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Simulation of Internal

Faults in
Synchronous Generators
By
TIRUPATAIAH

Under the guidance of

Mr.Ch.Sridhar

M.Tech.,(Ph.D).

ABSTRACT :
An internal fault in the armature winding pf a synchronous
generator occurs due to the breakdown of the winding
insulation. In this paper a method for simulating internal faults
in synchronous generators, using direct phase quantities, is
described. Simulation results showing the fault currents, during
a single phase to ground fault and a two phase to ground fault
are presented.

INTRODUCTION:
-> The protection of synchronous generators with several parallel
paths becomes more and more important.
-> The internal short circuit current for the generator may be
several times larger than its terminal short circuit current. The
strong current could cause severe heat and mechanical damage.
->In the case of internal faults in the stator windings of electrical
machines, there are stronger space harmonics in the air gap
magnetic field and stronger time harmonics in winding currents.
->This paper describes a method for simulating internal faults in
synchronous generator, using direct phase quantities
-> we discuss about the single phase to ground fault and two
phase to ground fault

INTERNAL SINGLE PHASE TO GROUND FAULTS:

1. schematic representation of a
synchronous machine during an
internal single phase to ground fault

2. System representation during


an internal single phase to
ground fault.

->A synchronous machine with two damper coils during an internal


single phase to ground fault in phase a as shown in figure 1
->The armature winding of synchronous machine consisting of of x
parallel paths per phase is tapped at a certain point of one of the
parallel paths of phase is a
->The tapped parallel path is divided into two parts
1.Adjacent to neutral, which will be refer as the m winding
2.Adjacent to the machine terminal, which will refer to as the n
winding
->The remaining ,x-1 parallel paths of phase a are lumped into one
equivalent winding that will be refer to as the p winding
->In direct phase quantities , the performance of asynchronous
generator ,during an single phase to ground fault , connected to an
infinite bus bar through a short transmission line , as shown in figure
2

VOLTAGE RELATIONSHIPS:

The position of the rotor at any instant is


specified with reference to the axis of phase a by
the angle 0, In terms of flux linkages, $1, voltage
relationships for the stator and rotor circuits, el, are
linked with the winding resistances, RI, and
instantaneous currents, i1, as follows:

fig :Single phase to ground fault

INTERNAL TWO PHASE TO GROUND FAULTS:

->The figurer 3. shows a synchronous generator having an


internal two phase to ground fault in phases a and b.
->The faulty path of phase b is divided in two parts
1.adjacent to the neutral, r winding
2.Adjacent to the machine terminal, s winding.
-> The remaining, x - 1, parallel paths of phase b are
lumped into one equivalent winding which is the z winding
The voltage relationship is below

fig: two phase to ground fault

CONCLUSIONS:
A synchronous generator during an internal fault can
be represented by a mathematical model in direct phase
quantities. The mathematical model regards the faulty
phase as composed of three individual windings. The
described model has the advantage of simulating any kind
of fault, while retaining the generator nonlinear model.