You are on page 1of 40

Manufacturing Engineering Technology in SI Units,

6th Edition

Chapter 25:
Machining Centers, Machine Tool
Structures and Machining Economics
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Chapter Outline

Introduction
Machining Centers
Machine-tool Structures
Vibration and Chatter in Machining Operations
High-speed Machining
Hard Machining
Ultraprecision Machining
Machining Economics

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Introduction

Computers improved the capabilities of machine tools


Have the capability of rapidly producing extremely
complex part geometries

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers

1.

2.

Brief review:
Possibilities exist in net-shape or near-net shape
production
Some form of machining is required and is more
economical to finish machine parts to their final shapes

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers
The Concept of Machining Centers

Machining parts can be highly automated to increase


productivity

Transfer lines are used in high-volume or mass


production, consist of several specific machine tools
arranged in a logical sequence

Workpiece is moved from station to station, with a


specific machining operation performed at each station

A machining center is an advanced computer-controlled


machine tool that perform machining operations without
removing
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers
Components of a Machining Center

The workpiece in a machining center is placed on a


pallet, or module

Can be moved and swiveled in various directions

New pallet is brought in by an automatic pallet


changer

A machining center is equipped with a programmable


automatic tool changer (ATC)

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers
Components of a Machining Center

The tool-exchange arm swings around to pick up a


particular tool and places it in the spindle

Tool-checking and/or part-checking station would


feeds information to the machine control system

Touch probes select the tool settings and inspect parts


being machined

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers:
Types of Machining Centers
Vertical-spindle Machining Centers

Performing various machining


operations on parts with deep
cavities, as in mold and die making
Horizontal-spindle Machining Centers

Suitable for large and


tall workpieces that
require machining on a
number of their surfaces

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers:
Characteristics and Capabilities of Machining
Centers

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Major characteristics of machining centres:


Handles a wide variety of part sizes and shapes
efficiently
Versatile and quick changeover
Time required is reduced
Detection of tool breakage and wear
Inspection of machined work
Compact and highly automated

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers:
Selection of Machining Centers

1.
2.

3.
4.

Selection of type and size of machining centers


depends on:
Type of products, their size, and their shape complexity
Type of machining operations to be performed and the
type and number of cutting tools required
Dimensional accuracy required
Production rate required

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers:
Selection of Machining Centers
EXAMPLE 25.1
Machining Outer Bearing Races on a Turning Center

Machining of outer bearing races

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers:
Reconfigurable Machines and
Systems

There is a need for the flexibility of manufacturing


which involve concept of reconfigurable machines,
consisting of various modules
3 axis machining center can perform different
machining operations while accommodating various
workpiece sizes and part geometries

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Centers:
Reconfigurable Machines and
Systems

A five-axis machine can be reconfigured by assembling


different modules

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machine-tool Structures:
Materials

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A list of materials suitable for machine-tool structures:


Gray cast iron
Welded steel
Ceramic
Composites
Graniteepoxy composites
Polymer concrete

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machine-tool Structures:
Machine-tool Design Considerations

1.
2.
3.
4.

Important considerations in machine tools:


Design, materials, and construction
Spindle materials and construction
Thermal distortion of machine components
Error compensation and the control of moving
components along slideways

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machine-tool Structures:
Machine-tool Design Considerations
Stiffness

It is a function of the:
1.
Elastic modulus of the materials used
2.
Geometry of the structural components

Enhanced by using diagonally arranged interior ribs


Thermal Distortion

2 sources of heat in machine tools:


1.
Internal sources
2.
External sources
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machine-tool Structures:
Machine-tool Design Considerations
Assembly Techniques for Machine-tool Components

Traditionally components have been assembled using


threaded fasteners and welding

Advanced assembly techniques include integral casting


and resin bonding
Guideways

Plain cast-iron ways in machines require much care to


achieve the required precision and service life

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machine-tool Structures:
Machine-tool Design Considerations
Linear Motor Drives

A linear motor is a typical rotary electric motor that has


been rolled out (opened) flat

Sliding surfaces in drives are separated by an air gap


and have very low friction

Some advantages:
1.
Simplicity and minimal maintenance
2.
Smooth operation, better positioning accuracy, and
repeatability
3.
Wide range of linear speeds
4.
Moving components encounter no wear
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machine-tool Structures:
Hexapod Machines

1.
2.
3.

Goals in the developments of design and materials:


Machining flexibility to machine tools
Increasing their machining envelope
Making them lighter
Hexapods are parallel kinematic linked machines
They are loaded axially,
bending stresses and
deflections are minimal,
resulting in stiff structure

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Low stiffness can cause vibration and chatter of the


cutting tools and the machine components, causing
adverse effects on product quality
Chatter results in:
Poor surface finish
Loss of dimensional accuracy
Premature wear, chipping, and failure of the cutting tool
Damage to the machine-tool components
Objectionable noise

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Forced Vibration

Caused by some periodic applied force present in the


machine tool

The basic solution to forced vibration is to isolate or


remove the forcing element

Vibrations can be minimized by changing the


configuration of the machine-tool components

Due to driving forces that are close to the center of


gravity

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Self-excited Vibration

Caused by the interaction of the chip-removal process


with the structure of the machine tool, they have high
amplitude

Possible causes are:


1.
Type of chips produced
2.
Inhomogeneities in the workpiece material
3.
Variations in the frictional conditions at the toolchip
interface

Regenerative chatter is when a tool cutting a surface


that has a roughness or geometric disturbances
developed
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Self-excited Vibration

Self-excited vibrations can be controlled by:


1.
Increasing the stiffness and dynamic stiffness of the
system
2.
Damping

Dynamic stiffness is defined as the ratio of the appliedforce amplitude to the vibration amplitude

Operation will likely lead to chatter, beginning with


torsional vibration around the spindle axis and twisting
of the arm during turning

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Factors Influencing Chatter

Tendency for chatter during machining is proportional to


the cutting forces and the depth and width of the cut

Cutting forces increase with strength and the tendency


to chatter increases as hardness increases

Continuous chips involve steady cutting forces and do


not cause chatter

Discontinuous chips and serrated chips cause chatter

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Damping

Damping is defined as the rate at which vibrations


decay

A major factor in controlling machine-tool vibration and


chatter

Internal damping results from the energy loss in


materials during vibration

External damping is accomplished with external


dampers that are similar to shock absorbers on
automobiles or machines

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Damping

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Vibration and Chatter in Machining


Operations
Guidelines for Reducing Vibration and Chatter

Basic guidelines:
1.
Minimize tool overhang
2.
Improve the stiffness of work-holding devices and
support workpieces
3.
Modify tool and cutter geometry to minimize forces or
make them uniform
4.
Change process parameters
5.
Increase stiffness of the machine tool and its
components
6.
Improve the damping capacity of the machine tool
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

High-speed Machining

Spindle designs for high speeds require high stiffness


and accuracy
Due to inertia effects during the acceleration and
decelaration of machine-tool components, there is a
use of lightweight materials consideration
High-speed machining should take cutting time as a
cosideration
High-speed machining is economical for certain specific
applications
As cutting speed increases, more heat is generated,
while the tool and workpiece should remain close to
ambient temperature
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

High-speed Machining

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Machine-tool characteristics:
Spindle design for stiffness, accuracy, and balance at
very high rotational speeds
Bearing characteristics
Inertia of the machine-tool components
Fast feed drives
Selection of appropriate cutting tools
Processing parameters and their computer control
Work-holding devices that can withstand high
centrifugal forces
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Hard Machining

As the hardness of the workpiece increases, its


machinability decreases, and tool wear and fracture,
surface finish, and surface integrity are problems
Hard machining or hard turning produces machined
parts with good dimensional accuracy and surface
finish
Hard turning can compete successfully with the
grinding proces

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Ultraprecision Machining

Modern ultraprecision machine tools with advanced


computer controls can have an accuracy approaching 1
nm
Ultraprecision machines are located in a dust-free
environment

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Ultraprecision Machining
General Considerations for Precision Machining

Important factors in precision and ultraprecision


machining and machine tools:
1.
Machine-tool design, construction, and assembly
2.
Motion control of various components
3.
Spindle technology
4.
Thermal growth of the machine tool
5.
Cutting-tool selection and application
6.
Machining parameters
7.
Real-time performance and control of the machine tool
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics

1.
2.
3.

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Limitations of machining operations include


Longer time required
Need to reduce non-cutting time
Wasted material
The costs involved are:
Machine tools, work-holding devices, fixtures and
cutting tools
Labor and overhead
Setting up time
Material handling and movement
Dimensional accuracy and surface finish
Cutting times and non-cutting time
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics
Minimizing Machining Cost per Piece

Machining cost per piece and machining time per piece


can be minimized

It is important that input data is accurate and up to date

Total machining cost per piece is


C p C m C s Cl Ct

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics
Minimizing Machining Cost per Piece

The machining cost is given


Cm Tm Lm Bm

The loading, unloading, and machine-handling cost


is
Cl Tl Lm Bm

1
Tc Lm Bm Di 1 Ti Lm Bm
N
N

The tooling cost is Ct

The time required to produce one part is


T p Tl Tm

Tc
T
i
Ni N f
Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics
Minimizing Machining Cost per Piece

For a turning operation; the machining time is


L LD
Tm

fN

fV
C

1/ m

From the Taylor tool-life equation, T

T
The number of pieces per insert face is N f
Tm

mT
Number of pieces per insert is given by N i mN f
Tm

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics
Minimizing Machining Cost per Piece

Combination of equations is given by N i

For min cost, we differentiate Cp with respect to V and


set it to zero,
C p
V

mfC 1/ m
LDV (1/ n ) 1

The optimum cutting speed is


V0

C Lm Bm
n

1 1

1
T
L

T
L


c
m
m
i
i
m
m
n m

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics
Minimizing Machining Cost per Piece

The optimum tool life is


1
T0 1
n

1
Tc Lm Bm Di Ti Lm Bm
m
Lm Bm

For max production, we differentiate Tp with respect to


V and set the result to zero,
T p
V

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd

Machining Economics
Minimizing Machining Cost per Piece

The optimum cutting speed is


V0

C
1
n 1

Tc

Ti

The optimum tool life is

1 Tc
1
Ti
n m

T0

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd