Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 30

GEOMETALURGy

By
IWAN MUNAJAT

Geology Vs Metalurgy
Geologist

Metallurgist

OXIDATION
Malachite
Cuprite
Haematite
Mineralogical observations and results of Eh-pH
measurements made on weathered profiles
over serpentinites containing Ni-Fe sulphides in
several areas of Western Australia permits
some conclusions to be drawn relating to the
chemical conditions prevailing during, and as
the result of, weathering. At depth, conditions
of relatively low Eh and high pH prevail. Eh
increases and pH decreases upward in
response chiefly to a series of anodic oxidative
changes in the sulphides. Sulphides decompose
at the water table, resulting in a sharp drop in
pH which, in turn, promotes the decomposition
of serpentine and carbonates. Above the water
table, where the mineralogy is dominated by
goethite, the pH increases again, promoting the
local deposition of carbonates. Near-surface
silicification is attributed to deposition of silica
from
silicic
acid
generated
by
the

Cu2CO3(OH)2.
Cu2O,
Cu.Fe2O3(OH)
Cleaner concentration of CVD concentrate via various
methods indicated final recoveries to cleaner concentrate
of +/-50-60% Au, 30-40% Ag, +/-75% Pb and +/-25% Cu &
Zn to 10% mass yield. Concentrate grades were of the
order of 40g/t Au, >200g/t Ag, 11% Pb, 2.7% Cu and 3.4%
Zn. Beyond this mass pull (i.e.>10% mass) gravity
recovery of all metals was essentially proportional to mass
yield (i.e. unit slope). It seems therefore that scavenger
flotation may be required subsequent to CVD processing in
order to maximise recovery; testing of this flowsheet
yielded overall recoveries in excess of 94% for all metals.
Overall mass yield was +/-47% (37% via CVD gravity, 10%
via flotation). Flotation was rapid and froth was barren
within 7 minutes. Regrinding beyond the grind suitable for
CVD (250um) was not beneficial to flotation performance

The mineralogy of the ore will


determine the best recovery
process and that metallurgical
testing is almost always
required to optimize a
recovery flowsheet.
Thats Why we need a good
cooperation between
metallurgist and geologist

Purpose of GEOMEtalurgY
Evaluation

Source DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PROCESSING OF REFRACTORY & COMPLEX GOLD ORES


Presented by Alan Taylor ALTA Metallurgical Services, Melbourne

Exploration to Mine Decision

Desktop
Study

Exploration
Permit and
Clearance

General Geology
IUP Application
Forestry Statues
IPPKH Expl
Landuse
Socialization
Coal /Mineral Potential

General
Exploration

Detail
Exploration

Mapping (geology
and Geophysical)
Trenching
Test Pitting
Soil Sampling
Database
Scout Drilling
Pre metallurgy test

Drilling
-Scout Drilling
-Resource Drilling
-Reserve Drilling
Scooping Study
Ore Definition
Bulk Sampling Test
Metalurgical Test
Geotechnical Test

Modeling
Resource
Calculation

Geology Model
-Lithology / Seam
-Quality
-Alteration
-Density
-Geotechnical
Resource Calculation
-Inferred
-Indicated
-Measure

Pre -Feasibility
and reserve
calculation

Pre - Feasibility Study


-Metalurgycal Mapping
-Infrastructure Assesment
-Enviromental Assesment
-Pre Design Criteria
-Modifyng Factor Recognize
-Pre design pit LOM
Reserve Calculation
-Proven
-Probable

Purpose of GEOMEtalurgY
Evaluation

Scoping
Study/PE
A

Prefeasib
ility
Study

Feasibilit
y Study

Detailed
Design &
Engineerin
g

MINERALOGY IS KEY TO A BETTER


UNDERSTANDING THE BEST WAY TO EXTRACT
MINERALS

GeoMetalurgical Test

Sample Selection: Spatially , grade and lithologically representative,


Master Composite(s), variability ore composites.

Head Characterisation: Assays & trace element scans.

Mineralogy: Automated mineralogy (QEMSCAN - Quantitative


Evaluation of Materials by Scanning Electron Microscopy) is best for
base metals. Optical/D-SIMS best for gold for visible/refractory gold
respectively.

Metallurgical Testwork

Bottle Roll Test


Column Test

Metallurgical Mapping

Where is the gold ????

Champagne pool new zeala

Gold concentrations in the water


topped 20 parts per billion and
silver concentrations reached
2,000 or more parts per billion

GOLD ORE

GOLD ORE
FREE GOLD
OXIDE ORE
GOLD LOCKED IN SULPHIDE OR OTHER
MINERAL (REFRACTORY)

GOLD EXTRACTION
Cyanidation processes may include the
following operations:

Agitated tank leaching


Heap leaching
Carbon adsorption recovery
Zinc precipitation recovery
Electro-winning

Carbon adsorption recovery may include the


following alternatives:

Carbon-In-Pulp (CIP)
Carbon-In-Leach (CIL)
Carbon-In-Column (CIC) alternative for carbon
resin

Source : Denver Mineral Engineers

GOLD EXTRACTION
Refractory ore processing methods
almost always serve only one
purpose, to treat ores that will not
liberate their values by conventional
cyanide leaching. The refractory ore
treatment process is then followed by
a conventional cyanidation step.
Refractory ore processing methods
include:

Bioleaching
Autoclaving (pressure oxidation)
Roasting
Clorination
Pre-oxidation
Lime/caustic pretreatment
New Development : ALBION Process
ultra fine grinding 10-12 m and

As a geologist we need to know the way to


liberate the metal from the rock

The major categories of commercially


viable recovery processes include the
following:

Gravity separation
Flotation
Cyanidation
Refractory ore processing
Alternative lixiviants
Amalgamation

LEAD TO BEST EXPLORATION


METHOD ??????

GOLD EXTRACTION
FREE AND OXIDE GOLD

Leaching

Source DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PROCESSING OF REFRACTORY & COMPLEX GOLD ORES


Presented by Alan Taylor ALTA Metallurgical Services, Melbourne

GOLD EXTRACTION
OXIDE AND SULPHIDES GOLD

GOLD EXTRACTION REFRACTORY


GOLD

Heap Leaching for Oxide Ore

Modified from
Robertson et al
-2005

Applying Geometalurgy in Practice

1) Collection of geological data through drilling, drill core logging, measurements,


rock mechanical analyses, petrophysical parameters and chemical analyses.
2) An ore sampling program for metallurgical testing where geological data is used in
the identification of preferred locations for the samples.
3) Laboratory testing of these samples in order to extract process model parameters
(sometimes called ore variability testing).
4) Checking the metallurgical validity of the geological ore-type definitions and, where
necessary, developing new ore-type definitions called geometallurgical domains.
5) Developing mathematical relationships for the estimation of important metallurgical
parameters across the geological database.
6) Developing a metallurgical model of the process. The model consists of unit
operations which use the metallurgical parameters defined above.
7) Plant simulation using the metallurgical process model and the distributed
metallurgical parameters as the data set.
8) Calibration of the models via benchmarking for existing operations

From Geometallurgy A tool for better resource Efficiency by Cecilia Lund* and Pertti Lamberg

Geologist Task

Metallurgical familiarisation with the geology and mineralogy


Provisional valuation of the mineralisation to determine
whatmight be realistically extracted
Selection of drill type and core sizes for metallurgical samples
Establishment of core logging criteria for metallurgical
purposes
Establishment of the drill core assays required
Metallurgical review of data from drill logs
Selection of samples for mineralogical examination
Delineation of all the different types or zones of mineralisation
Provision of metallurgical data for cut-off grade calculations
Retention of suitable samples for metallurgical test work
Selection of representative samples for metallurgical test work

Geologist Task
Logging note mineralogical variation and percentage (include
mineral and gangue), lithology and alteration, competency, oxidation
etc
Assays assyas for potential ore and gangue, different potential
extraction (AuFA-AuCn, Cu-CuCn), potential high penalty (Hg, Bi, As,
Sb etc)
Drilling
Selection of Drilling Methode Not RC, Highest possible size. Twin hole is
best
Selection of target ore or zone sample variation (by lithology, grade,
alteration, oxidation etc)
Drilling Aids use of oil, grease, foam, cement, mud etc
Drying Drill Core not High temp but low are acceptable under
Metallurgist supervision
Core Processing dont crush, full core if possible, good quality bag
Core Storage - carefully storage, prevent from Oxidation, water,

Geometallurgy Domain Model


Develop geometallurgy domain base on data collection in the database,

Geologist Task
(Sampling)
Each mineable sample intercept should be

Have variaton on different type of ore /zones


Falls within pit limit
Appropriate amounts ofmining dilution
Equal or higher than cut off grade
Check with mineralogist for ore types classification

Each Composite should be subjected to


mineralogical examination

Verify all mineral present and estimated proportion


Determine potential economic significant
Ascertain the range of grain size on mineral economic
Establish degree of locking meneragraphy
Identify any problems during metallurgical evaluation

SUCCESS KEY for


OPTIMUM PROCESS
GOOD MINERALOGY UNDERSTANDING
GOOD METALLURGICAL MAPPING

THANK YOU