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STID1103 Computer Applications in

Management

Topic One
An Introduction to Information
Technology

Discovering Computers 2010: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 14

Learning Objectives

After
completing
this chapter
you will be
able to:-

Describe the evolution of


Information Technology and
Communications
Explain the concepts of ICT
and IT
Introduce to computer
hardware
Introduce to computer
software
Discuss the history of Windows
Technology

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STID 1103

Objectives Overview

Explain why
computer literacy
is vital to success
in todays world

Define the term,


computer, and
describe the
relationship
between data and
information

Describe the five


components of a
computer

Discuss the
advantages and
disadvantages that
users experience
when working with
computers

Define the term,


network, and
identify benefits of
sharing resources
on a network

Discuss the uses of


the Internet and
World Wide Web

See Page 3
for Detailed Objectives

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

Objectives Overview

Distinguish between
system software and
application software

Differentiate among
types, sizes, and
functions of
computers in each
category

Explain how home


users, small
office/home office
users, mobile users,
power users, and
enterprise users each
interact with
computers
See Page 3
for Detailed Objectives

Describe the role of


each element in an
information system

Discuss how society


uses computers in
education, finance,
government, health
care, science,
publishing, travel, and
manufacturing

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

What is IT/ICT?
IT is concerned with technology to treat information.
Technology = the making, usage, and knowledge of tools,
machines, techniques, procedures, systems or methods of
organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific
function.
Information = data that is organized and meaningful.

Data = raw fact i.e. numbers, characters, unprocessed image.


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STID 1103

What is IT/ICT?
Information Technology
The acquisition, processing, storage
and dissemination of
vocal, pictorial, textual and
numerical information by
a microelectronics-based
combination of computing and
telecommunications.
STID 1103

Information Technology

Information Technology(IT) is "the study,


design, development, implementation, support
or management of information systems".
Information technologyis a general term that
describes any technology that helps to
produce, manipulate, store, communicate,
and/or disseminate information.
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STID 1103

What is ICT?
Information Communications Technology (ICT) covers any
product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive
information electronically in a digital form. For example,
personal computers, digital television, email, robots.
ICT is concerned with the storage, retrieval, manipulation,
transmission or receipt of digital data.
It is also concerned with the way these different uses can work
with each other.

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STID 1103

The Importance of IT/ICT

Essential ingredient in managing business processes of most organizations


Reduction in administration costs
Improve staff productivity
Assist in the design & manufacture of products
Improve the efficiency of interactions with clients, customers, suppliers &
distribution outlets
Create opportunities for new services, products & business ventures
Speed, efficiency, effectiveness & competitive advantages

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STID 1103

IT Components
1. Process
2. Application (software)
3. Hardware
that is used to get, create, arrange,
analyze and present the information in
various format including text, image,
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audio and video.
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1. Process
The ability to translate the information
needs, to analyze and present the
information and the ability to analyze
the process effectiveness.
It Includes techniques and activities
that involve design, development,
implementation and IT management.
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11

2. Application (Software)

Software
can be
categorized
into:

Curricular software
it is designed to educate
students with concepts and
skills. The learning objective is
determine by the software.
Generic software
Software that is used to achieve
various learning objectives.
Example: Word processor,
databases and multimedia

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12

3. Hardware

The physical components of a computer system


Includes all types of technology hardware
including computers, scanner, modem, printers
etc.

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13

Computer Communications
Computer communications describes
a process in which two or more
computers or devices transfer data,
instructions, and information
Sending
device

Page 460

Communica
tions
channel

Receiving
device

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Communications

15

Uses of Computer
Communications
Blogs

Chat
rooms

E-mail

Fax

FTP

Instant
messagin
g

Internet

Newsgrou
ps

RSS

Video
conferenci
ng

VoIP

Web

Web 2.0

Web
folders

Wikis
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Uses of Computer
Communications
A global positioning system (GPS) is a
navigation system that consists of one or
more earth-based receivers that accept and
analyze signals sent by satellites in order to
determine the GPS receivers geographic
location
Built into
Available
Available
GPS receivers
are:
many
as a
with new
mobile
handheld
vehicles
devices
device
Click to view Web Link,
click Chapter 9, Click Web
Link from left navigation,
then click GPS
below Chapter 9

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Video: Facebook Data Centre

Page 468
Figure 9-7

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A World of Computers
Computers are everywhere

Pages 4 - 5
Figure 1-1

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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What Is a Computer? X
A computer is an electronic device,
operating under the control of
instructions stored in its own memory
Collects
data
(input)

Processin
g

Produces
informat
ion
(output)

Information Processing Cycle


Page 6

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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What Is a Computer?

Page 6
Figure 1-2

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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The Components of a
Computer X
A computer contains many electric, electronic,
and mechanical components known as
hardware
Input
Device Allows you to enter data and instructions into a computer
Output
Device
System Unit
Storage
Device
Communicati
ons Device
Pages 6 - 8

Hardware component that conveys information to one or


more people
Case that contains the electronic components of the
computer that are used to process data
Holds data, instructions, and information for future use
Enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions,
and information to and from one or more computers or
mobile devices
Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a
Digital World Chapter 1

22

The Components of a
Computer

Page 7
Figure 1-3

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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Advantages and Disadvantages


of Using Computers X

Pages 9 - 10

Advantages of
Using Computers

Disadvantages of
Using Computers

Speed

Health Risks

Reliability

Violation of Privacy

Consistency

Public Safety

Storage

Impact on Labor
Force

Communications

Impact on
Environment

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Advantages and Disadvantages


of Using Computers
Green computing involves reducing the
electricity consumed and environmental
waste generated when using a computer
Strategies include:

Page 10

Recycling
Regulating manufacturing processes
Extending the life of computers
Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced
computers

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Networks and the Internet


A network is a
collection of
computers and
devices connected
together, often
wirelessly, via
communications
devices and
transmission media

Pages 10 - 11
Figure 1-6

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Networks and the Internet


The Internet is a worldwide collection of
networks that connects millions of businesses,
government agencies, educational
institutions, and individuals

Page 11
Figure 1-7

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Internet in 40 years

28

Networks and the Internet


People use the Internet for a variety of
reasons:

Communicate

Research and
Access
Information

Entertainmen
t

Pages 12 - 13
Figure 1-8

Download
Videos

Shop

Bank and
Invest

Share
Information

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

Online
Trading

Web
Application

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Networks and the Internet


A social networking Web site
encourages members to share their
interests, ideas, stories, photos, music,
and videos with other registered users

Page 14
Figure 1-9

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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Computer Software
Software, also called a program, tells
the computer what tasks to perform and
how to perform them
System Software
Operating system
Utility program

Application Software
Pages 15 - 16
Figures 1-10 - 1-11

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Evolution of Windows

32

Computer Software
Installing is the process of setting up
software to work with the computer,
printer, and other hardware

Pages 16 - 17
Figure 1-12

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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Computer Software
A programmer
develops software
or writes the
instructions that
direct the
computer to
process data into
information

Page 18
Figure 1-13

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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Categories of Computers
Personal computers
Mobile computers and mobile devices
Game consoles
Servers
Mainframes
Supercomputers
Embedded computers
Page 19

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Personal Computers
A personal computer can perform all
of its input, processing, output, and
storage activities by itself
Two popular architectures are the PC
and the Apple
Desktop computer

Page 19
Figures 1-15 - 1-16

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Personel Computer Museum

37

Mobile Computers and Mobile


Devices
Mobile
Compu
ter

Personal computer
you can carry from
place to place

Mobile
Device

Examples include
notebook
computers,
laptop
computers,
netbooks, ultrathins, and Tablet
PCs
Pages 20 - 23

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

Computing device
small enough to
hold in your hand
Examples include
smart phones,
PDAs, handheld
computers,
portable media
players, and
digital cameras
38

Mobile Computers and Mobile


Devices
Notebook computer
Tablet PC
Smart phone
PDA
Pages 20 - 22
Figures 1-17 1-20

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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Mobile Computers and Mobile


Devices

Handheld
computer
Portable media
player
Digital camera
Pages 22 - 23
Figures 1-21 1-23

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

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Game Consoles
A game console is
a mobile
computing device
designed for
single-player or
multiplayer video
games

Page 24
Figure 1-24

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Servers
A server controls
access to the
hardware,
software, and other
resources on a
network
Provides a
centralized storage
area for programs,
data, and
information
Page 25
Figure 1-25

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Mainframes
A mainframe is a
large, expensive,
powerful computer
that can handle
hundreds or
thousands of
connected users
simultaneously

Page 25
Figure 1-26

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Supercomputers
A supercomputer is the fastest, most
powerful computer
Fastest supercomputers are capable of
processing more than one quadrillion
instructions in a single second

Page 25
Figure 1-27

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Embedded Computers
An embedded computer is a specialpurpose computer that functions as a
component in a larger product
Consumer
Electronics
Mobile and
digital
telephones
Digital
televisions
Cameras
Video recorders
DVD players
and recorders
Answering
machines
Page 26

Home
Automation
Devices
Thermostats
Sprinkling
systems
Security
monitoring
systems
Appliances
Lights

Automobiles
Antilock brakes
Engine control
modules
Airbag
controller
Cruise control

Process
Controllers and
Robotics
Remote
monitoring
systems
Power monitors
Machine
controllers
Medical devices

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

Computer
Devices and
Office Machines
Keyboards
Printers
Faxes
Copiers

45

Embedded Computers

Page 26
Figure 1-28

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


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Examples of Computer Usage

Home User
Personal financial
management
Web access
Communications
Entertainment

Pages 28 31
Figures 1-30 1-32

Small
Office/Home
Office User
Look up information
Send and receive e-mail
messages
Make telephone calls

Discovering Computers 2011: Living in a


Digital World Chapter 1

Mobile User
Connect to other
computers on a network
or the Internet
Transfer information
Play video games
Listen to music
Watch movies

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Examples of Computer Usage

Pages 31 32
Figures 1-33 1-34

Power User

Enterprise User

Work with
multimedia
Use industryspecific software

Communicate
among employees
Process high
volumes of
transactions
Blog

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Computer Applications in
Society
Education
Finance
Government
Health Care
Pages 34 - 36
Figures 1-36 1-39

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Digital World Chapter 1

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Computer Applications in
Society
Science
Publishing
Travel
Manufacturing
Pages 36 - 38
Figures 1-40 1-43

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30 Years of the PC: A Timeline

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IT Infrastructure Evolution
1. Mainframe and Minicomputer
2. Personal Computer
3. Client/Server
4. Enterprise Era
5. Cloud Computing Era
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