0 Голоса «за»0 Голоса «против»

Просмотров: 87133 стр.mass transfer notes - collage

Oct 23, 2016

© © All Rights Reserved

PPTX, PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

mass transfer notes - collage

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 87

mass transfer notes - collage

© All Rights Reserved

- Extraction and Leaching 93851_14 A
- Physical Chemistry 3th Castellan
- UniSIm manual
- Problemsheet-Assgn3
- Design Review of Absorbers
- Mass transfer
- Binary Diffusion Coefficient 1
- A method to extend the domain of convergence for difﬁcult
- Dist
- 3_152
- Termodinamica Continua Revisao Bibliografica Final
- J. Marciak-Kozlowska and M. Kozlowski- On the Unified Description of the Attosecond Laser Pulse–Tissue Interaction
- A Crude Distillation Unit Model Suitable Foronline Applications
- Thermo Calc Version m for Pc
- 5 2 Carbon Storage Capacity Analysis
- Destilação Fracionada
- Tugas Termo Lanjut Ex. 8-13
- VFBD
- Untitled1.pdf
- Class Note 31

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 133

CHEE 3201

CHAPTER-1

INTRODUCTION

TO MASS TRANSFER

By

MR.C.MARIMUTHU

10/23/16

MASS

A

Mass

something weighs.

But

are (such as on the moon) while the mass stays

the same.

Mass

(Metric) and pounds (US units)

10/23/16

WEIGHT

"Heaviness".

gravity on an object.

Even

things, weight often uses the units of mass.

For example

grams, kilograms and, tones (Metric) and

pounds (US units)

1 Kilogram = 2.204 pounds.

10/23/16

Course Objective

The course should enable the student to

understand the fundamental Principles

and applications of Mass Transfer

10/23/16

Course Resources

Mass

McGraw Hill Book Company, Newyork, 3 rd Edition,

1981

Unit

Cabe, & Smith, McGraw Hill Book Company, New

york, 7th Ed., 2006

Transport

Principles, By Geankoplis, C.J., Prentice Hall of

India, New Delhi,2005 4th Edition

10/23/16

INTRODUCTION

Mass

Examples of Mass Transfer

Evaporation of liquid in an open pan

Diffusion of sugar added to coffee

Spreading of blue dye added to

water

Drying of wood and Clothes

migrates between the same phase

or to a different phase

10/23/16

INTRODUCTION

Occurrence of Mass Transfer

Concentration Gradient

Ceases at equilibrium

Need for Mass Transfer

Reacting

system

due

to

incomplete conversion

Separation of components from a

mixture

10/23/16

Operations

Mass

Transfer Operations

Depends on type of phases

involved

Phases

Mass

Transfer Operations

Types of

Operations

GasLiquid

Absorption,

Desorption,

Humidification,

Dehumidification, Distillation

Extraction

LiquidLiquid

SolidLeaching,

Liquid/G Desorption,

10/23/16

as

Crystallization

Adsorption,

Drying,

CHEE 3201, HCT MUSCAT

Flow

Contact between phases

Mass Transfer assisted by

Diffusion

Factors of Mass Transfer

One direction or two direction

motion

Heat and Chemical Reaction

Isothermal and non-Isothermal

10/23/16

Similarities in M T Operations

Attainment

of equilibrium

Mass transfer both by diffusion

and convection or turbulence

High rate of mass transfer with

high rate of deviation from

equilibrium

10/23/16

10

Distillation

It

is a Gas-Liquid Operation

Based on Thermal Energy

Depends on difference in volatility i.e.,

difference in vapor pressure

Example:

Separation of Crude into fractions

Separation of heaving boiling

components using steam

10/23/16

11

10/23/16

12

Gas Absorption

It

is a gas-liquid Operation

Useful for component separation from a

gaseous mixture

Needs a new Solvent

Separation depends on solubility of component

Example:

Separation of ammonia from ammonia air

mixture

Removal of hydrogen sulphide from

hydrocarbons by alkali solution

10/23/16

13

internals

10/23/16

14

Liquid Extraction

It

is a liquid-liquid operation.

It needs solvent which has preferential

solubility with one of the component.

Commonly used when separation is not

possible by distillation

Example:

Separation of penicillin from fermentation

Separation of acetic acid-water mixture

Separation of dioxane from water-dioxane

mixture

10/23/16

15

Extraction Column

10/23/16

16

10/23/16

17

Crystallization

It

is a liquid-solid separation

It needs a super saturated solution

and seed crystal

It provides uniform sized particles

from liquid phase

Example:

Sugar crystal from sugar solution

10/23/16

18

DRYING

It is a gas-solid operation

It is used for remove relatively

small amount of water from solid

material

Example:

Drying of paper pulp

10/23/16

19

10/23/16

20

Expression for Composition

Gram-mole or kg- mole

Weight fraction and Weight %

Mole fraction and Mole %

Partial Pressure

10/23/16

21

Transfer

quantity of material flow in mass

units per unit time

quantity of material flow in molar

units per unit time.

10/23/16

22

Expression of Composition

Gram

(grams or kg) of a substance that is numerically equal to

its molecular weight.

It

Weight

individual component to the total weight of the system. It

is denoted by x.

For

Weight%

10/23/16

23

Expression of Composition

the

moles

of

individual

component to the total moles of

the system. It is denoted by x.

1.0

A x 100

10/23/16

24

Expression of

Composition

Partial

pressure of a component gas that

is present in a mixture of gases in

the pressure that would be

exerted by that component if it

alone were present in the same

volume

and

at

the

same

pressure.

10/23/16

25

Problems

1.

of 2 gram moles of sulphur dioxide

to be used to manufacture sulphuric

acid in a 0.20 m3 of reactor.

2.

A gas mixture has the following

molar

composition 93.5% CH4, 4.6%

C2H6, 1.2%

C3H8 and 0.7% CO2

Calculate (a) Average molecular weight

of the gas mixture (b) weight fraction of

CH4 in the mixture.

10/23/16

26

(Basic Definitions)

Vapour Pressure: It is defined as the

absolute pressure at which the liquid and its

vapor are in equilibrium at a given

temperature.

Daltons Law

Raoults Law

Henrys Law

Phase Rule

10/23/16

27

It is the law based on Boyle law, Charles law and

Avogadro's hypothesis. It is obeyed by all gases at

low pressures.

Mathematically, an ideal gas law is given by

PV=nRT

Where,

P Pressure (kPa/psi)

V - Volume of gas ( m3/ft3)

N No of moles of gas (kg-mole/lb-mole)

R Universal Gas Constant= 8314Pam 3/kgmole K=

10.73psia ft3/lb mole 0R

10/23/16

28

Boyles law

Boyle's

describes how thepressureof agastends to

decrease as thevolumeof a gas increases.

A modern statement of Boyle's law is

The

gasis inversely proportional to thevolumeit occupies if

thetemperatureandamount of gasremain unchanged with in

aclosed system.

Mathematically, Boyle's law can be stated as

P x V= Constant

10/23/16

29

Boyles law

10/23/16

30

Charles's law

Charles's lawstates that if a

given quantity of gas is held at a

constant pressure, its volume is

directly

proportional

to

the

absolute temperature.

V/T =Constant

10/23/16

31

Avagadros hypothesis

Avogadro's

volumes of all gases, at the same

temperature and pressure, have the

same number of molecules".

For

volume and amount (moles) of the

gas are directly proportional if

thetemperatureandpressureare

constant.

10/23/16

32

Daltons Law

It states that total pressure of a gas mixture

is equal to partial pressure of gas

components.

Mathematically,

Pt = pA + pB + pc + .

where,

Pt = Total pressure exerted by the gaseous

mixture and pA, pB, pc= partial pressure of

component gases A, B and C

10/23/16

33

Raoults Law

It states that the equilibrium pressure

of component A is equal to the

product of the vapor pressure and

mole fraction of A in the liquid phase.

PA = P0A * xA

PA is also related to yA by equation

PA = y A P

yA is the mole fraction of A in the

gas phase.

10/23/16

34

Henrys Law

It is applicable for dilute gas liquid

solutions.

the concentration of gas dissolved in a

liquid and the equilibrium partial pressure

of the gas above the liquid surface.

OR

In other words, the solubility of a gas in

a liquid is directly proportional to the

partial pressure of the gas above the liquid.

10/23/16

35

Henrys Law

Mathematically, Henrys law is given as

PA = H x A

Where, H is Henrys law constant.

on temperature, solute and solvent.

in a liquid is inversely proportional to

Henrys constant.

Large value of Henrys constant

indicate small concentration of dissolved

gas in liquid.

10/23/16

36

Phase Rule

It is the relationship that governs all

heterogeneous equilibrium. It is given

by the relation

F= C-P+2

Where,

C = number of components

P = number of phases &

F= Number of degrees of freedom or

number of intensive variables

10/23/16

37

Phase Rule

The degrees of freedom for a system

can

be

temperature,

pressure,

composition that must be specified.

For a system, if degrees of freedom is

fixed, the remaining variables will get

fixed automatically

and makes a

completely defined system.

10/23/16

38

Diffusion

It

mixture from a region of higher concentration to a region

of lower concentration at fixed temperature and pressure

with or without the help of external force.

Molecular

motion of molecules.

Molecular

of molecules.

compared to liquid, rate of mass transfer is higher in

gases.

10/23/16

39

Diffusion(cont)

The

increased with the help of external forces

i.e., mechanical stirring.

Mechanical

movement to the fluid and hence is

called eddy or turbulent diffusion.

The

a slow process compared to eddy

diffusion.

10/23/16

40

Diffusion(cont)

The

molecular

diffusion

phenomena is usually considered

to take place in stationary fluid

i.e., fluid at rest and under

laminar flow.

Diffusion

can be altered by

changing the temperature and

pressure

conditions

in

the

system.

10/23/16

41

Transfer

Diffusion

Diffusion

phase or in both phases of a mass transfer operation.

For

example,

In

through the liquid phase to the interface phase

between the phases (liquid and vapor phases) and

away from the interface into the vapor phase. The

less volatile component diffuses in the opposite

direction and passes from the vapor phase to the

liquid phase.

10/23/16

42

Molecular diffusion

uniform concentration by diffusion.

concentration gradient exists.

operations, concentration gradient should

exist and mass transfer operation stops as

soon as concentration gradient goes to zero.

10/23/16

43

Velocities and Fluxes

Let

and B separated by an impermeable partition.

If,

diffuse into B and species B will diffuse in A and this will

continue till concentration of mixture becomes uniform

everywhere.

In

random motion of molecules. In the above condition the

rate of diffusion is governed by Ficks law of diffusion.

Ficks

in the same phase i.e., gas in gas, liquid in liquid etc.

10/23/16

44

Concentration

There

express the concentration of the

species in a multicomponent

system/mixture. The commonly

used

ways

to

express

concentration or concentration

gradient are mass concentration

and molar concentration.

10/23/16

45

Mass concentration:

It

of the solution (mixture). It is equivalent to

density of A and is designated as A.

For

component A and B,

= A + B

Where,

is the mass density of the solution or

mixture. It is also expressed in other terms

like w and wi also.

10/23/16

46

Molar concentration:

It is the number of moles of species A per unit

volume of the solution.

CA = A/MA

Where,

CA = Molar concentration of species A per unit

volume (moles/m3)

A = Mass concentration of species A per unit volume

(mass/m3)

MA = Molecular weight of component A (mass/mole)

10/23/16

47

Molar

concentration(cont):

For a binary mixture, total molar

concentration is

C = CA + C B

Where,

C= Total molar concentration (mole/m 3)

CA = Molar concentration of A (mole/m3)

CB = Molar concentration of B (mole/m 3)

10/23/16

48

Molar

concentration(cont):

It

a

gas

mixture,

to

determine

the

concentration

of species in a gas mixture ideal gas law

relation is used.

The

concentration of component is

expressed in terms of partial pressure.

We

10/23/16

49

Molar

concentration(cont):

Similarly for a component A

pAV = nART

OR

CA = nA/V = pA/RT

Where

pA - is the partial pressure of species A in the mixture,

nA- is the number of moles of A in the mixture,

V- is molar volume of the mixture,

T- is the absolute temperature and R is universal gas

constant.

10/23/16

50

Molar

concentration(cont):

Rewriting, in terms of mole fraction, xA

XA = CA/C = pA/RT/P/RT = pA/P

Where,

P is the total pressure exerted by the gas mixture.

Total

pressure is also expressed as Pt.

Also, Total concentration, C is

C = CA + CB = pA/RT + pB/RT = P/RT

10/23/16

51

Problem

3. A mixture of noble gases (helium, argon,

krypton and xenon) is at a total pressure of

100 kPa and a temperature of 200 K. If the

mixture has equal kmole fractions of each

of the gases,

a) determine Composition of the

mixture in terms of mass fractions.

(b) Total molar concentration of mixture.

(c) Mass density of the mixture .

10/23/16

52

Problem

4. Air is stored in a 30 m3 container at 340

K and 101.3 kPa is saturated with water

vapor. Partial pressure of water vapor is

27.35 kPa. Determine the following of the

gas mixture (Molecular Weight of Air =

28.97 and Molecular weight of water=18)

a) Mole fraction of the water vapor

b) Average molecular weight of the mixture

c) Total mass contained in the tank

d) Mass of water vapor in the tank

10/23/16

53

Velocities

In

chemical species exists and each of

the species have their own mobility.

The

velocity due to their difference in

mobility.

expressed in terms of bulk velocity.

10/23/16

54

Velocities(cont)

The

expressed in terms of average velocity.

In

average velocities are usually used viz.,

local mass average velocity and local

molar average velocity.

The

denoted by u and local molar average

velocity is denoted by U

10/23/16

55

Let us consider a mixture, where

number

of species = n. Let ui be the

velocity of

species

i

with

respect

to

stationary

coordinate system.

Then local

mass average

velocity is given by the relation.

10/23/16

56

Velocity(cont):

Where,

i = mass concentration of species I

ui = velocity of species I

i = total mass concentration

The term u gives the local rate at which

mass passes through a unit cross-section when

it is placed perpendicular to u.

For a binary system comprising species A and B

u = AuA +BuB/

10/23/16

57

Let us consider a mixture, where

number

of species = n. Let ui be the

velocity of

species

i

with

respect

to

stationary

coordinate system.

Then Local

molar

average velocity is given by the

relation

10/23/16

58

(cont):

The term, Cu is the local rate at

which moles pass through a unit

cross-section which is placed

perpendicular to U.

For

species A and B

U = CAuA+ CBuB/C

10/23/16

59

Diffusion Velocity

diffusion velocity of component in

a

mixture can be expressed either in

terms

of mass average velocity or molar

average

velocity.

1. mass diffusion velocity

2. molar diffusion velocity

10/23/16

60

The

velocity of the species relative to the local mass

average velocity of the mixture.

i.e.,

u = ui u

For

Mass

u = uA u

10/23/16

61

The

velocity of species with respect to relative

to the local molar velocity of the mixture

Molar

= ui- U

For

Molar

U =uA -U

10/23/16

62

Fluxes

The flux is defined as the rate of

transport

of species I per unit area in a

direction

normal to the transport. The flux

is

calculated with respect to a fixed

frame of

reference. In mass transfer the flux

can be

10/23/16

63

Mass Flux

The

the mass of the species i that pass

through a unit area per unit time.

The

fixed coordinates is given by

ni = iui

The

velocity u is given by

Ji = i (ui -u)

10/23/16

64

Molar Flux

It

passes through a unit area per unit time.

The

coordinates is given by

Ni= Ci ui

The

velocity U is given by

Ji = Ci (ui-U)

10/23/16

65

Binary system

The

component A and B only can be expressed as follows:

Mass

nA = A uA

nB = BuB

Mass fluxes of A and B relative to Mass average velocity (u) are

jA = A (uA u)

jB = B (uB u)

Molar fluxes of A and B with respect to stationary co-ordinates

NA = CAuA

NB = CBuB

Molar fluxes of A and B relative Molar average velocity (U) are

JA = CA (uA U)

JB = CB (uB U)

10/23/16

66

Inter-relationship with

various types of Fluxes

show that nA = xAni +jA

We know,

nA = AuA

= A (u+uA-u)

= Au + A (uA- u)

= Au + jA

To

We also know, xA = A/ or A = xA

Therefore,

nA = xA(u) +jA

We know,

ni =iui or ni = iui=u

nA = xAni +jA

10/23/16

67

Inter-relationship with

various types of Fluxes

To

We know,

NA = CAuA

=CA (U+uA-U)

= CAU + CA (uA-U)

NA = CAU + JA

We know,

CA =xA C

NA = xACU + JA

We Know,

Ni= Ciui or Ni=CiUi=CU

NA = xA(Ni) + JA

10/23/16

68

substance and the concentration gradient.

diffusion influences the process.

component A (diffusion flux of A) in z direction in a binary

mixture of A and B is proportional to the molar concentration

gradient.

diffusion coefficient.

10/23/16

69

Ficks law of

diffusion(cont)

Mathematically,

a binary mixture, Ficks law is denoted by

JAdCA /dZ

JA = - DABdCA /dZ

Where,

JA Molar flux of A in the direction of Z

CA -Concentration of A ( in moles of A per unit volume)[ kmol/m 3]

dCA/dZ is concentration gradient in the Z-direction

DAB = Molecular diffusivity or diffusion coefficient for component A

diffusing through B.

Z - Distance in the direction of diffusion in m.

The

a drop in concentration.

10/23/16

70

Diffusivity (DAB)

concentration gradient.

and is a function of the temperature, pressure, nature and

concentration of the other components.

collisions is less at lower pressure.

Further with increase in temperature diffusivity increases due to

increase in random motion of molecules.

10/23/16

71

Diffusion

If molecular diffusion occurs in

all the three directions, and

concentration of species in each

direction can be represented in

terms of mole fraction, then

Molar flux is represented by the

relation.

xA/z)

10/23/16

72

For

for an ideal gas obeys the relation

We know from Ficks law,

JA= -DABdCA/dz

Re arranging and integrating above equation

JA = - DAB

Applying the limit as

at section 1 : Z= Z1, CA = CA1

at section 2 : Z = Z2 CA = CA2

JA = - DAB

JA = DAB (CA!-CA2)/(z2-z1)

10/23/16

73

Molecular Diffusion in

Gases(cont):

For

an ideal gas,

PV = nRT

OR

n/V = P/RT = C

Where

n is kgmole of A plus B

V volume in m3

T is temperature in K

R =8314.3 Pa m3/kgmole K

If total pressure P is constant, and c is constant, then c can be expressed

as

C= n/v= p/RT or CA1 = nA1/V= pA1/RT

Hence,

JA = DAB (pA1-pA2)/RT (z2-z1)

It has been found that, for a binary gas mixture the diffusivity coefficient of

A

w.r.t B or diffusivity coefficient of B w.r.t A will be equal. i.e., DAB = DBA

10/23/16

74

Problems

1.

2.

3.

1 atm total pressure which is constant throughout. At one end

of pipe at point 1 the partial pressure p A1 of He is 0.60 atm and

at the other end 0.2m pA2 = 0.20 atm. Calculate the flux of He

at steady state if DAB of He-N2 mixture is 0.687 x 10-4 m2/s.

A gas of CH4 and He is contained in a tube at 101.32 kPa

pressure and 298 K. At point the partial pressure of methane is

pA1 = 60.72 kPa at a point 0.02 m distance away p A2 = 20.26

kPa. If the total pressure is constant through the tube, calculate

the flux of CH4 (methane) at steady state for equimolar counter

diffusion if DAB of CH4-He mixture is 0.675 x 10-4 m2/s.

Ammonia gas (A) is diffusing through a uniform tube 0.1m m

long containing N2 gas (B) at 1.0132 x 105 Pa and 298 K. At

point 1, pA1 = 1.013 x 104 Pa and at point 2, pA2 = 0.507 x 104

pa. The diffusivity of DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s. Calculate flux JA

and JB

10/23/16

75

convection

fluid and flux JA occurs due to concentration gradient.

observer, component A is moving faster than the bulk phase,

since diffusion velocity is added to bulk phase velocity.

to moving fluid and convective flux of A relative to the

stationary point.

NA = -DAB dCA/dz + xA (NA + NB) OR NA = JA +xA (NA+NB)

NA-Convective flux of A

10/23/16

76

Gases A and B along with convection (cont)

For convective diffusion

uA = uAd + uM

uA-Velocity of A relative a stationary point

uAd- diffusion velocity

uM- bulk phase velocity

Multiply with cA

cAuA = cAuAd + cAuM

NA=JA+cAuM

10/23/16

77

Diffusion of Gases A and B along

with convection (cont)

N = cum = NA+NB

um= NA+NB/c

NA = JA+cA/c * (NA+NB)

NA = JA +xA (NA+NB)

10/23/16

78

stagnant gas film or non diffusing B

In

steady state often occurs.

The

such as benzene (A) at the bottom of a narrow tube, where large amount of

inert or non-diffusing air (B) is passed over the top.

In

the above case, benzene vapor (A) diffuses through the Air (B) in the tube.

The

insoluble in benzene liquid.

Hence

At

point 2 the partial pressure pA2 = 0 since large volume of air is passing by.

10/23/16

79

10/23/16

80

Problem

4.

5.

temperature of 293 K. The total pressure of air (assumed

dry) is 1.0132 x 105Pa and the temperature is 293 K .

Water evaporates and diffuses through the air in the tube

and the diffusion path z2-z1 is 0.1524 m long. Calculate the

rate of evaporation at steady state in kgmol/m 2.s. The

diffusivity of water vapor at 293 K and 1 atm pressure is

0.250 x 10-4 m2/s. Assume the system is under isothermal

condition.

Methane gas is diffusing in a straight tube 0.1 m long

containing helium at 298 K and a total pressure of 1.01325 x

105 Pa. The partial pressure of CH4 at one end is 1.400 x 104

Pa and 1.33 x 103 Pa at the other end. Helium is insoluble in

one boundary, and hence is non-diffusing or stagnant. The

diffusivity coefficient is 0.675 x10 -4 m2/s. Calculate the flux

of methane in kgmol/m2.s at steady state

10/23/16

81

In

through which diffusion occurs has been constant with

varying distance Z.

But

convenient to define NAv = NA/A

Where,

NAv is flux for varying cross section;

NA = flux for constant area

A = cross sectional area.

The diffusion through varying cross section is normally

applied

for (a) Diffusion from a sphere and (b) Diffusion through a

conduit of non-uniform cross-sectional area.

10/23/16

83

10/23/16

84

Sphere

The final expression for the

diffusion of A from a sphere is

given by the relation given below:

NAV = NA/4r12 = DAB P/RTr1 *(pA1

A2)/pBM

10/23/16

85

r1 and at

point 2 radius is r2. At position Z in

the

conduit, for A diffusing through

stagnant,

non-diffusing B,

Taking,

rav =[(r2-r1)/(z2-z1)]z +r1

10/23/16

86

Problems

6.

7.

8.

large volume of still air at 318 K and 1.01325 x 105 Pa. The surface

temperature of naphthalene can be assumed to abe at 318 K and its

vapour pressure at 318 K is 0.555 mm Hg. The DAB of naphthalene in air

at 318 K is 6.92 x 10-6 m2/s. Calculate the rate of evaporation of

naphthalene from the surface.

Mass transfer is occurring from a sphere of naphthalene having a radius

of 10 mm. The sphere is in a large volume of still air at 52.6 0C and 1

atm abs pressure. The vapor pressure of naphthalene at 52.6 0C is 1.0

mm Hg. The diffusivity of naphthalene in air at 0 0C is 5.16 x 10-6 m2/s.

Calculate the rate of evaporation of naphthalene from the surface in

kgmol/s. m2.

The gas ammonia (A) is diffusing at steady state through N 2 (B) by equimolar counter diffusion in a conduit 1.22 m long at 25 0C and a total

pressure of 101.32 kPa abs. The partial pressure of ammonia at the left

end is 25.33 kPa and 5.066 KPa at the other end. The cross section of

the conduit is in the shape of an equilateral triangle the length of each

side of the triangle being 0.0610 m at the left end and tapering

uniformly to 0.0305 m at the right end. Calculate the molar flux of

ammonia. The diffusivity is DAB = 0.230 x 10-4 m2/s.

10/23/16

87

pressure, nature and concentration of other constituents.

moderate range of pressures upto 25 atm because

number of collisions between species is less at lower

pressure.

( DAB T1.5) because random thermal movement of

molecule increases with increase in temperature.

of 0.5 x 10-5 to 1.0 x 106 m2/s).

10/23/16

88

Diffusion Coefficient

The gas phase diffusion coefficient can be

determined by experimental methods or by

theoretical relations.

The popular method used to measure

gas diffusivity coefficient is

binary

(I)

with a gas passed over the top, in which the

all in liquid level is measured with time and

(II)

10/23/16

89

10/23/16

90

predict the

gas phase diffusion coefficient are

Chapman-Enskog equation

2. Fuller et al., equation.

1.

10/23/16

91

Chapman-Enskog equation

T is temperature in K

MA Molecular weight of A in kg mass/kg mol,

MB Molecular weight of B in kgmass/kg mol

P= Absolute pressure in atm.

AB = Average Collision diameter = (A + B)/2

D,AB = Collision integral based on Leonard Jones Potential

The collision integral D,AB is ratio giving the deviation of gas with

interactions compared to gas of rigid, elastic spheres. The value

would be 1.0 for a gas with no interactions. The above equation

predicts diffusivities with an average deviation of about 8% up to

about 1000K. This equation is considered slightly complicated due

to non availability of AB.

10/23/16

92

T is temperature in K,

MA, MBare molecular weights of A and B,

P is total pressure in bar and

VA and VB are atomic diffusion volume in

m3.

10/23/16

93

Table

10/23/16

94

problem

9.

thorugh air (B) at 1 atm abs.

Using the Fuller et al. method,

estimate the diffusivity DAB for

the following temperatures and

compare with experimental data

for 00C.

10/23/16

95

Liquid Diffusion

important in

separation

of

liquid-liquid

extraction, gas

absorption and distillation.

in

oxygenation of rivers and lakes

by air and

10/23/16

96

Rate

gases.

The

compared to gas.

Hence

molecules of liquid B more often and diffuse more slowly

than in gases.

diffusion in gases as

1.

2.

Equimolar counter diffusion.

10/23/16

97

This represents the most important type of diffusion in liquids. A

good example is separation of dilute solution of propionic acid (A) in

water

(B) solution being contacted with toluene, wherein only propionic acid

diffuses through water phase to boundary and then into toluene phase.

Taking

cav = P/RT and cA1= pA1/RT and xBM=pBM/RT

NA = DABcav/(z2-z1)xBM * (xA1- xA2)

Where,

xBM= xB2-xB1/ln(xB2/xB1)

We know,

xA1+xB1=xA2+xB2=1.0. For dilute solutions, xBM is close to 1.0 and c is

essentially constant. Then above equation simplifies to

NA = DAB (cA1-cA2)/(z2-z1)

10/23/16

98

Equimolar counterdiffusion

NA = DAB (cA1-cA2)/ (z2-z1) = DAB*cav* (xA1-xA2)/(z2-z1)

where

NA is the flux of A in kgmol A/s.m2;

DAB-the diffusivity of A in B m2/s;

cA1 is the concentration of A in kgmol A /m3 at point 1;

xA1 mole fraction of A at point 1,

cav = (/M)av = (1/M1+2/M2)/2

Where

cav is the average total concentration of A+B in kgmole/m 3,

M1 is the average molecular weight of the solution at point 1 in kg

mass/kg mol

1 the average density of solution in kg/m3 at point 1

10/23/16

99

Problems

10. An

film 2.0 mm thick at 293 K is in contact at one surface with

an organic solvent in which ethanol is soluble and water is

insoluble. Take NB=0. At point 1 the concentration of

ethanol is 16.8 wt% and solution density is 1 =972.8

kg/m3. At point 2, the concentration of ethanol is 6.8 wt%

and 2 = 988.1 kg/m3. The diffusivity of ethanol is 0.740x

10-9 m2/s. Calculate the steady state flux N A.

11. The solute HCl (A) is diffusing through a thin film of water

(B) 2.0 mm thick at 283 K. The concentration of HCl at

point 1 at one boundary of the film is 12.0 wt% HCl

(density 1 =1060.7 kg/m3) and at the other boundary at

point 2 it is 6.0wt% HCl (2=1030.3 kg/m3). The diffusion

coefficient of HCl in water is 2.5 x10 -9 m2/s. Assuming

steady state and one boundary impermeable to water

calculate flux of HCl in kgmol/s.m 2

10/23/16

10

Diffusion in Solids :

The

rates in liquids and gases.

In many processes such as drying, adsorption and

membrane separations require the contact of gases

or liquids with solids.

The mechanism of diffusion in solids plays an

important role in many processes such as

heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

The transport in solids by diffusion can be classified

into two types.

1.

2.

Diffusion in porous solids, where structure and void

channels play an important role.

10/23/16

10

solid which obey Ficks law:

If C is constant, and if diffusion of A through B is constant

and independent of pressure of solids and D AB =DBA then,

Expression for diffusion through solid slab

NA = DAB (CA1-CA2)/z2-z1

Expression for diffusion in radial direction through a

cylinder wall

Assuming the inner radius of cylinder is r1 and outer radius

is r2 and length of cylinder is L

NA= DAB (CA1-CA2) *(2L/ln(r2/r1)

10/23/16

10

which obey Ficks law (cont):

The concentration in the solid can be

determined by the relation

CA= SpA/22.414 kgmol A/m3 solid

Where

S is solubility of solute gas (A) in solid.

The units of S is m3 solid per atm partial

pressure of A

pA partial pressure of component A

10/23/16

10

that depend on Structure :

In diffusion in solids that depend on

structure, the structure of solid and

interaction with the solutes are

important

for the rate of diffusion.

10/23/16

10

liquids in porous solids:

In

assumed that solid have pore or interconnected

voids which affect diffusion.

For

liquid water and concentration of salt in water

at boundary 1 is CA1 and at point 2 is CA2.

The

void volume takes a tortuous path which is

unknown and greater than (z2-z1) by a factor

is called tortuosity.

10/23/16

10

liquids in porous solids (cont):

Diffusion does not occur in inert solid. For

dilute solution, the expression is

NA = DAB (CA1-CA2)/(z2-z1)

where

is the open void fraction,

DAB is the diffusivity of salt in water

is a factor which corrects for the path longer than

(z2-z1). The value of can vary from about 1.5 to

5.0.

Further,

DAeff = / DAB

10/23/16

10

Problem:

12. A

is porous with a void fraction of

0.30 and a tortuosity of 4.0. The

pores are filled with water at 298 K.

At one face the concentration of KCl

is held at 0.10 g mol/liter, and fresh

water flows rapidly by the other face.

Neglecting any other resistances

but that in the porous solid, calculate

the diffusion of KCl at steady state.

10/23/16

10

desired to increase the flux or mass transfer rate per unit

area of the equipment.

divided into three zones viz., laminar sub-layer, buffer

layer and turbulent flow.

In such a type of turbulent flow, the mass transfer rate

varies in these zones, it is difficult to predict the rate of mass

transfer in each of the zone and exactly estimate the rate of

the mass transfer in turbulent zone.

mass transfer exists in laminar sub layer.

10/23/16

10

Mass Transfer

Coefficient(cont):

For

resistance to mass transfer in other three

regions are of low magnitude, all the

resistance to mass transfer is considered

to be exist in laminar sub layer.

This

on thickness of the laminar sub layer.

This

mass transfer coefficient.

10/23/16

10

Mass Transfer

Coefficient(cont):

The

operations is denoted by the relation

ways, different types of mass transfer

coefficients are being used to estimate the flux.

Mass

the rate of mass transfer per unit area per

unit concentration difference.

10/23/16

11

coefficient:

For gaseous systems again

under turbulent flow conditions,

the diffusion phenomena is found

to obey to mechanisms viz.,

(a)Steady state diffusion of A

through non-diffusing B .

(b)Steady

state

Equimolar

counter diffusion.

10/23/16

11

of A through non-diffusing B

where,

10/23/16

11

and B

where,

10/23/16

11

Coefficient:

In a similar way, when mass transfer

is occurring in liquid phase systems

under turbulent flow conditions, the

diffusion phenomena is found to

follow two mechanisms viz.,

(a) diffusion

of component A through

non-diffusing B

(b) equimolar

counter diffusion.

10/23/16

11

B :

Or

Where

phase for diffusion of A through nondiffusing B.

10/23/16

11

and B under Equimolar counter diffusion:

Where

liquid phase.

10/23/16

11

in Mass Transfer:

The experimental data for mass transfer coefficients obtained

using various kinds of fluids, different velocities and different

geometries are correlated using dimensionless numbers.

Reynolds Number:

It is defined as ratio of inertia force to viscous force. It

indicates

the degree of turbulence

Re= Inertia force/Viscous force

Re = Du/

Where,

D is the Diameter of pipe (m)

u is the velocity of the fluid (m/s)

is the viscosity of the fluid (Pa.s)

10/23/16

11

Schmidt Number(Sc):

It is the ratio of momentum diffusivity to the diffusivity for

mass transfer DAB. It is used to characterize fluid flows in

which there is simultaneous momentum and mass

diffusion by convection process. It physically relates the

relative thickness of the hydrodynamic layer and mass

transfer boundary layer.

Sc = Viscous diffusion rate/ molecular(mass) diffusion rate

Sc=/DAB

where:

is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid (Pas or Ns/m or

kg/ms)

is the density of the fluid (kg/m).

DABis the mass diffusivity (m2/s).

It is analogous to Prandtl number in heat transfer.

10/23/16

11

Sherwood Number(Sh):

It is called the mass transfer Nusselt

number. It represents the ratio of

convective to diffusive mass transport.

Sh = Convective mass transfer

coefficient/Diffusive mass transfer

coefficient

Sh= kcL/D

where

L is a characteristic length (m)

D is mass diffusivity (m2.s1)

Kc is the mass transfer coefficient (m.s 1)

10/23/16

11

It is a dimensionless number. In practice, Stanton

number is defined in two different ways viz., in heat

transfer and mass transfer.

In heat transfer it measures the ratio of heat transferred

into a fluid to the thermal capacity of fluid. It is used to

characterize heat transfer in forced convection flows.

St=h/uCp

where

h = convectionheat transfer coefficient

= density of the fluid

cp = specific heat of the fluid

u = speed of the fluid

10/23/16

12

and Momentum Transfer:

can

be

classified

as

molecular

transport and combined molecular and

eddy transfer.

equation for molecular transport as

well as for turbulent transport. A great

similarity exists between molecular

transport and turbulent transfer.

10/23/16

12

process depends on driving force

and resistance.

Rate of transfer process = Driving

force/Resistance.

10/23/16

12

various analogies:

The various analogies used in

mass transfer are

Reynolds Analogy

2.

Chilton Colburn Analogy

Stanton Number (St):

3.

Taylor Prandtl Analogy

4.

Von Karman Analogy

1.

10/23/16

12

Characteristics of Reynolds

analogy:

The assumptions considered are

Only

Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are perfectly

matching.

All diffusivities are same

According

to Reynolds analogy

f/2 = h/Cpu0=kc/u0

Where,

f

= friction factor

h

= Convective heat transfer coefficient

Cp = Specific heat of fluid

uo= velocity of fluid at leading edge

kc= mass transfer coefficient

10/23/16

12

Characteristics of Colburn

Analogy:

The assumptions considered are

Only turbulent core is present

Velocity, temperature and concentration

profiles are same

Pr and Sc are not equal to unity

f/2=kc/u0 (Sc)2/3=h/Cpuo * Pr2/3

10/23/16

12

Assumptions considered are

Both

sub layer is present

Pr and Sc are not equal to unity

According to Taylor-Prandtl Analogy

kc/uo=h/Cpuo=(f/2)/[1+5{(f/2)0.5 (Sc-1)]=(f/2)/

[1+5(f/2)0.5(Pr-1)]

10/23/16

12

Characteristics of Von

Karman Analogy:

In this analogy, the assumptions considered are

presence

and buffer layer

universal velocity profile equations are

applicable

Pr and Sc are not equal to unity

In this analogy equation obtained is

kc/uo= f/2/{1+5(f/2)0.5[(Sc-1)+ln (5Sc+1)/6)}

kc/uo= f/2/{1+5(f/2)0.5[(Pr-1)+ln(5Pr+1)/6)}

10/23/16

12

Pipes:

Laminar Flow

When a liquid or gas is flowing

inside a pipe and the Reynolds

number is < 2100 the flow is said

to be under laminar conditions.

In such a case, mass transfer can

be predicted graphically, using

figure given below.

10/23/16

12

10/23/16

12

Where,

CA is exit concentration

CAo is inlet concentration

CAi concentration at the interface between the wall and gas

The dimensionless W/DABL denotes

W is flow rate in kg/s

L is length of mass transfer section in m.

The above graph is useful for fully developed and parabolic

form of entrance.

On the other hand, for liquids that have small values of DAB,

data follow the parabolic flow line, which is as follows for

W/DABL over 400

CA-CAo/CAi-CAo = 5.5 (W/DABL)-2/3

10/23/16

13

Turbulent Flow

For

Reynolds number is above 2100,

for gases or liquids flowing inside

a pipe

Sh = 0.023 (Re)0.83 (Sc)0.33

The above equation holds for Sc

of 0.6 to 3000. The Sc for gases

is in the range 0.5-3.0 and for

liquids is above 100 in general.

10/23/16

13

outside solid surfaces:

Mass Transfer in flow parallel to fluid plate

For

the boundary is not fully developed. For gases or

evaporation of liquids in the gas phase and for laminar flow

(Re=15000) for a flat pate,

JD= 0.064 ReL-0.5

Where ReL = Reynolds number over a flat plate

OR

Sh = 0.0665 ReL0.5 Sc0.33 = kcL/DAB

Where L is the characteristic length in the direction of flow.

For

JD = 0.99 ReL-0.5

10/23/16

13

single spheres:

For

range of 0.6-2.7 and Reynolds number 148000

Sh = 2+ 0.552 Re0.53 Sc0.33

For flow of liquids and Reynolds number

range of 2 to about 2000

Sh = 2+ 0.95 Re0.50 Sc0.33

For liquids and Reynolds number in the

range of 2000-17000 the following

equations are used

Sh = 0.347 Re0.62 Sc0.33

10/23/16

13

- Extraction and Leaching 93851_14 AЗагружено:akarcz6731
- Physical Chemistry 3th CastellanЗагружено:Pablo Gallardo
- UniSIm manualЗагружено:Shafiq Ahmad
- Problemsheet-Assgn3Загружено:time pass
- Design Review of AbsorbersЗагружено:Angelik Morales
- Mass transferЗагружено:Soon Yung Wang
- Binary Diffusion Coefficient 1Загружено:Farouk Bassa
- A method to extend the domain of convergence for difﬁcultЗагружено:Kesy Bacha
- DistЗагружено:Killua Klein Zaoldyeck
- Termodinamica Continua Revisao Bibliografica FinalЗагружено:sonsdoeden
- J. Marciak-Kozlowska and M. Kozlowski- On the Unified Description of the Attosecond Laser Pulse–Tissue InteractionЗагружено:Pocxa
- 5 2 Carbon Storage Capacity AnalysisЗагружено:tsar_philip2010
- 3_152Загружено:Alfredo Soliz Gamboa
- A Crude Distillation Unit Model Suitable Foronline ApplicationsЗагружено:Nông Dân
- Destilação FracionadaЗагружено:Luiz Netto
- Thermo Calc Version m for PcЗагружено:noboru_1986
- Tugas Termo Lanjut Ex. 8-13Загружено:MuhammadAsyrafHazzamy
- VFBDЗагружено:Shrikant Jadhav
- Untitled1.pdfЗагружено:aypdfiq2
- Class Note 31Загружено:claudio
- Comsol_Finlayson2010Загружено:saif.manji
- 0912f50ee6772e2b64000000Загружено:Yuli Yuliani
- 27.fullЗагружено:moresushant849643
- Project Exercise 1 - Huong Huynh LanЗагружено:Lan Hương
- Mass Transfer and DiffusionЗагружено:Adrianio Lozhada
- Control of the Adsorption of Dyes on CottonЗагружено:Juan Cubas
- Equilibrio L-V Mezclas BinariasЗагружено:Daniel Solar
- PM 6501 MT-1 LEsson PlanЗагружено:Sampathkumar Mtech
- Chiarzia_mass Transfer Rate Through Solid Supported LiquidЗагружено:Fedelis Danii Purnawan
- Articulo informativoЗагружено:Eliana

- DIN en ISO 14175-2008-06- Welding Consumables, Gases and Gas Mixtures for Fusion Welding and Allied ProcessesЗагружено:Eduardo Javier Granados Sanchez
- Chapter 6 - Air Pollution 2Загружено:datonizam
- 06-Compressor Surge Prot & Blow Off gas turbine gghghgfhfghfghfhfhfghgfhfhhfghfghfЗагружено:jeromejoe
- 09-gasesЗагружено:JoanCarlesLLopys
- Part 3 Global Reservoir Flow Regimes AzebЗагружено:Chai Cws
- Fluid MechanicsЗагружено:JafarAladdin
- Solar Vapor Generation Enabled by NanoparticlesЗагружено:Monk Kong
- DerivationЗагружено:reborn2
- 6352-18495-1-PB.pdfЗагружено:Rashveena
- PVTi.docxЗагружено:greg
- Patent Decontamiation CycleЗагружено:Dholakia
- Fouling FactorsЗагружено:aminiaan
- 5D Changing State Answers PDFЗагружено:Sara Maged
- Large Scale Ammonia Storage and HandlingЗагружено:RainierK
- gr5 wk32 atmospheric layersЗагружено:api-322611826
- AHP-55 Pressure Vessels Activated Carbon OrganoclayЗагружено:Bob Smith
- Report fluid(LAb manual).docxЗагружено:darkzaini
- Objectives MEB Pipe-Flow RevisedЗагружено:Anastasia Monica Khunniegalshottest
- Flumec-315.pptxЗагружено:Dainee Mae Cortez
- CO2 in Supermaket RefrigerationЗагружено:Luis
- Exchanger Selection and Design in LPG units.pdfЗагружено:Ghodrat_babak
- exp 2 FMЗагружено:Nur Asiah
- Novel Method Gas Separation-PresentationЗагружено:elelefanterozado
- Chap 5 Applications of Thermodynamics to Flow ProcessesЗагружено:Hus Arif
- marine hydrodynamicsЗагружено:Anu Parameswaran
- Bomba Vacio C Lateral FPZ TDЗагружено:christian_ignacio
- 480.pdfЗагружено:esutjiadi
- C4 Hydrate and Gas DehydrationЗагружено:Faidhi Fahmi
- pg_readmeЗагружено:Dae Keun Chae
- Gas MixturesЗагружено:KrishnaJaiswal

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.