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Digital Signal Processing

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Filter Transformations

Example

yn a1yn 1 a2yn 2 b0xn

Block Diagram

Representation

function can be represented as

constant-coefficient difference equation

The implementation of difference

equations requires delayed values of

the

input

output

intermediate results

The requirement of delayed elements

implies need for storage

We also need means of

addition

multiplication

Direct Form I

N

a yn k b xn k

General form of difference equation

yn a yn k b xn k

k 0

k 0

k 1

k 0

Direct Form I

H z

H z H2 z H1 z

1

N

k 0

1 ak z k

k 1

b z

bk z k

k k 0

1 ak z

k 1

V z H1 z X z bk z k X z

k 0

1

V z

Y z H2 z V z

N

k

1 ak z

k 1

vn

yn

b xn k

k 0

a yn k vn

k 1

Alternative Representation

H z H1 z H2 z bk z k

N

k

k 0

1

ak z

k 1

1

X z

W z H2 z X z

N

k

1 ak z

k 1

Y z H1 z W z bk z k W z

k 0

wn

yn

a wn k xn

k 1

b wn k

k 0

systems

wn

yn

a wn k xn

k 1

b wn k

k 0

Direct Form II

twice in previous system

So we can collapse the delay

elements into one chain

This is called Direct Form II or the

Canonical Form

Theoretically no difference

between Direct Form I and II

Implementation wise

Less memory in Direct II

Difference when using finiteprecision arithmetic

Representation

Notational differences

A network of directed branches connected at nodes

Example representation of a difference equation

Example

flow graphs

w n aw n xn

w n w n

w n b w n b w n

w n w n 1

yn w n

1

2

3

w1 n aw1 n 1 xn

yn b0w1 n b1w1 n 1

10

Determination of System

n w n xn

Function from Flow wGraph

1

w2 n w1 n

w3 n w2 n xn

w4 n w3 n 1

yn w2 n w4 n

W1 z W4 z X z

W2 z W1 z

W3 z W2 z X z

W4 z W3 z z 1

Y z W2 z W4 z

X z z 1 1

W2 z

1 z 1

X z z 1 1

W4 z

1 z 1

Y z W2 z W4 z

Y z

z 1

H z

X z 1 z 1

hn n 1un 1 n 1un

11

Systems: Direct Form I

12

Systems: Direct Form II

13

Systems: Cascade Form

1 f z 1 g z 1 g z

H z A

1 c z 1 d z 1 d z

M1

k 1

N1

k 1

M2

k 1

N2

k 1

M1

H z

1

a2k z 2

k 1 1 a1k z

14

Example

1 2z

H z

1 0.75z 1

1 z

1

z 2

1 z 1 1 z 1

2

0.125z

1 0.5z 1 1 0.25z 1

1 z

1 0.5z 1 0.25z

1

15

Systems: Parallel Form

Represent system function using partial

fraction expansion

A

B 1 e z

H z C z

1 d z 1 d z

1c z

NP

k 0

H z

NP

C z

k 0

NP

k 1

NP

k 1

NS

e0k e1k z 1

1

a2k z 2

k 1 1 a1k z

Or by pairing the

real poles

16

Example

1 2z 1 z 2

18

25

H z

8

1

2

1

1 0.75z 0.125z

1 0.5z

1 0.25z 1

7 8z

H z 8

1 0.75z 0.125z

Combine poles to get

17

Transposed Forms

Transposing:

1

az 1

Reverse directions of all1branches

H z

Example:

input and output

18

Example

Transpose

difference equation

19

Systems: Direct Form

Both forms are equal for FIR systems

20

Systems: Cascade Form

function

H z

hnz

n0

MS

b

k 1

0k

b1k z 1 b2k z 2

21

FIR Systems

Causal FIR system with generalized linear phase are symmetric:

hM n hn

hM n hn

n 0,1,..., M

(type I or III)

n 0,1,..., M

(type II or IV)

Example: For even M and type I or type III systems:

yn

M / 2 1

k 0

k 0

k M / 2 1

hk xn k hk xn k hM / 2xn M / 2 hk xn k

M / 2 1

M / 2 1

k 0

k 0

hk xn k hM / 2xn M / 2 hM k xn M k

M / 2 1

hk xn k xn M k hM / 2xn M / 2

k 0

22

FIR Systems

23

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