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ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF USING HIGH(ER)

EFFICIENCY TRANSFORMERS IN LOW


LOAD CONDITIONS
Florida Electrical Cooperative Association Statewide Engineers Conference
Clearwater, Florida
June 11, 2014

David Nathasingh & Paul Ryan


Metglas Inc

INTRODUCTION
Transformer Efficiency Varies As a Function of
Load Conditions
Low No Load Loss (Core Loss) Transformers
Perform Best When Loading is <50%
DOE Compliant Amorphous Metal and Silicon
Steel Transformers Have Different Efficiency
Levels When Loading <50%
*Low No Load Loss Transformers May Cost More
But are More Economical to Operate in Both the
Short and Long Term
*Depending on specification level, first-cost can be lower or higher

Core Materials Used in High(er) Efficiency


Transformers
Saturation Magnetization

Silicon Steel

Amorphous Metal

Core Losses

Amorphous Metal

CASE 1
TOBACCO FARM South Carolina
Two Curing Barns
Curing Period August Thru September
DOE 75 kVA Single Phase Polemount Amorphous Metal and Silicon Steel
Transformers
Transformers Idle for 10 months; Loaded for 2 months
Average Load of Transformers <50%

CASE 2
WINDFARM California
Farm With 70 Turbines
2600 kVA Generator Step Up Amorphous Metal and Silicon Steel
Transformers
83% Annual Turbine/Transformer Loading 37.5%

DEFINITIONS

DOE Transformer Transformer manufactured to meet DOE Minimum Efficiency Standards


72CFR-58190. Designed for an average loading of 50%.
Generator Step Up Transformer (GSU) Used on Wind Farms to step up turbine voltage of
690V to 34,500V. They are sized to meet peak turbine output and NOT governed by DOE Minimum
Efficiency Standards.
Higher Efficiency Transformer Transformer optimized to minimize core losses no load
losses. Efficiency higher than DOE current Standards.
Capitalized Losses Cost of losses over the life of the transformer.
Total Owning Costs Capitalized Losses + Purchase Price of Transformer.
Present Value of Losses Future cost of losses in todays dollars.

CASE 1 TOBACCO FARM


Test Procedure
Use Amorphous Metal and Silicon Steel
Transformers Made To DOE Standards
Record load Currents and Voltages For
Parts of Curing Period And Idle Period
Use One Curing Period Data to Calculate
Losses During Entire Curing Period
Use 2 Week Idle Period Data to Calculate
Losses During Rest of Year

The efficiency levels in each TSL can be characterized as follows:

Baseline is our existing required efficiency.

TSL 1 represents an increase in efficiency where a diversity of electrical steels


are cost-competitive and economically feasible for all design lines. (DOE settled
on this)

TSL 2 represents EL1 for all design lines

TSL 3 represents the maximum efficiency level achievable with M3 core steel.

TSL 4 represents the maximum net present value (NPV) with 7 percent
discounting.

TSL 5 represents EL 3 for all design lines. (Advocates wanted this)

TSL 6 represents the maximum source energy savings with positive NPV with 7
% discounting.

TSL 7 represents the maximum technologically feasible level.

75 kVA TRANSFORMERS USED IN STUDY


DOE Standard 72 CFR 58190
Average Loading 50%
Minimum Efficiency 99.17%
Core
Material

No Load
Loss
(Watts)

Load
Loss
(Watts)

%IX

%IR

DOE Efficiency
(%)

Est
Transformer
Price ($)

Amorphous

34

1181

2.85

1.58

99.20

1550

Silicon Steel

128

704

1.79

0.94

99.23

1400

AMORPHOUS METAL TRANSFORMER


No Load and Load Loss During Idle Time

SILICON STEEL TRANSFORMER


No Load and Load Loss During Idle Time

AMORPHOUS METAL TRANSFORMER


No Load and Load Loss During Typical Curing Cycle

SILICON STEEL TRANSFORMER


No Load and Load Loss During Typical Curing Cycle

ANNUAL LOSSES
kWh

kWh

kWh

Core

Coil
Idle

Coil
Loaded

AM

311

5.9

870

1187

SiFe

1162

3.7

576

1742

AM-Sw

311

6.1

957

1274

SiFe-Sw

1162

3.6

523

1689

Sw Transformers rotated between Loads

kWh
Total

Loss Ratio
AM/SiFe

0.68%

0.75%

ANNUAL LOSSES
kWh
Core

kWh

kWh

kWh

Coil-Idle Coil-Loaded Total

AM

311

SiFe

1162

3.7

576

1742

AM-Sw

311

6.1

957

1274

SiFe-Sw

1162

5.9

3.6

Sw Transformers rotated between Loads

870

523

Delta

1187

1689

555
kWh

415
kWh

TOBACCO STUDY CONCLUSION


DOE Amorphous Metal Transformer had 25-32% less losses over
one year

DOE Amorphous Transformer saves 0.68-0.75% of the total load


delivered to Curing Barns

Both DOE Transformers have the same efficiency at 50% Load. BUT
at Loads <50%, Amorphous Transformer exhibits higher efficiency
than Silicon Steel. NOTE: 50% AVG load is not realistic. DOE data
indicated the national AVG to be 33%.

Savings equate to about $1,500 over 30 year Transformer life.


Simple Payback ~ 2.5 Years.

CASE 2 WIND FARM


Financial Analysis
Amorphous Metal and Silicon Steel
Transformers Designed for Lowest Total
Owning Costs (TOC)
Use Transformer Average Loading Data
from California Wind Farm Analysis
Use Average Loading of 37.5% to
Calculate Economic Benefit

No established Wind Farms


---- Wind Maps---Source : American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)

Wind Power Installations


Production Tax Credit
Expired ($0.02 kWh)

Source: American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)

690v to 34.5kV

Wind Energy Case Study


Generation Profile
83% annual

Base case
generation profile
based on actual
wind site in the
United States

83% generation hours


at or less than
37.5% of generation
capacity

turbine output <


37.5%

Its been reported that


most wind sites
operate on average
at less than 50% of
capacity during the
year (EIA Data)

Buying power from the grid @


3 times wholesale to keep
Collector network energized.

ABB Group

GENERATOR STEP UP (GSU) TRANSFORMERS USED IN STUDY


SILICON STEEL
Avera
ge
Loadin

Losses
(W)
g

(W)
(%)

100

87.5
2,600 34,500 3,966 20,816 62.5

690

37.5

12.5

0
kVA

V1, V2

No
Load

Load
Losses

Effective
Load
Losses
(W)
20,816
15,937
8,131
2,927
325
0

Total
Losses

% No
Load

(W)

of Total
Losses
16
19.9
32.8
57.5
92.4
100

24,782
19,903
12,097
6,893
4,291
3,966

AMORPHOUS METAL
Avera
ge
Loadin

Losses
(W)
g

(W)
(%)

100

87.5
2,600 34,500 745 22,194 62.5

690

37.5

12.5

0
kVA

Data Courtesy ABB Group

V1, V2

No
Load

Load
Losses

Effective
Load
Losses
(W)
22,194
16,992
8,670
3,121
347
0

Total
Losses

% No
Load

(W)

of Total
Losses
3.2
4.2
7.9
19.3
92.4
100

22,939
17,737
9,415
2,866
1,092
745

COSTS of LOSSES - Annual & PV 6%


and 20 Year Life
Silicon Steel
Transformer
Load
Factor

Total
Losses

kWh/yr

Energy
Present
Costs ($) Value
@$0.065/kW
h
$

100
87.5
62.5

24,782
19,903
12,097

217,090
174,352
105,972

14,111
11,333
6,888

161,851
129,988
79,007

37.5
12.5

6,893
4,291

60,385
37,591

3,925
2,443

45,020
28,026

0.0

3,966

34,742

2,258

25,902

Amorphous Metal
Transformer
Load
Factor

Total
Losses

100
87.5
62.5

37.5
12.5

Data Courtesy ABB Group

0.0

kWh/yr

Energy
Present
Costs ($) Value
@$0.065/kW
h
$

22,949
17,737
9,415

200,946
155,379
82,471

13,061
10,100
5,361

149,814
115,842
61,486

3,866
1,092

33,866
9,564

2,201
622

25,249
7,130

745

6,526

414

4,866

$0.065/ kWh estimated to Generate,Transmit and Distribute

FINANCIAL ANALYSIS
(Average Loading 12.5-37.5%)

ABB 2600 kVA GSU

Simple Payback

Price Difference
$6,400
Annual Energy Savings $1,724 1,821
Payback

~3.5 YRS

Present Value 6%, 20 YRS


Silicon Steel COL
$25,249 45,020
Amorphous Metal COL $ 7,130 28,026
Difference
$19,771 20,896
Amorphous Metal Transformer Price : $38,400
Silicon Steel Transformer Price
: $32,000
Price Difference : $ 6,400
2011 Pricing

Transformer Price

-$6,400

Amorphous Metal Costs $13,371 - 14,496


Less to Operate in Todays Dollars

Wind Farm Study Conclusion


Transformer Efficiency Determined by Turbine Output - Loading Profiles
Show Average Loading 50%. Actual US Avg 12.5%.
Low Core Loss Amorphous Metal Transformers Are More Efficient Than
Silicon Steel Transformers Under These Low Load Conditions.
Amorphous Metal Transformers May Have a Higher Initial Cost But
Payback is ~3.5 Years.
Annual savings equivalent to about 2% of expired Federal Production Tax
Credit.
Not Economical to Purchase Off The Shelf Transformers When Average
Loading 50%.

FINAL THOUGHTS

COOPs tend to have Lower Loading profiles than MUNIs or IOUs.


Higher Efficiency (Low Core Loss) transformers should be
considered as part of installation mix.

The Rural Utility Service (RUS) will offer 30 year loans @2% to
purchase Amorphous Metal transformers.

Generation of Renewable Energy tend to be more expensive. Use


of Higher Efficiency transfomers during distribution would improve
economics.

Transformer Efficiency is the starting point. Average Loading takes it


to the next economic level.

Thermal Parameters During Curing Cycle

Load Current During Curing Cycle