You are on page 1of 24

Energy and Process 1

Semester 1:
1st quarter: Introduction to fluid mechanics
2nd quarter: Introduction to thermodynamics

Lecturers: Hamid Hosseini


Koos van Paassen

EP1T1 - wk1

Book:
Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences
engel, Cimbala and Turner
4th edition (SI-units)
Mc Graw Hill
ISBN 978-007-132511-0

The metric SI (International System)


Length meter
[m]
Mass
kilogram [kg]
Time
second [s]
Temperature Kelvin
[K]
EP1T1 - wk1

Subjects week 1
Chapter 1
Introduction to thermal-fluid sciences
Fluid mechanics
Chapter 2
Pressure

EP1T1 - wk1

Introduction thermal-fluid sciences


Thermal-fluid sciences deal with:
Energy
Transfer, transport and conversion of energy
Subcategories:
Thermodynamics
Heat transfer
Fluid mechanics

Application: design and analysis of thermal systems


EP1T1 - wk1

Introduction thermal-fluid sciences


Design and analysis of thermal systems

Integrated design approach

Example: automotive cooling system


EP1T1 - wk1

Introduction thermal-fluid sciences

Heat management: cooling system


EP1T1 - wk1

Introduction thermal-fluid sciences

Industrial installations: air conditioning


EP1T1 - wk1

Part 1 Fluid mechanics (EP1T1)


Week

Part

C1

Theory

C2
C3
C4
C5
C6

Subject
Basic concepts: pressure, the manometer, the
barometer and atmospheric pressure;
Mass and analysis of control volumes:
conservation of mass;
Bernoulli and the energy equations: the Bernoulli
equation, general energy equation, energy analysis
of steady flows;

C7
Practical Flow test: Bernoullis principle
S1/S2

Exam

EP1T1

EP1T1 - wk1

Fluid mechanics
Fluid mechanics:
science that deals with the behaviour of
fluids at rest (Fluid Statics)
fluids in motion (Fluid Dynamics)
Fluid: liquid or gas

Daniel Bernoulli
(1700-1782)

Important characteristic of the fluid: compressibility


The focus will be on incompressible fluids,
i.e. liquids, or gases at low speeds
EP1T1 - wk1

EP1T1 - wk1

10

Fluid statics
Pressure: the normal force excerted (by a fluid) per unit area

F
P
A

N
m2

Pascals law: The pressure applied to a confined fluid


increases the pressure throughout by the same amount
EP1T1 - wk1

11

Pressure
F
P
A

N
m2

Standard unit:

Other units:

Pa = 1 N/m2
1 kPa kilopascal (103 Pa)
1 MPa megapascal (106 Pa)
1 bar = 105 Pa
1 mbar = 10-3 bar = 100 Pa = 1 hPa
1 atm = 1.0135 bar = 101,325 Pa

EP1T1 - wk1

12

Weather chart

EP1T1 - wk1

Atmospheric pressures
in mbar = hPa13

Absolute pressure / gage pressure

What pressure is measured?


EP1T1 - wk1

14

Absolute pressure / gage pressure


Absolute pressure (Pabs)
Is measured relative to the absolute vacuum
Gage pressure (Pgage) and vacuum pressure (Pvac) are
measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure (Patm)

Pgage Pabs Patm

(when Pabs is above atmospheric)

Pvac Patm Pabs

(when Pabs is below atmospheric)

EP1T1 - wk1

15

Absolute pressure / gage pressure

EP1T1 - wk1

16

Example problem
g = 9.81 m/s2
Patm

Open to
atmosphere

Answers:
P = 1387 N/m2
Pabs,A = 1.038105 Pa
Pgage,A = 1387 Pa

Determine:
the force exerted on the fluid by the piston in N/m 2,
the absolute pressure in A, the gage pressure in A
EP1T1 - wk1

17

Pascals law
Pascals law: the pressure applied to a fluid increases the
pressure throughout by the same amount

P1 P2
F1 F2

A1 A2

F2 A2

F1 A1

EP1T1 - wk1

18

Hydraulic systems

Force is transferred by
means
of an hydraulic fluid
EP1T1
- wk1

19

Variation of pressure with depth


Change of pressure in a fluid with elevation:
density of the fluid

P gz

kg/m 3

g gravitational acceleration m/s 2


z elevation m

Valid for liquids and gases,


but effect in gases is often negligible
Pressure in a liquid at rest (absolute pressure):

P Patm gh

distance to free surface

Assumption: density is constant


EP1T1 - wk1

20

Variation of pressure with depth

EP1T1 - wk1

21

Example problem
Pressure in a liquid at rest:

P Patm gh

Patm

Closed-off

Determine:
absolute pressure in point A
gage pressure in point A
EP1T1 - wk1

22

Car testing in a wind tunnel

Video: car in wind tunnel

EP1T1 - wk1

23

Homework
Theory chapter 1
1-1 Introduction to thermal-fluid sciences
1-4 Fluid mechanics
Theory chapter 2:
2-7 Pressure

Problems:
2-23C 2-24C 2-25C 2-26C 2-27C
2-28 2-29 2-34 2-37 2-40 2-43 2-44
EP1T1 - wk1

24