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Digital Signal Processing

Filter Transformations

Example
yn a1yn 1 a2yn 2 b0xn

Block diagram representation of

Block Diagram
Representation

LTI systems with rational system


function can be represented as
constant-coefficient difference equation
The implementation of difference
equations requires delayed values of
the

input

output

intermediate results
The requirement of delayed elements
implies need for storage
We also need means of

addition

multiplication

Direct Form I
N

a yn k b xn k
General form of difference equation
yn a yn k b xn k
k 0

k 0

k 1

k 0

Alternative equivalent form

Direct Form I

Transfer function can be written as

H z

H z H2 z H1 z

1
N

k 0

1 ak z k
k 1

b z

bk z k

k k 0
1 ak z
k 1

V z H1 z X z bk z k X z
k 0

Direct Form I Represents

1
V z
Y z H2 z V z
N

k
1 ak z
k 1

vn
yn

b xn k

k 0

a yn k vn

k 1

Alternative Representation

Replace order of cascade LTI systems

H z H1 z H2 z bk z k
N

k
k 0
1
ak z

k 1

1
X z
W z H2 z X z
N

k
1 ak z
k 1

Y z H1 z W z bk z k W z
k 0

wn
yn

a wn k xn

k 1

b wn k

k 0

Alternative Block Diagram

We can change the order of the cascade


systems

wn
yn

a wn k xn

k 1

b wn k

k 0

Direct Form II

No need to store the same data


twice in previous system
So we can collapse the delay
elements into one chain
This is called Direct Form II or the
Canonical Form
Theoretically no difference
between Direct Form I and II
Implementation wise
Less memory in Direct II
Difference when using finiteprecision arithmetic

Signal Flow Graph


Representation

Similar to block diagram representation


Notational differences
A network of directed branches connected at nodes
Example representation of a difference equation

Example

Representation of Direct Form II with signal


flow graphs
w n aw n xn
w n w n
w n b w n b w n
w n w n 1
yn w n
1

2
3

w1 n aw1 n 1 xn

yn b0w1 n b1w1 n 1

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Determination of System
n w n xn
Function from Flow wGraph
1

w2 n w1 n

w3 n w2 n xn
w4 n w3 n 1

yn w2 n w4 n

W1 z W4 z X z
W2 z W1 z

W3 z W2 z X z
W4 z W3 z z 1

Y z W2 z W4 z

X z z 1 1
W2 z
1 z 1
X z z 1 1
W4 z
1 z 1
Y z W2 z W4 z

Y z
z 1
H z

X z 1 z 1

hn n 1un 1 n 1un

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Basic Structures for IIR


Systems: Direct Form I

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Basic Structures for IIR


Systems: Direct Form II

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Basic Structures for IIR


Systems: Cascade Form

General form for cascade implementation


1 f z 1 g z 1 g z
H z A
1 c z 1 d z 1 d z
M1

k 1
N1

k 1

M2

k 1
N2

k 1

M1

b0k b1k z 1 b2k z 2


H z
1
a2k z 2
k 1 1 a1k z

More practical form in 2nd order systems

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Example
1 2z
H z

1 0.75z 1

1 z
1

z 2
1 z 1 1 z 1

2
0.125z
1 0.5z 1 1 0.25z 1

1 z

1 0.5z 1 0.25z
1

Cascade of Direct Form I subsections

Cascade of Direct Form II subsections


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Basic Structures for IIR


Systems: Parallel Form
Represent system function using partial
fraction expansion
A
B 1 e z
H z C z

1 d z 1 d z
1c z

NP

k 0

H z

NP

C z

k 0

NP

k 1

NP

k 1

NS

e0k e1k z 1

1
a2k z 2
k 1 1 a1k z

Or by pairing the
real poles

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Example

1 2z 1 z 2
18
25
H z
8

1
2
1
1 0.75z 0.125z
1 0.5z
1 0.25z 1

Partial Fraction Expansion


7 8z
H z 8
1 0.75z 0.125z
Combine poles to get

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Transposed Forms

Linear signal flow graph property:

Transposing doesnt change the input-output relation

Transposing:

1
az 1
Reverse directions of all1branches
H z

Interchange input and output nodes

Example:

Reverse directions of branches and interchange


input and output
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Example
Transpose

yn a1yn 1 a2yn 2 b0 xn b1xn 1 b2xn 2

Both have the same system function or


difference equation
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Basic Structures for FIR


Systems: Direct Form

Special cases of IIR direct form structures

Transpose of direct form I gives direct form II


Both forms are equal for FIR systems

Tapped delay line


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Basic Structures for FIR


Systems: Cascade Form

Obtained by factoring the polynomial system


function
H z

hnz

n0

MS

b
k 1

0k

b1k z 1 b2k z 2

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Structures for Linear-Phase


FIR Systems
Causal FIR system with generalized linear phase are symmetric:

hM n hn

hM n hn

n 0,1,..., M

(type I or III)

n 0,1,..., M

(type II or IV)

Symmetry means we can half the number of multiplications


Example: For even M and type I or type III systems:

yn

M / 2 1

k 0

k 0

k M / 2 1

hk xn k hk xn k hM / 2xn M / 2 hk xn k
M / 2 1

M / 2 1

k 0

k 0

hk xn k hM / 2xn M / 2 hM k xn M k

M / 2 1

hk xn k xn M k hM / 2xn M / 2

k 0

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Structures for Linear-Phase


FIR Systems

Structure for even M

Structure for odd M


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