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Think

What the gentleman demands is something


of himself. What the petty man demands is
something of others.
Anyone learning without thought is lost,
anyone thinking but not learning is in peril.
Do not worry because you have no position.
Worry about your qualifications. Do not
worry because no one appreciates your
abilities. Seek to be worthy of appreciation
These are all quotes by the famous Chinese
philosopher/teacher/activist Confucius.

Confucius- Kung Fu Tzu

Kong Fu Tzu
Born in 551 B.C.E.
died in 479 B.C.E.

Kong Fu Tzu

Born in 551B.C.E. to an aristocratic but poor


family.
Confucius died in 479 B. C. E.
Confucius became involved in government
early in life. His challenging thoughts on
human behavior led to his dismissal.
Confucius focused on teaching instead in
order to change young men before they

Confucianism and Social


Activism
Confucius saw many injustices in China,
which was governed by warlords who
frequently fought against each other, and
behaved barbarically.
The common people and peasants were
often victims caught in the crossfire. Also,
warlords exploited the common people they
were supposed to protect (ex. high taxes)
Confucius spoke truthfully to any warlord
who sought his advice about being fair
leaders; some were receptive but did not
follow his advice; others were hostile;
assassins did attempt to kill Confucius

Time to focus
What is life truly about?
For Kong it is about social order, and the
betterment of society as a whole.
Do you agree?
Additionally, society is male dominated as
was shown to Kung during his early life.
By the way, the name is a
mispronunciation. He would never have
known the name Confucius.

3 Schools of Thought that Existed


in China during Confucius Time
Legalists: Stern rule of law and harsh
punishments (Han Fei Tzu)
Mohist: universal love, even towards
enemies. (Mozi)
Taoist: cared little about societal
improvement and believed that the path to
human happiness lay in the individualistic
pursuit of harmony with nature. (Lao Tzu)
Which do you prefer?

Confucianism
Confucius believed that teaching and
learning was the way to improve self,
family, and society as whole
Concerned primarily with restoring social
stability and order
What is the basis of a stable, unified, and
enduring social order?

a system of social and ethical philosophy


only when character is cultivated are our
families regulated; only when families are
regulated are states well governed.

Human Qualities
What is maturity?
What is the highest human virtue?
What is the best way to behave?
How can one be a cultured
person?
How can one best govern?

Confucian Virtues
Tao = the Universal Way
Chun-tzu = mature person - this person has such
abundant virtures that he or she is able to
contribute to the improvement of society.
Jen = supreme virtue = perfect form of
benevolence - doing ones best to treat others
the way you would like to be treated.
Li = proper behavior = behaving properly given
the situation at hand.
Wen = a cultured person. Music, poetry, archery,
calligraphy.
Te- virtue shown through the power of example.

Human Relationships
Self = the center of all relationships and is
constantly changing and growing towards
maturity.
Family = each person has a clear sense of
place and purpose. Good behavior and
respect for elders are important in the family.
Government = the leader has acquired the
moral perfectionm needed to lead by the
power of example.
Heaven = represents the ultimate moral force
that guides and nurtures humanity.

Confucian Relationships

father-child
ruler-subject
husband-wife
elder brother-younger brother
friend-friend

True Gentleman?
How would you define a true
gentleman?
What characteristics would they
posses?
According to Confucius, the True
Gentleman was supposed to be a
moral beacon for the rest of society

True Gentleman continued


cultivate themselves morally;
show filial piety and loyalty where
these are due;
cultivate humanity, or benevolence.
Are you a true gentleman?

Other Cool Confucius Quotes


Before you embark on a journey of
revenge, dig two graves.
Everything has its beauty, but not
everyone sees it.
Forget injuries, never forget kindness.
Cultivate the root; the branches will
take care of themselves.

Questions
Why was it difficult for Confucius to obtain
government posts where he could
influence Chinese life on a larger scale?
What did you find to be the essential
teachings of Confucianism?
What was your favorite Confucius quote
and why?
Do you consider Confucianism a world
religion? Explain why or why not?