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# Energy and Process 1

Semester 1:
1st quarter: Introduction to fluid mechanics
2nd quarter: Introduction to thermodynamics

## Lecturers: Hamid Hosseini

Koos van Paassen

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Book:
Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences
engel, Cimbala and Turner
4th edition (SI-units)
Mc Graw Hill
ISBN 978-007-132511-0

## The metric SI (International System)

Length meter
[m]
Mass
kilogram [kg]
Time
second [s]
Temperature Kelvin
[K]
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Subjects week 1
Chapter 1
Introduction to thermal-fluid sciences
Fluid mechanics
Chapter 2
Pressure

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## Introduction thermal-fluid sciences

Thermal-fluid sciences deal with:
Energy
Transfer, transport and conversion of energy
Subcategories:
Thermodynamics
Heat transfer
Fluid mechanics

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## Introduction thermal-fluid sciences

Design and analysis of thermal systems

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## Part 1 Fluid mechanics (EP1T1)

Week

Part

C1

Theory

C2
C3
C4
C5
C6

Subject
Basic concepts: pressure, the manometer, the
barometer and atmospheric pressure;
Mass and analysis of control volumes:
conservation of mass;
Bernoulli and the energy equations: the Bernoulli
equation, general energy equation, energy analysis
of steady flows;

C7
Practical Flow test: Bernoullis principle
S1/S2

Exam

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Fluid mechanics
Fluid mechanics:
science that deals with the behaviour of
fluids at rest (Fluid Statics)
fluids in motion (Fluid Dynamics)
Fluid: liquid or gas

Daniel Bernoulli
(1700-1782)

## Important characteristic of the fluid: compressibility

The focus will be on incompressible fluids,
i.e. liquids, or gases at low speeds
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Fluid statics
Pressure: the normal force excerted (by a fluid) per unit area

F
P
A

N
m2

## Pascals law: The pressure applied to a confined fluid

increases the pressure throughout by the same amount
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Pressure
F
P
A

N
m2

Standard unit:

Other units:

Pa = 1 N/m2
1 kPa kilopascal (103 Pa)
1 MPa megapascal (106 Pa)
1 bar = 105 Pa
1 mbar = 10-3 bar = 100 Pa = 1 hPa
1 atm = 1.0135 bar = 101,325 Pa

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Weather chart

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Atmospheric pressures
in mbar = hPa13

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## Absolute pressure / gage pressure

Absolute pressure (Pabs)
Is measured relative to the absolute vacuum
Gage pressure (Pgage) and vacuum pressure (Pvac) are
measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure (Patm)

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## Absolute pressure / gage pressure

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Example problem
g = 9.81 m/s2
Patm

Open to
atmosphere

Answers:
P = 1387 N/m2
Pabs,A = 1.038105 Pa
Pgage,A = 1387 Pa

Determine:
the force exerted on the fluid by the piston in N/m 2,
the absolute pressure in A, the gage pressure in A
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Pascals law
Pascals law: the pressure applied to a fluid increases the
pressure throughout by the same amount

P1 P2
F1 F2

A1 A2

F2 A2

F1 A1

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Hydraulic systems

Force is transferred by
means
of an hydraulic fluid
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## Variation of pressure with depth

Change of pressure in a fluid with elevation:
density of the fluid

P gz

kg/m 3

z elevation m

## Valid for liquids and gases,

but effect in gases is often negligible
Pressure in a liquid at rest (absolute pressure):

P Patm gh

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## Variation of pressure with depth

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Example problem
Pressure in a liquid at rest:

P Patm gh

Patm

Closed-off

Determine:
absolute pressure in point A
gage pressure in point A
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## Video: car in wind tunnel

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Homework
Theory chapter 1
1-1 Introduction to thermal-fluid sciences
1-4 Fluid mechanics
Theory chapter 2:
2-7 Pressure

Problems:
2-23C 2-24C 2-25C 2-26C 2-27C
2-28 2-29 2-34 2-37 2-40 2-43 2-44
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