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MECHANICAL OPERATION &

ENGINEERING MATERIALS
CHEE3102
Lecturer: Mrs Tabassum Sadik

Why Study Materials Science and


Engineering?

To be able to select a material for a given


use based on considerations of cost and
performance.
To understand the limits of materials and the
change of their properties with use.
To be able to create a new material that will
have some desirable properties.

What properties we are searching in Materials

Cont..

Widely used properties of materials used in


engineering
A) Mechanical properties:
B) Electrical properties:
C) Physical properties:
D) Magnetic properties:
E) Optical properties:
F) Corrosion properties:
G) Deteriorative properties:
H) Biological properties

Cont..

Four Major Components of Material Science and Engine

Structure:
At the atomic level: arrangement of atoms in different ways. (Gives
different properties for graphite than diamond both forms of carbon.)
At the microscopic level: arrangement of small grains of material that
can be identified by microscopy. (Gives different optical properties to
transparent vs. frosted glass.)

Properties are the way the material responds to the environment. For instance,
the mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties are the responses to
mechanical, electrical and magnetic forces, respectively. Other important
properties are thermal (transmission of heat, heat capacity), optical (absorption,
transmission and scattering of light), and the chemical stability in contact with
the environment (like corrosion resistance).

Processing of materials is the application of heat (heat treatment),


mechanical forces, etc. to affect their microstructure and, therefore, their
properties.

Processing of materials

Need for study of Engineering materials


Materials are required for all fields of science and
engineering .
Examples

Classification of Major Materials


Materials used in the design and
manufacture of products

Plastics
Wood
Composites
Ceramics
Metals

ADVANCED MATERIALS
Linen,
cotton,
nylon,tool
Kevlar
Layers
Tungsten
Steel,
of polycarbonate,
carbide
aluminium
bit

Balsa
Acrylic
woodlens
model
aluminium & acrylic

Classification of Materials (Plastics)


Plastics /Polymers can be further classified as;
Thermoplastic
Thermoset
Elastomers
Thermoplastics
Acrylics
Nylons
PVC
Polyethylene

Thermosets Elastomers
Epoxy resins Rubbers
Phenolic
Silicones
Phenol
Urea formaldehyde
formaldehyde
Polyesters
Polyurethanes
PVCPolyethylene
gutters
Rubber

Classification of Materials (Wood)


Wood can be further categorised as;
Hardwood
Softwood
Chipboard
Cedar
Mahogany
Beech
Oak
Ash
Plywood
with Veneer
Manufactured board
Hardwood

Softwood

Manufactured
Board

Oak
Ash
Beech
Sycamore

Pine
Cedar
Fir
Spruce

Plywood
Blockboard
MDF
Melamine
board

Classification of Materials (Composites)


A composite is a combination of two or more
chemically distinct materials whose physical
characteristics are superior to its constituents
acting independently.
Because of their high strength/stiffness to weight
ratio they are widely used in the;
Aerospace industry
Offshore structures
Boats
Sporting goods

Classification of Materials (Composites)

Examples of composites include;


Reinforced Plastics
Ceramic-matrix
Metal-Matrix
Laminates

Cylinder
linings
Thrust
chamber
forjet
rocket
Outer
Carbon
Combustion
Kevlar,
skin
Glass
reinforced
panels
Cylinder
taffeta
reinforced
chamber
& polyester
plastic
fuselage
linings
plastic
of
A380
sails
engine
hull

Classification of Materials (Ceramics)

Ceramics are compounds of metallic and


non-metallic elements, examples include;
Oxides (alumina insulation and
abrasives, zirconia dies for metal
extrusion and abrasives)
Carbides (tungsten-carbide tools)
Nitrides (cubic boron nitride, 2nd in
hardness to diamond)

Classification of Materials (Metals)


Metals can be further classified as Ferrous &
Non-Ferrous, some examples include;
Ferrous

High
Stainless
Aluminium
Copper
Speed
BrassSteel
steel

Non-Ferrous

Steels

Aluminium

Stainless Steels

Copper

High Speed Steels

Brass

Cast Irons

Titanium

Classification of Materials (Fabrics)


Fabrics can be further classified as natural
and synthetic

Natural

Synthetic

Cotton

Nylon

Canvas

Polyester

MaterialsCotton
usedPolyester
in
space
suits
include
aluminized
T-shirt
(design
&kite
print
projects) Mylar, neoprene
Colourful
Canvas
Polyester
marine
deck
nylon
ropechair
spinnaker
less
coated nylon,
dacron,
coated
nylon,
stretch
thanurethane
nylon- resists
UV
light tricot and spandex.
The outer layer is a blend of Gortex, Kevlar and Nomex

Classification of Materials
(Smart Materials)
A smart material can be described as a
material that has a useful response to
external influences or stimuli.
There are many examples of smart materials in everyday
use that are not modern developments they include;
Metal springs
Light bulbs self regulate because as
The filament temperature increases
their resistance rises
Ancient civilisations have long used
porous ceramics for self regulating cooling

Wine Cooler

Classification of Materials
(Smart Materials)
Other more modern examples of smart
materials include;
Shape memory polymers and alloys
SmartHeat
Wireshrink tubing and packaging
actuators
open/close
greenhouse windows
SmartAutomatic
Link Silicone
Actuators,
linear, angular
and rotary
Thermostats for heating control
0
Anthromorphic
actuation
human
like
Allows
rotary motion
between
shafts
uprobotic
to 360motion

Smart Fluids

Motion control
gel CD tray opening/closing, camera lenses
Piezoelectric
Materials
Ferro fluids earthquake dampers in buildings, hard disks
Chameleon
Colours
Sensors,
musical cards, motors, actuators, clocks
Car paints, printing inks, packaging

Classification of Materials
(Smart Materials)
Other more modern examples of smart
materials include;
Rigid PVC Foam Plastic
This is a new generation of
sheet material used widely
for signs and exhibitions.
Thermoforms very well. It
is widely used for plug and
yoke mouldings

Summary Classification of Materials

/Polymers

Classification of Materials
One could classify them according to structure, or
properties, or use. The one that we will use is
according to the way the atoms are bound together:
Metals: valence electrons are detached from atoms, and
spread in an 'electron sea' that "glues" the ions together.
Metals are usually strong, conduct electricity and heat
well and are opaque to light (shiny if polished).
Examples: aluminum, steel, brass, gold etc.
Semiconductors: the bonding is covalent (electrons are
shared between atoms). Their electrical properties
depend extremely strongly on minute proportions of
contaminants. They are opaque to visible light but
transparent to the infrared. Examples: germanium,
selenium, and silicon. (Si, Ge, GaAs)

Classification of Materials
composites, made of different materials in intimate contact
(example: fiberglass, concrete, wood) to achieve specific
properties.
Biomaterials can be any type of material that is
biocompatible and used, for instance, to replace human
body parts.

Properties of engineering materials

a) Metals:

This forms the most important group of the


engineering materials. Normally, they have very high
thermal and electrical conductivity. They also posses
many important characteristics required for engineering
applications.

Strong,
ductile
high thermal & electrical conductivity
opaque & reflective

common metals are Iron, Aluminum, Copper, and Gold


etc.

Properties of engineering materials


B) Alloys:Generally, metals are used in combinations with
other elements. The metallic materials formed by mixing
two or more elements are known as alloys.
Alloys always posses better properties required for specific
applications.

Properties of engineering materials

COVALENT BONDING

Ceramics Materials:
Ceramics are mostly compounds formed between metallic
and nonmetallic materials. Alumina, Silicon carbide,
Magnesia and cement are some examples of
ceramics.
Glass is a particular form of ceramic with no crystal
structure.
Ceramics are hard and brittle.
Some of the important properties are
brittle,
glossy,
non-conducting (insulators)
high temperature resistant
hard

Different types of Ceramics Materials: