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# Digital Signal Processing

Filter Transformations

Example
yn a1yn 1 a2yn 2 b0xn

Block Diagram
Representation

## LTI systems with rational system

function can be represented as
constant-coefficient difference equation
The implementation of difference
equations requires delayed values of
the

input

output

intermediate results
The requirement of delayed elements
implies need for storage
We also need means of

multiplication

Direct Form I
N

a yn k b xn k
General form of difference equation
yn a yn k b xn k
k 0

k 0

k 1

k 0

Direct Form I

## Transfer function can be written as

H z

H z H2 z H1 z

1
N

k 0

1 ak z k
k 1

b z

bk z k

k k 0
1 ak z
k 1

V z H1 z X z bk z k X z
k 0

## Direct Form I Represents

1
V z
Y z H2 z V z
N

k
1 ak z
k 1

vn
yn

b xn k

k 0

a yn k vn

k 1

Alternative Representation

## Replace order of cascade LTI systems

H z H1 z H2 z bk z k
N

k
k 0
1
ak z

k 1

1
X z
W z H2 z X z
N

k
1 ak z
k 1

Y z H1 z W z bk z k W z
k 0

wn
yn

a wn k xn

k 1

b wn k

k 0

systems

wn
yn

a wn k xn

k 1

b wn k

k 0

Direct Form II

## No need to store the same data

twice in previous system
So we can collapse the delay
elements into one chain
This is called Direct Form II or the
Canonical Form
Theoretically no difference
between Direct Form I and II
Implementation wise
Less memory in Direct II
Difference when using finiteprecision arithmetic

Representation

## Similar to block diagram representation

Notational differences
A network of directed branches connected at nodes
Example representation of a difference equation

Example

## Representation of Direct Form II with signal

flow graphs
w n aw n xn
w n w n
w n b w n b w n
w n w n 1
yn w n
1

2
3

w1 n aw1 n 1 xn

yn b0w1 n b1w1 n 1

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Determination of System
n w n xn
Function from Flow wGraph
1

w2 n w1 n

w3 n w2 n xn
w4 n w3 n 1

yn w2 n w4 n

W1 z W4 z X z
W2 z W1 z

W3 z W2 z X z
W4 z W3 z z 1

Y z W2 z W4 z

X z z 1 1
W2 z
1 z 1
X z z 1 1
W4 z
1 z 1
Y z W2 z W4 z

Y z
z 1
H z

X z 1 z 1

hn n 1un 1 n 1un

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## Basic Structures for IIR

Systems: Direct Form I

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## Basic Structures for IIR

Systems: Direct Form II

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## General form for cascade implementation

1 f z 1 g z 1 g z
H z A
1 c z 1 d z 1 d z
M1

k 1
N1

k 1

M2

k 1
N2

k 1

M1

H z
1
a2k z 2
k 1 1 a1k z

## More practical form in 2nd order systems

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Example
1 2z
H z

1 0.75z 1

1 z
1

z 2
1 z 1 1 z 1

2
0.125z
1 0.5z 1 1 0.25z 1

1 z

1 0.5z 1 0.25z
1

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## Basic Structures for IIR

Systems: Parallel Form
Represent system function using partial
fraction expansion
A
B 1 e z
H z C z

1 d z 1 d z
1c z

NP

k 0

H z

NP

C z

k 0

NP

k 1

NP

k 1

NS

e0k e1k z 1

1
a2k z 2
k 1 1 a1k z

Or by pairing the
real poles

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Example

1 2z 1 z 2
18
25
H z
8

1
2
1
1 0.75z 0.125z
1 0.5z
1 0.25z 1

## Partial Fraction Expansion

7 8z
H z 8
1 0.75z 0.125z
Combine poles to get

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Transposed Forms

## Transposing doesnt change the input-output relation

Transposing:

1
az 1
Reverse directions of all1branches
H z

Example:

input and output
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Example
Transpose

## Both have the same system function or

difference equation
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## Basic Structures for FIR

Systems: Direct Form

## Transpose of direct form I gives direct form II

Both forms are equal for FIR systems

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function
H z

hnz

n0

MS

b
k 1

0k

b1k z 1 b2k z 2

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## Structures for Linear-Phase

FIR Systems
Causal FIR system with generalized linear phase are symmetric:

hM n hn

hM n hn

n 0,1,..., M

(type I or III)

n 0,1,..., M

(type II or IV)

## Symmetry means we can half the number of multiplications

Example: For even M and type I or type III systems:

yn

M / 2 1

k 0

k 0

k M / 2 1

hk xn k hk xn k hM / 2xn M / 2 hk xn k
M / 2 1

M / 2 1

k 0

k 0

hk xn k hM / 2xn M / 2 hM k xn M k

M / 2 1

hk xn k xn M k hM / 2xn M / 2

k 0

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FIR Systems

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