of rated Gen. Load


imp.
1/0.7 = 1.4 times rated
current at rated voltage
1 1.5 msec.

10/16/16

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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Protection

Cause

Effect

Generator
Differential
Protection

Internal fault

Reverse Power
Protection

Failure of Prime
mover

Motoring
damage to
turbine
blades

Low Forward
Power

Upon an electrical
tripping prime mover
fails to trip

Over
speeding

Over frequency

Sudden loss of load


C.B Opens with
turbine ON

Overspeed
(Mech.
Device)

Under
frequency

Increase in load

Over fluxing
(V/f) Aux.
Speed falls

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Relay

Setting

Differential
Relay

1 5% of rated Gen.
Current 10 15 msec.

Directional
Power relay

0.5% of rated power. t.d.


2 sec.

- do -

- do -

Frequency
Relay

+ 5% t.d. 2 sec.

- do -

- 5% t.d. 2 sec.

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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Protection

Cause

Effect

Relay

Setting

Over fluxing

Malfunctioning of
AVR. Load throw-off
with Excitation. On
manual, under
frequency operation

Overheating
of stator iron
and
transformer
iron parts.

Frequency
dependent
voltage relay.

V/F = 1 to 1.3
T = 3 5 sec.

Over Loading
Protection

Overloading in terms
of current or MVA,
Failure of coolant flow
or temp.

Temp. rise in
stator
winding

Static thermal
overload relay

Set = Amb. Temp. +


Temp. rise given on
name plate

Over Voltage
Protection

Sudden loss of load at


full load and rated p.f.
and AVR fails or
changeover to manual
and generator
Overspeed.

Insulation
damage

Voltage Relay

110% - 2 sec. t.d.


115% - 120% Instt.

Local Breaker
Backup

GCB fails to trip

External
sources
feeding fault

LBB Protection
in conjunction
with Bus Bar
protection

5 8%. In Set at 5%
t.d. 0 20 sec.

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THANK YOU

10/16/16

M.Ravichandra Babu,Deputy Director

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