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Original Title: EP1T1 Week 1 2016E

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Semester 1:

1st quarter: Introduction to fluid mechanics

2nd quarter: Introduction to thermodynamics

Koos van Paassen

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Book:

Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences

engel, Cimbala and Turner

4th edition (SI-units)

Mc Graw Hill

ISBN 978-007-132511-0

Length meter

[m]

Mass

kilogram [kg]

Time

second [s]

Temperature Kelvin

[K]

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Subjects week 1

Chapter 1

Introduction to thermal-fluid sciences

Fluid mechanics

Chapter 2

Pressure

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Thermal-fluid sciences deal with:

Energy

Transfer, transport and conversion of energy

Subcategories:

Thermodynamics

Heat transfer

Fluid mechanics

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Design and analysis of thermal systems

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Week

Part

C1

Theory

C2

C3

C4

C5

C6

Subject

Basic concepts: pressure, the manometer, the

barometer and atmospheric pressure;

Mass and analysis of control volumes:

conservation of mass;

Bernoulli and the energy equations: the Bernoulli

equation, general energy equation, energy analysis

of steady flows;

C7

Practical Flow test: Bernoullis principle

S1/S2

Exam

EP1T1

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Fluid mechanics

Fluid mechanics:

science that deals with the behaviour of

fluids at rest (Fluid Statics)

fluids in motion (Fluid Dynamics)

Fluid: liquid or gas

Daniel Bernoulli

(1700-1782)

The focus will be on incompressible fluids,

i.e. liquids, or gases at low speeds

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10

Fluid statics

Pressure: the normal force excerted (by a fluid) per unit area

F

P

A

N

m2

increases the pressure throughout by the same amount

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11

Pressure

F

P

A

N

m2

Standard unit:

Other units:

Pa = 1 N/m2

1 kPa kilopascal (103 Pa)

1 MPa megapascal (106 Pa)

1 bar = 105 Pa

1 mbar = 10-3 bar = 100 Pa = 1 hPa

1 atm = 1.0135 bar = 101,325 Pa

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12

Weather chart

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Atmospheric pressures

in mbar = hPa13

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14

Absolute pressure (Pabs)

Is measured relative to the absolute vacuum

Gage pressure (Pgage) and vacuum pressure (Pvac) are

measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure (Patm)

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15

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Example problem

g = 9.81 m/s2

Patm

Open to

atmosphere

Answers:

P = 1387 N/m2

Pabs,A = 1.038105 Pa

Pgage,A = 1387 Pa

Determine:

the force exerted on the fluid by the piston in N/m 2,

the absolute pressure in A, the gage pressure in A

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17

Pascals law

Pascals law: the pressure applied to a fluid increases the

pressure throughout by the same amount

P1 P2

F1 F2

A1 A2

F2 A2

F1 A1

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18

Hydraulic systems

Force is transferred by

means

of an hydraulic fluid

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- wk1

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Change of pressure in a fluid with elevation:

density of the fluid

P gz

kg/m 3

z elevation m

but effect in gases is often negligible

Pressure in a liquid at rest (absolute pressure):

P Patm gh

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20

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21

Example problem

Pressure in a liquid at rest:

P Patm gh

Patm

Closed-off

Determine:

absolute pressure in point A

gage pressure in point A

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22

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23

Homework

Theory chapter 1

1-1 Introduction to thermal-fluid sciences

1-4 Fluid mechanics

Theory chapter 2:

2-7 Pressure

Problems:

2-23C 2-24C 2-25C 2-26C 2-27C

2-28 2-29 2-34 2-37 2-40 2-43 2-44

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24

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